Coal Fly Ash Geoengineering’s Role in the Global Catastrophic Bee and Insect Die-off | Chapter 09 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 1

Aims: Bees and insects world-wide are experiencing die-offs on an unprecedented scale. Geoengineering utilizing aerosolized coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste product of coal-burning, as indicated by forensic evidence, has been overlooked as a causal agent of their catastrophic demise. The principal objective of this chapter is to disclose previously unrecognised factors, arising from CFA, that underlie the catastrophic and global decline of insects.

Methods: We conducted extensive literature research and additionally utilized inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

Results: The primary components of CFA, silicon, aluminum, and iron, consisting in part of magnetite (Fe3O4), all have important potential toxicities to insects. Many of the trace elements in CFA are injurious to insects; several of them (e.g., arsenic, mercury, and cadmium) are used as insecticides. Toxic particulates and heavy metals in CFA contaminate air, water, and soil and thus impact the entire biosphere. Components of CFA, including aluminum extractable in a chemically-mobile form, have been shown to adversely affect insects in terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial environments. Both the primary and trace elements in CFA have been found on, in, and around insects and the plants they feed on in polluted regions around the world. Magnetite from CFA may potentially disrupt insect magnetoreception. Chlorine and certain other constituents of aerosolized CFA potentially destroy atmospheric ozone thus exposing insects to elevated mutagenicity and lethality levels of UV-B and UV-C solar radiation.

Conclusions: Coal fly ash, including its use in covert (undisclosed) climate engineering operations, is a previously unrecognized prime suspect in the world-wide decline of insects. CFA is a global source of pollution known to be toxic to insects that contaminates air, water, and soil. In fact, we suggest that of the many threats to insects, i.e, habitat loss/degradation, pesticides, foreign species and disease, atmospheric geoengineering, especially utilizing CFA, may well be not only the most dire, but the most neglected and unrecognized cause of the catastrophic loss of insects on a world-wide basis. It is necessary to expose and halt atmospheric aerosol geoengineering to prevent further gross contamination of the biosphere. As insect populations decline, bird populations will decline, and ultimately so will animal populations, including humans. The gradual return of insects when the aerial spraying is stopped will be the best evidence that aerosolized CFA is, in fact, a leading cause of the current drastic decline in insect population and diversity. It is necessary to expose and halt atmospheric aerosol geoengineering to prevent further gross contamination of the biosphere. The gradual return of insects when the aerial spraying is stopped will be the best evidence that aerosolized CFA is in fact a leading cause of the current drastic decline in insect population and diversity.

Biography of author(s)

Mark Whiteside
Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.

Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

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Bio-insecticidal and Grain Protectant Activities of Mixed Powder of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amydalina against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) | Chapter 08 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 1

The bio-insecticidal and grain protectant activities of mixed powder of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina upon Callosobruchus maculatus was carried out. The mortality rate of cowpea weevil treated V. amygdalina: O. gratissimum at 100: 0 concentrations were 17.0%, 27.0%, and 47.0% for a period of 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs, respectively. Concentrations 0:100 gave a percentage mortality of 47.0%, 67.0% and 73.0% at 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72hrs, respectively. 80: 20 and 20: 80 concentrations gave 33.3% and 47.0% at 24hrs and 48hrs, but 80:20 gave 47.0% while 20:80 gave 57.0% mortality rate at 72hrs. 50: 50 concentrations gave 73.0%, 77.0%, and 80.0% mortality rate at 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs, respectively. The 0: 0 concentrations gave 0.0%, 3.3%, and 7.0% mortality rate at 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs, respectively. The effect on the oviposition of cowpea weevil revealed that the mean value of eggs laid on seeds were 5.0, 2.3, 3.3, 2.8, 1.0 and 7.0 for 100:0; 0:100; 80:20; 20:80; 50:50 and 0:0 concentrations, respectively. The effects of mixture of V. amygdalina: O. gratissimum powder on the emergence of cowpea weevil gave a mean value of adult weevil emergence as 5.3, 3.0, 5.0, 3.3, 1.3 and 8.0 for 100:0, 0:100, 80:20, 20:80, 50:50 and 0:0 concentrations respectively. Mixed powder of V. amygdalina: O. grattisimun with 50:50% concentrations conferred the highest bio-insecticidal potency against C. macullatus during the experimental investigation. This was evident from the fact that treatment with V. amygdalina: O. grattisimum (50:50%) concentration attained 80.0% mortality at 72hrs of exposure, which was followed by V. amygdalina: O. grattisimum (0: 100%) concentration with 73.0% mortality. The results showed that 50:50 and 0:100 ratio compounded V. amygalina and O. gratissimum had 85% and 76% effect on the insects. The two treatments had similar effect with a significant difference at P<0.5 mortality. The highest percentage inhibition of reproduction/adult emergence was recorded at Va50:Og50 treatment. When compared with the control, all plant material were effective in increasing insect mortality and reducing oviposition, development and adult emergence thus reducing the overall population of C. maculatus at 31 days after treatment. The potency of the combined concentrations of V. amygdalina: O. gratissimum (50:50%) of these plant substances was due to the odour they produce, which may have exerted a toxic effect by disrupting normal respiratory activities of the cowpea weevil, thereby resulting in asphyxiation and subsequent dead; it may also have acted as contact poison on the weevil. It equally may have ovicidal and larvacidal properties. It is recommended that similar studies be conducted using separately other parts of the test plant  like the stem and bark of V. amygdalina and O. gratissimum to further evaluate their bio-insecticidal potency against stored grain pests.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. (Mrs.) Abo Iso Nta
Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

