Eternal Life by Traditional Chinese Medicine and Herbs, Treasures of Asia via One Belt and One Road | Book Publisher International

Goji Berry has long played important roles in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), where they are believed to enhance immune system function, improve eyesight, protect liver, boost sperm production and improve circulation, among other effects. It has been widely used in Asian countries such as China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Thailand for many years. Goji berry is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions of China, Japan, Korea, Europe, North America and the Mediterranean. TCM calls for Goji berries to prepared as a decoction or ground into a powder and mixed with other herbs. It is being widely used as a functional food, mainly for their antioxidant action due to a high content of vitamin C. Anti-aging, antioxidant, immunomodulating, hypotensive, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective, and anticancer properties have been associated with L. barbarum. Ginger, a plant in the Zingiberaceae family, is a culinary spice that has been as an important herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many centuries. More than 60 active constituents are known to be present in ginger, which have been broadly divided into volatile and non-volatile compounds. The active ingredients like gingerols, shogaols, zingerone, and so forth present in ginger exhibit antioxidant activity. Among gingerols and shogaol the major pungent components in the rhizome are 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol. Consumption of ginger also has beneficial effects on heart disease, cancer, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and bacterial infections. Cultivated Ginseng (CG), Mountain Cultivated Ginseng (MCG), and Mountain Wild Ginseng (MWG) are three categories of ginseng. Ginseng is known to possess various biological activities including boosting the immune system, improving the blood circulation, enhancing memory, antifatigue effects, antioxidant effects and positive effects on menopausal disorder. Ginseng contains saponing, an element of glycosides; nitrogenous compounds such as protein, amino acid, nucleic acid and alkaloid; fat-soluble ingredients such as fatty acid, ethernal oil, polyacetylene, phenolic compound, phytosterol and terpenoid; sacchardies such as monose, oligosaccharide, polysaccharide and pectin; vitamins and inorganic substances; and many other useful ingredients. The chemical compositions of white and red ginseng are different, white ginseng and red ginseng are used for different purposes; white ginseng is used to promote the production fluids of body fluids as well as enhance physical fitness and disease resistance, while red ginseng has a warming effect and is used for replenishing vital essence. Astragalus has been used in Chinese traditional medicine as an immunity booster for almost 2000 years. The genus Astragalus is a member of the Fabaceae of Legume family and it is native to northern China and Mongolia. It is widely distributed in China, Siberia, and northern Korea. Chemical constituents are polysaccharides, triterpenoid saponins (Astragalosides), flavonoids, choline, phytosterols, volatile oils, amino acids, aglycones, coumarins, astrapterocarpan, betaine, calcium, copper, isoflavonoids, rich in potassium and magnesium. Astragalus membranaceus classically prescribed in TCM in combination with other Chinese medicinal herbs as a dried root, powdered or as a decoction, with the combination depending on the desired therapeutic effect and the specific TCM diagnosis. Pyrethrum which is a natural insecticide has many properties, but the most important are raid action, very low toxicity for mammalian, lack of insect immunity, broad of activity, lack of persistence and degraded quickly by UV in sunlight and very effective insect repellent. Using natural pesticide may lead to organic farming, and advantage of organic farming is more beneficial to biodiversity and the environment, and of course organic produce reduces dietary exposure to pesticides. Organic farmers can use pyrethrins as an insecticide for fruit and vegetable crops. Easily degraded by oxygen, light and temperature, pyrethrum compounds are environmentally friendly and compatible with organic farming. Chinese star anise has antioxidant, antibacterial, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, and anti-nociceptive effects. Chinese star anise has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal characters, and it is useful in treatment of diseases like asthma, bronchitis and dry cough, it is also good to having a good sleep; it is a natural breath fresher, one of its most compounds is Shikimic which is used as a drug in curing influenza and flu virus; it consists of Linalool which is good for overall health because of its anti-oxidants characters. Its seeds are good source of minerals like calcium, iron, copper, potassium, manganese, zinc, and magnesium. The seeds are a great source of essential B-complex vitamins such as pyridoxine, niacin, riboflavin and thiamin. Anise seed oil contains anethol, estragole, eugenol, pseudisoeugenol, methyl chavicol and anisaldehyde, coumarins, scopoleting, umbelliferon, estrols, terpene hydrocarbons, and polyacetylenes as the major compounds. The plant oil has both pharmacological and clinical effects. The recent studies have shown that anise seeds and essential oil have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, gastro-protective, antidiabetic and antiviral activities. Other important benefits of anise seeds are stimulant, carminative, expectorant, insecticide, vermifuge, digestive, antispasmodic, anti-rheumatic, antiseptic, anti-epileptic, anti-hysteric, culinary significance, keeps the heart strong by its importance role to control the blood pressure, one of the best gas-releasing agent, easing many hormonal problems in females, hair benefits, skin benefits and it may reduce symptoms of depression. Chrysanthemum has aesthetic values, antigenotoxic, antioxidative and antimutagenic properties. 13 different types of Chrysanthemums are: Single blooms, Quilled blooms, Spider blooms, Anemone, Pompons, Decorative blooms, Reflex and Incurve blooms, Reflex mums, Brush or Thistle Chrysanthemums, Unclassified, Spoon mums, Cushion mums and Miscellaneous mums. Jujube is tolerant of drought which is why it is distributed in warm temperate and subtropical regions in the world. Jujube also contains potassium, phosphorus, manganese, calcium and other major minerals, and vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamine. The most important pharmacological characteristics of jujube (Chinese date) are anti-diabetic effects, anti-allergic activity, anti-ulcer activity, antimicrobial activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory and anti-spastic effect, anti-fertility/contraceptive property, immunostimulant effects, hypnotic-sedative and anxiolytic effect, anti-oxidant effects, cardiovascular activity, cognitive activities and neuroprotective activity.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian
Islamic Azad University, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture Iran, Islamic Republic

