Assessment and Distribution of Metal Pollutants in Fadama Soils along River Ngadda and Alau Dam in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria | Chapter 09 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 1

Elemental metal pollutants concentration levels and their distribution in soils obtained from farmlands along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam in Maiduguri, BornoState, and North-East of Nigeria is presented.  The  study  was  aimed  at  determining  the  levels  of  contamination  of  soils  with  metal pollutants used for fadama farming along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam with the objectives of assessing the contamination levels of the soils with metal pollutants from the various farmlands at the various sampled sites of study, and the distribution of the various metal pollutant in the various sampled sites. Soil samples were collected from thirteen different sites on the farmlands along the bank of the river and  the  dam.  The samples were analyzed using Instrumental  Neutron  Activation Analysis (INAA) and the result obtained indicate that the concentration level of some of the elements determined were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC) value while some below the (MAC) values for example the concentration range for Cr was (16 ± 2 –47 ±3) ppm, Sb was (0.18 ± 0.04 –14.2 ± 7) ppm, Zn was (21.8 ± 4 –145 ± 7) ppm and the maximum values for these ranges exceed the (MAC) value recommended for Agricultural soils while the concentration ranges for As was (0.46 ± 0.12 –1.0 ± 0.2)ppm, Co was (1.6 ± 0.3 –5.3 ± 0.4) ppm, Vn was (14.6 ± 2.32 –29 ± 2) ppm with the maximum value for these ranges being below the MAC values given by some countries. The elements obtained from samples collected from different study areas along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam  were  analyzed  for  similarity  distribution    of  the  study  area  using  mathematical  tool  of  cluster analysis technique employing hierarchical procedure and using WARD’s method. The result obtained produce a dendrogram consisting of two clusters comprising of six and seven sites with percentage similarity of 96.5% and 90.8% respectively with one site as an outlier. It is recommended that since some  of  the  trace  metals  namely  Cr,  Sb,  and  Zn  assessed  in  the  fadama  soils  indicates concentrations above the MAC values, they can posed negative health implications to consumers of food which were cultivated on soils from the study area, therefore there is the need to condition the soils before using it  for farming so as to make it suitable for food  crop farming.  From the results obtained from this and presented, it can be clearly observed that the concentrations of some of the toxic  trace  elements  analyzed  and  determined  in  this  research  were  found  to  be  above  the  MAC values given by some countries for soils to be used for agricultural purposes while others were within the range of the MAC values and some were below the limit given by some countries. However, even for soil samples that were having concentration below the MAC values since the soils were used for agricultural purposes it will be of great importance that such studies and investigations on such soils be carried out periodically so as to ascertain and monitor the levels of this metal toxicants and where the level of metal pollutants were above the MAC values there is the need to conditioned the soils so as to remedy the concentration of the pollutants before using the soils for agricultural purposes since the  plants  may  absorb  these  metal  toxicants  and  it  will  accumulate  above  threshold  level  thereby causing negative effect on the use of the soils.

Biography of author(s)

Paul Hena Bukar
Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria.

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Water Stress on Springs of Lesser Himalayan Region | Chapter 08 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 1

The lesser Himalayan range dominantly consists of tectonic setting that is characterized by multiple deformations  resulting  in  superimposed  folding  and  repeated  faulting  and  thrusting.  The  rocks  of lesser Himalayan are highly weathered and immensely fractured that helps them to act as filter and regulates the groundwater paths for the springs as conduit (rapid) or diffused (slow) flow. Springs of Uttarakhand, India are back bone for domestic water availability during rainy and especially during non rainy season even though they are highly ignored. A study was taken up at Chandrabhaga and Danda watersheds in the mountainous region of Garhwal, Uttarakhand to analyse rainfall and spring flow  pattern  and  to  suggest  water  transfer  plan  to  supplement  the  water  availability  during  lean season. Regular spring flow and automated hydro-meteorological data were collected for July 1999 to June 2010. The second order polynomial relationship is found best fit between annual rainfall and annual average spring flow. Spring wise water availability was compared with required domestic water demand and actual domestic water uses for identification of springs under water deficit /surplus for three scenarios of spring uses such as 24, 12 and 06 hrs in a day. Based on water availability of the springs,  the  water  transfer  plans,  working  under  gravity  for  springs  has  been  suggested.  Study suggested a temporary storage of spring water, water transfer plan among the springs and planning to increase the infiltration and water retention power of soil.It  is  also  recommended  to  promote  horticulture  along  with  animal  husbandry  for  effective  socio-economic  development. The  average  water  availability  through  all  springs  is  266766  l/d  in Chandrabhaga and 262055 l/d in Danda watershed, which is always greater than required domestic water demand. On the other hand the minimum water availability through all springs is always less than the required domestic water demand but is greater than actual domestic water use. It suggests that the water availability is limiting factor for water use and there is a need to increase the minimum water availability through springs. Water transfer plan in collaboration with the existing social laws, from “excess” spring to “deficit” spring, through gravity flow are suggested for both the watersheds.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. Nitin Kumar Agrawal
Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Moradabad Institute of Technology, Ram Ganga Vihar, Phase -2,Moradabad –244 001, India.

Dr. Avinash Agarwal
National Institute of Hydrology, Jal Vigyan Bhawan, Roorkee –247 667, India.