Dr. Bassey Etta Agbo
Department of Microbiology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

Dr. (Mrs.) Nsikan Samuel Udoekong
Department of Science and Technology, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

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Oyster-Associated Microbiota | Chapter 07 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 1

Oysters are important mariculture species worldwide. Because of their filter-feeding behaviors, oysters contain complicated microbial populations, and these varying microbial populations can provide a correlation to increased oyster mortalities in the oyster farming industry as well as food outbreaks associated with public health surveillance. This review summarizes the significant outcomes in oyster microbiota research, including the identified oyster-associated bacterial taxa and comparison of different oyster tissues for microbial studies. In addition, environmental factors that could potentially affect the dynamics of oyster microbiota are discussed. Recent approaches developed to study oyster microbiota as well as their limitations are also highlighted in this review. Finally, future directions in oyster microbiota research have been suggested. In conclusion, microbiota from different oyster species have been analyzed in recent studies and several major microbial taxa have been identified. Different oyster tissues may contain diverse microbial contents, which may be suitable for various applications. Oyster microbiota could change due to different growing stages and environmental conditions. New emerging genomic analytical technologies have provided more accurate solutions for analyzing an ever-changing oyster microbiota.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. Zhen Li

Washington State Department of Health, Public Health Laboratories, Shoreline, Washington 98155, USA.

Dr. Tuoen Liu

Department of Biomedical Sciences, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine, Lewisburg, West Virginia 24901, USA.

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Coal Fly Ash Geoengineering’s Role in the Catastrophic Global Demise of Bird Populations and Species | Chapter 06 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 1

Objectives: Bird populations and species worldwide are experiencing die-offs on an unprecedented scale. Geoengineering utilizing aerosolized coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste product of coal-burning, as indicated by forensic evidence, has been overlooked as a causal agent of their catastrophic demise. The principal objective of this chapter is to disclose previously unrecognised factors, arising from CFA, that underlie the catastrophic and global decline of birds.

Methods: We utilised inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and conducted extensive literature research.

Results: New data presented here confirm the unmistakable footprint of CFA in atmospheric precipitation and air-drop samples. Review of the literature reveals the increasing importance of air pollution on global bird populations. Aerosolized CFA, a particularly toxic form of air pollution, contains multiple metals and elements well-known to adversely affect all portions of the avian life cycle, in aerial, terrestrial, and marine environments. Studies from around the globe reveal systemic contamination of birds by these elements.

Conclusions: Coal fly ash, including its use in ongoing atmospheric geoengineering operations, is a major factor in global bird die-off. The accelerating decline of birds parallels the catastrophic decline of insects, due in part to the same type of aerial pollution. There is an urgent need to recognise and halt atmospheric geoengineering if there is to be any chance of reducing the drastic decline of birds and the associated degradation of natural ecosystems. If the aerial spraying can be stopped, the gradual recovery of bird populations would be the best evidence that CFA is, in fact, a leading cause of the drastic avian decline. Coal fly ash is a cause of avian mortality that can be reduced by halting atmospheric geo-engineering and further controlling industrial emissions. However, the “deafening silence” on the subject of this type of CFA pollution must be broken if we are to have any chance of slowing our rapid descent into ecological disaster.

Biography of author(s)

Mark Whiteside
Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.

Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

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Prevalence of Antibiotics Resistant Salmonella in the Abidjan North Wastewater in 2012 and Potential Health Risks to the Population | Chapter 05 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 1

Salmonella cause salmonellosis, a disease which most common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to highlight the health risks linked to Salmonella for the population through the study of wastewater in the Indénié wastewater discharge adjacent to major effluents in the Gourou Basin.

