Eternal Life by Traditional Chinese Medicine and Herbs, Treasures of Asia via One Belt and One Road | Book Publisher International

Goji Berry has long played important roles in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), where they are believed to enhance immune system function, improve eyesight, protect liver, boost sperm production and improve circulation, among other effects. It has been widely used in Asian countries such as China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Thailand for many years. Goji berry is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions of China, Japan, Korea, Europe, North America and the Mediterranean. TCM calls for Goji berries to prepared as a decoction or ground into a powder and mixed with other herbs. It is being widely used as a functional food, mainly for their antioxidant action due to a high content of vitamin C. Anti-aging, antioxidant, immunomodulating, hypotensive, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective, and anticancer properties have been associated with L. barbarum. Ginger, a plant in the Zingiberaceae family, is a culinary spice that has been as an important herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many centuries. More than 60 active constituents are known to be present in ginger, which have been broadly divided into volatile and non-volatile compounds. The active ingredients like gingerols, shogaols, zingerone, and so forth present in ginger exhibit antioxidant activity. Among gingerols and shogaol the major pungent components in the rhizome are 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol. Consumption of ginger also has beneficial effects on heart disease, cancer, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and bacterial infections. Cultivated Ginseng (CG), Mountain Cultivated Ginseng (MCG), and Mountain Wild Ginseng (MWG) are three categories of ginseng. Ginseng is known to possess various biological activities including boosting the immune system, improving the blood circulation, enhancing memory, antifatigue effects, antioxidant effects and positive effects on menopausal disorder. Ginseng contains saponing, an element of glycosides; nitrogenous compounds such as protein, amino acid, nucleic acid and alkaloid; fat-soluble ingredients such as fatty acid, ethernal oil, polyacetylene, phenolic compound, phytosterol and terpenoid; sacchardies such as monose, oligosaccharide, polysaccharide and pectin; vitamins and inorganic substances; and many other useful ingredients. The chemical compositions of white and red ginseng are different, white ginseng and red ginseng are used for different purposes; white ginseng is used to promote the production fluids of body fluids as well as enhance physical fitness and disease resistance, while red ginseng has a warming effect and is used for replenishing vital essence. Astragalus has been used in Chinese traditional medicine as an immunity booster for almost 2000 years. The genus Astragalus is a member of the Fabaceae of Legume family and it is native to northern China and Mongolia. It is widely distributed in China, Siberia, and northern Korea. Chemical constituents are polysaccharides, triterpenoid saponins (Astragalosides), flavonoids, choline, phytosterols, volatile oils, amino acids, aglycones, coumarins, astrapterocarpan, betaine, calcium, copper, isoflavonoids, rich in potassium and magnesium. Astragalus membranaceus classically prescribed in TCM in combination with other Chinese medicinal herbs as a dried root, powdered or as a decoction, with the combination depending on the desired therapeutic effect and the specific TCM diagnosis. Pyrethrum which is a natural insecticide has many properties, but the most important are raid action, very low toxicity for mammalian, lack of insect immunity, broad of activity, lack of persistence and degraded quickly by UV in sunlight and very effective insect repellent. Using natural pesticide may lead to organic farming, and advantage of organic farming is more beneficial to biodiversity and the environment, and of course organic produce reduces dietary exposure to pesticides. Organic farmers can use pyrethrins as an insecticide for fruit and vegetable crops. Easily degraded by oxygen, light and temperature, pyrethrum compounds are environmentally friendly and compatible with organic farming. Chinese star anise has antioxidant, antibacterial, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, and anti-nociceptive effects. Chinese star anise has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal characters, and it is useful in treatment of diseases like asthma, bronchitis and dry cough, it is also good to having a good sleep; it is a natural breath fresher, one of its most compounds is Shikimic which is used as a drug in curing influenza and flu virus; it consists of Linalool which is good for overall health because of its anti-oxidants characters. Its seeds are good source of minerals like calcium, iron, copper, potassium, manganese, zinc, and magnesium. The seeds are a great source of essential B-complex vitamins such as pyridoxine, niacin, riboflavin and thiamin. Anise seed oil contains anethol, estragole, eugenol, pseudisoeugenol, methyl chavicol and anisaldehyde, coumarins, scopoleting, umbelliferon, estrols, terpene hydrocarbons, and polyacetylenes as the major compounds. The plant oil has both pharmacological and clinical effects. The recent studies have shown that anise seeds and essential oil have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, gastro-protective, antidiabetic and antiviral activities. Other important benefits of anise seeds are stimulant, carminative, expectorant, insecticide, vermifuge, digestive, antispasmodic, anti-rheumatic, antiseptic, anti-epileptic, anti-hysteric, culinary significance, keeps the heart strong by its importance role to control the blood pressure, one of the best gas-releasing agent, easing many hormonal problems in females, hair benefits, skin benefits and it may reduce symptoms of depression. Chrysanthemum has aesthetic values, antigenotoxic, antioxidative and antimutagenic properties. 13 different types of Chrysanthemums are: Single blooms, Quilled blooms, Spider blooms, Anemone, Pompons, Decorative blooms, Reflex and Incurve blooms, Reflex mums, Brush or Thistle Chrysanthemums, Unclassified, Spoon mums, Cushion mums and Miscellaneous mums. Jujube is tolerant of drought which is why it is distributed in warm temperate and subtropical regions in the world. Jujube also contains potassium, phosphorus, manganese, calcium and other major minerals, and vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamine. The most important pharmacological characteristics of jujube (Chinese date) are anti-diabetic effects, anti-allergic activity, anti-ulcer activity, antimicrobial activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory and anti-spastic effect, anti-fertility/contraceptive property, immunostimulant effects, hypnotic-sedative and anxiolytic effect, anti-oxidant effects, cardiovascular activity, cognitive activities and neuroprotective activity.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian
Islamic Azad University, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture Iran, Islamic Republic

Dr. Wenli Sun
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Prof. Dr. Qi Cheng
Williams Companies Foundation Presidential Professor, University of Oklahoma, USA

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