Dr. Wenli Sun
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Prof. Dr. Qi Cheng
Williams Companies Foundation Presidential Professor, University of Oklahoma, USA

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mono/978-93-89246-34-6

Beta-Lactamase Production among Uropathogens: An Overview of Consistent Triggers and Current Epidemiological Scenario | Book Publisher International

The natural process of acquiring antibiotic resistance by micro-organisms is a gradual phenomenon. However, the rampant and indiscriminative usage of antibiotics have profusely accelerated this process and laid a profound impact in the world of infectious diseases. Common infections like urinary tract infections, which were once regarded as harmless and non-complicated diseases, have now emerged in its most dreadful form due to increasing evidence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This unpleasant scenario is further alleviated with the help of β-lactam antibiotic hydrolysing enzymes such as Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and Metallo β-lactamases (MBLs). Since β-lactam antibiotics are still widely used, the emergence of β-lactamase producers has become a matter of serious concern. ESBL enzymes that were first identified in the 1980s have now spread throughout the world, especially by nosocomial routes. In most cases, carbapenems are considered as agents of last resort antibiotics for the treatment of infections due to ESBL producers. However, with its increased and sometimes unnecessary use, we have actually triggered the resistant mechanisms against these antibiotics leading to the emergence of carbapenemase producers. Due to such continuous evolution of antibiotic resistance, regular monitoring of the same has become extremely necessary. A study of the general pattern of antibiotic resistance in a community may improve predictions of their susceptibilities which will be helpful in implementing treatment measures in emergency situations and during epidemics.

Considering the problem of evolving antibiotic resistance, this review article highlights the problems associated with β-lactamase producers, its molecular complexity and facilitated transferability that has together led to its enduring success.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. Mobashshera Tariq
Department of Microbiology, Wilson College, Mumbai 400007, India.

Prof. Dr. K. Aruna
Department of Microbiology, Wilson College, Mumbai 400007, India.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mono/978-81-940613-3-5

Diabetic Retinopathy– An Overview | Book Publisher International

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness world over. Neurovascular degeneration of the retina is considered presently as the cause as against the vascular changes which are believed to be causative previously. In fact the neuronal changes are shown to ante-date the vascular changes. There is complex interaction of many cells like pericytes, mullers cells, astrocytes, vascular endothelial cells as well as factors like advanced glycation products, Oxidative and metabolic stress, inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes, various growth factors and glycoproteins etc. in the pathogenesis of DR. Various biochemical pathways like Polyol pathway, glucosamine pathway, AGE pathway and PKC pathways interacting with one another is also recognised as having a role in the pathogenesis of DR. But the common link responsible for all these factors involvement linking to DM2 is still not clear. The mechanism explaining Benfotiamine, a thiamine analogue found to be useful in treating DR , though attractive in integrating the various biochemical pathways cited above, is not comprehensive. The concept of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a better alternative explanations linking up all pathogenic factors concerned to chronic hyperglycaemia of DzM2. But antioxidants proved futile in treating DR. It may be useful to remember that extensive ROS production in DM2 is consequent to shift of energy metabolism from glycolysis to B-oxidation of fats. Unless this is reversed, ROS production continues. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and UKPDS are the two landmark clinical trials that clearly showed the relationship between chronic hyperglycaemia and genesis of DR. Progression in T1DM and T2DM patients, respectively. Randomized controlled trials have shown that early treatment of DM2 can reduce an individual’s risk of severe visual loss by 57%. Intensive glycaemic control appeared long lasting because of the metabolic memory, also known as ‘legacy effect’. A term which explains the beneficial effects of immediate intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia with a sustained benefit with respect to the outcomes for many years, regardless of glycaemia in the later course of diabetes. Hence the current emphasis is prevention of DR with strict glycaemic control in DM2 ab initio.

Biography of author(s)

A. S. V. Prasad
Department of Internal Medicine, GITAM Dental College, Rishikonda, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/32/100/200-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mono/978-81-940613-1-1