Materials and Methods: From June to August 2012, wastewater samples were collected from two selected reservoir adjacent to the Gourou Basin collectors at the crossroads of Indénié in Abidjan. About 500 mL of collected wastewater was used to search for the bacteria of the genus Salmonella according to the standard NF EN ISO 6579. The identification was made using the API 20E gallery and confirmed by MADITOFF-MS. Bacteria strains serotyping was performed and the Kirby Baeur disc diffusion method was used for the antibiotic and susceptibility study.

Results and Discussion: A total of 112 samples were collected and were used to isolate 18 strains of Salmonella. Serotyping showed 8 different serotypes with a predominance of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Poeseldorf. The prevalence of Salmonella resistant to antibiotics in this study was 4.46%. About 27.80% of antibiotic resistant Salmonella, were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Salmonella strains were all sensitive (100%) to 3rd generation cephalosporins (C3G), 16.67% of resistant strains showed cross-resistance to quinolones. In this study, it was demonstrated the biological risks involved by the presence of Salmonella in the wastewater. The prevalence rate and the serotype highlighted were different from that of similar study conducted in Africa.

Conclusion: The wastewater contamination by Salmonella may constitute a risk of diffusion of antibiotic resistant Salmonella in the population. The Gourou Basin that had been studied conveys wastewater contaminated with Salmonella resistant to antibiotics. The outcome of our findings highlighted a significant risk of morbidity for people linked to the risk of Salmonella infections but also the possibility of therapeutic failure.

Biography of author(s)

Coulibaly-Kalpy Julien
Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, Abidjan, Ivory Coast and Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

Koffi Kouadio Stephane
Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

Dou Serge
Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

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Disruption of Disulfide Bonds of Insulin Receptor as a Cause of Insulin Resistance in DM2 | Chapter 04 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 1

Many theories have been put forward to explain insulin resistance in DM2. The cause of insulin resistance still remained an enigma till date. Defect in insulin signaling pathway is one such possibility considered for insulin resistance in DM2. For insulin signal transduction to occur downstream, the insulin receptor should be in tetrameric, holo-enzyme form so that the conformational changes and auto-phosphorylation steps take place. A prerequisite to this is, linkage of the two α-sub-units and α,β -sub-units of the pair of the dimers by disulfide bonds. Without this, the receptor is in the α,β dimer half-enzyme form, devoid of any binding affinity to the ligand or auto- phosphorylating activity. The article intends to explore, disruption of the disulfide bond formation of the insulin receptor as a possible cause of insulin resistance in DM2.

Biography of author(s)

A. S. V. Prasad
Department of Internal Medicine, G. I. T. A. M. Dental Collage, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Toxicological Characterization of Nigerian Bituminous Coal Fly Ash and Priority Assessment of the Potential Applications Based on the Concept of Industrial Ecology | Chapter 03 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 1

The impact of coal fly ash (CFA) exposure to the ecosystem and human health has not gone unnoticed. Is quiet very obvious that CFA disposal will continue unabated and will continue to constitute a menace to the ecosystem as the demands for energy soured-up. This is expected as the utilization and exploration of dormant coal deposits will take a comeback into the energy master-plan of most developing economies. As a fallout of these demands, the health risk associated with CFA, particularly as regards the Nigerian bituminous CFA were reported in this study. Albino rats were separately administered coal fly ash sample burned at a temperatures of 500°C and 900°C. The assumption is to get more insight whether coal burning temperature participated in defining the underlying susceptibility of CFA toxicity. The in vivo study shows the CFA at both ashing temperature exerted similar effect on both the biochemical indices and the histological section of the rats, suggesting the effects to be independent of the temperature at which samples were burned. Even though, the CFA were observed to trigger toxic induced effects, the chapter picture the CFA generated from coal combustion processes as an integral components of a productive cycles than a menace. A resources for other applications and a sink that may act to absorb or detoxify waste. This chapter attempt to establish an ecological symbiosis between the CFA generated as a waste to environmental sustainability by closing material cycle in concert with the ecosystem based on the concept of industrial ecology. The expectations are that the impact of the chapter will influences changing post-processing materials from coal combustion processes from waste to resources. The Nigerian bituminous CFA sample collected at two different ashing temperatures of 500°C and 900°C produced similar biochemical and histological effects. The analyses showed that the effects were not dose and ashing temperatures dependent. Attributed, more probably to the combustion efficiency rather than coal type and fly ash sampling temperature. And more probably to the ability of both the organic and inorganic constituents of the CFA to initiate and induce the formation of free radicals, particularly activated reactive oxygen species, by Fenton-like reaction. To ameliorate the environmental-related concerns of CFA on the ecosystem, the concept of industrial ecology were discussed in line with natural concept of ecology. Placing emphasis on CFA utilization in soil amendment and reclamations, in agriculture, as adsorbents materials, in catalysis, in ceramics and in concretes. The assumption is that changing post-processing materials from waste to resources will reduce economic cost and environmental impact of effluent like CFA.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. Ibrahim Birma Bwatanglang
Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Adamawa State University Mubi, Nigeria.

Dr. Samuel Tinema Magili
Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Adamawa State University Mubi, Nigeria.

Mr. Yakubu Musa
Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Adamawa State University Mubi, Nigeria.

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DNA Polymerases: An Insight into Their Active Sites and Catalytic Mechanism | Chapter 02 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 1

Introduction: DNA polymerases are cardinal enzymes, which play a vital role in preserving as well as maintaining the blueprint of life in all living cells. Furthermore, in-depth analyses of DNA and RNA polymerases, which are the crucial catalysts of life, not only reveal fundamental information about their emergence but also on the evolution of life on the planet earth.

Aim: To analyze the active sites of various prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases and propose a plausible mechanism of action for the polymerases with the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I as a model system.

Study Design: Bioinformatics, Biochemical, Genetic, Site-Directed Mutagenesis (SDM) analyses and X-ray crystallographic data were analyzed.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625 021, India from 2007 to 2012.

Methodology: The advanced version of T-COFFEE was used to analyze both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerase sequences. Along with this bioinformatics data, X-ray crystallographic and biochemical, SDM analysis data were also used to confirm the possible amino acids in the active sites of different types of polymerases from various sources.

Results: Multiple sequence analyses of various polymerases from different sources showed only a few highly conserved motifs among these enzymes except eukaryotic epsilon polymerases where a large number of highly conserved sequences were found. Possible catalytic/active site regions in all these polymerases showed a highly conserved catalytic amino acid K/R and the YG/A pair. A distance conservation is also observed between the active sites. Furthermore, two highly conserved Ds and DXD motifs are also observed and implicated in catalysis.

Conclusion: The highly conserved amino acid K/R acts as the proton abstractor in catalysis and the YG/A pair acts as a “steric gate” and along with a completely conserved R, select only dNTPS for polymerization reactions. The two highly conserved Ds act as the “charge shielder” of dNTPs and orient the alpha phosphate of incoming dNTPs to the 3’-OH end of the growing primer. Multiple sequence analyses have shown that a basic amino acid K/R and an YG pair are highly conserved in almost all DNA polymerases except in error-prone polymerases where the YG pair is not found at the expected distance from the catalytic K/R. SDM, biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analyses of DNA polymerase I from E. coli have also suggested their involvement in substrate binding and catalysis. Large numbers of highly/completely conserved monos, diads, triads are also found among different groups of DNA polymerases and they may play an important role in folding the proteins to the correct 3D structure. Based on these results, a mechanism of action is proposed for the polymerization reactions as well as for the proof-reading function of DNA polymerase I from E. coli as a model enzyme. A similar mechanism may be followed by other polymerases as the almost completely conserved K/R and YG pair are present in all of them.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. Peramachi Palanivelu

Department of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625 021, India.

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Effects of Metosartan on Testis Tissue Chromatin and Enzyme Kinetics of Testicular RNaseA | Chapter 01 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 1

Metosartan is the drug normally used as antihypertensive agent that act on heart and reduces hypertension in humans. It’s components telmisartan is a angiotensin type I receptor blocker known to induce apoptosis in urinary bladder and metoprolyl is the beta receptor blocker. RNase A is the most experimental protein in the 20th century. Disulphide bonds are necessary for enzymatic action of many proteins and it is also required for this protein. RNaseA kinetic studies is performed with the drug metosartan using RNA as the substrate Metosartan is an combination of metoprolol and telmisartan and found to contain inhibitory property on RNaseA. Protein degradation and thiol titration assay has found to be that the drug has reducing property on RNaseA. The study concludes that metosartin inhibits the activity of RNAse A allosterically by reducing the disulphide bonds present on it. The reduction of disulphides may dissociate the enzyme to its monomer which is not highly active hence reducing the catalytic activity of RNase A. HPLC studies confirm the RNaseA presence in testes and drug also induce toroid packing of DNA in immature sperms.

Biography of author(s)

Eswari Beeram

Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi-517502, India.

Bukke Suman

Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi-517502, India.

Bysani divya

Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi-517502, India.

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