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Hybird, Solar and Biomass Energy System for Heating Greenhouse Sweet Coloured Pepper | Chapter 07 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 1

The  main  drawback  of  greenhouse  heating systems  based on  solar  energy  is  the  unavailability  at nighttime and the variation of its value from hour to hour and month to another during daylight-time. However, use the combination of two-source of renewable energy (solar energy and biomass heat energy) successfully provides appropriate amount of heat energy for heating greenhouse at nighttime. The commercial greenhouses have the highest demand of heat energy for heating the indoor air as compared with other agricultural industry sectors. The investigation presented in this article is aimed at  evaluating  the  technical  and  design  feasibility  of  using  biomass  heat  energy  to  assist  the  solar energy  heating  system  at  the  eastern  area  of  coastal  delta,  Egypt  (Latitude and  longitude  are 31.045°N  and  31.37°E,  respectively,  and  altitude  6.0  m  above  the  sea  level).  The  hybrid  heating system (solar and biomass heating systems) is mainly consists of two different heating systems, a complete solar heating system (6 collectors, storage tank and heat exchanger) and biomass burner (water and air coils, and air heat exchanger). The obtained results reveal that, over 180 days heating season (from November 2015 to March 2016) the solar heating system collected 12712 kWh (45.763 GJ) of which 12316 kWh (44.338 GJ) of solar heat energy was stored in the storage tank. It provided 30.32% of the total heat energy required for heating the greenhouse. The biomass heating system provided  19795  kWh  (71.262  GJ)  of  heat  energy  which provided  58.55%  of  the  total  heat  energy required  for  heating  the  greenhouse  (225.389  kWh).  Ultimately,  the  heat  energy  provided  by  the hybrid  heating  system  (88.87%)  has  been  used  successfully  to  heat  up  the  indoor  air  of  the commercial  greenhouse  sweet  coloured  pepper.  It  also  provided  high  water  use  efficiency  of 29.860 kg/m3. High water use efficiency (29.860 kg/m3) and high annual irrigation water productivity (447.9 LE/m3) were achieved during this study.

Biography of author(s)

Prof. Dr. Salah Mostafa Abdellatif Ramadan
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

Dr. Nasser Mostafa Abd-Elrahman El-ashmawy
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt

Dr. Moustafa Kamel Moustafa EL-Bakhshwan
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt.

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Modeling Crustal Structures of Southern Nigeria Basins from Aeromagnetic Data: Implication on Hydrocarbon Prospectivity | Chapter 06 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 1

Southern Nigeria has major and minor sedimentary basins. This study covers parts of 5 sedimentary basins in southern Nigeria, this includes the Niger Delta, Benue Trough, Calabar Flank, Mamfebasin and  Lower  Benue  Trough. Aeromagnetic data  has  been  used  by  many  authors  worldwide  in evaluation  of  subsurface  basin  configuration.  This  study  covers  parts  of  five  basins  (Niger  Delta, Calabar Flank, Anambra Basin, Mamfe Basin, and Lower Benue Trough) in Nigeria. The study utilized twenty aeromagnetic maps on a scale of 1:100,000. The maps were digitized manually along flight lines and a total of 16,689 data points obtained. The data was processed using computer techniques including map merging, reduction to pole, polynomial and power spectrum filtering for residual and regional  anomaly  separation,  and forward  and  inverse  2.5D  Saki  modeling.  Results  obtained  from power spectrum depth analysis indicate depth to magnetic sources vis –a –vis sediment thickness  from the Niger Delta area (2.75 km -3.75 km), Anambra basin (1.5 km –2.6 km), Calabar Flank (1.3 km –2.3 km), Mamfe basin (2.0 km –3.4 km), and Lower Benue Trough (1.5 km –3.2 km). Also, depth to basement results from forward and inverse modeling indicate the Niger Delta has thickness of sediments ranging between 1.0 km-8.0 km, Anambra basin (1.4 km –2.7 km), Calabar Flank (0.8 km-2.5 km), Mamfe Basin (1.0 km –2.7 km), and Lower Benue Trough (1.4 km –2.7 km). Also, results from modeled number of intrusives indicate that the Calabar Flank has five intrusives, Niger Delta  has four  intrusives,  Mamfe  basin  has  six  intrusives,  Anambra  basin  has  five  intrusives,  and Lower Benue Trough has four intrusives. The implications of the increased number of intrusives are that generated hydrocarbons might be converted to gas, this is more likely in areas around Calabar Flank, Mamfe basin and Anambra basins, given the high number of occurrence of intrusives within these  areas.  Whereas  areas  around  the  NigerDelta  and  Lower  Benue  Trough  with  significantly increased depth and lower number of intrusive are less prone to excessive heat from the intrusive and may  produce  more  oil.  The  study  support  further  exploration  activities  within  the  Niger  Delta  and Lower Benue Trough areas. The significance of this study is the wide range appraisal of the basin architecture and configuration of the offshore and inland basins in Southern Nigeria. The Niger Delta basin areas of Portharcourt, Bonny with sediment thickness of about 8.0km and less occurrence of intrusives has the highest hydrocarbons exploration potentials. The Bansara area within the Mamfe basin has  (2.6 km) sediment thickness that could generate hydrocarbons given that another condition is favourable, but the presence of numerous intrusives may make the area prone to excessive heat and  may  produce  more  gas  than  oil.  The  Anambra  basin  and  the  Lower  Benue  Trough  have  a moderate  depth  of  sediments  thickness(2.5km)  and  less  number  of  intrusives,  these  areas  came second to the Niger Delta among the studied basins for good prospects in hydrocarbon exploration investigations.  It  is  concluded  that  this  study  reveals  the  order  of  preference  of  the  choice  of investigating the hydrocarbon prospective potentials of  Southern Nigerian basins using the potential  field magnetic method, it is recommended that other geophysical methods such as gravity, and seismic be used to identify possible hydrocarbon habitats within the  Southern Nigeria Basins.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. Dominic Akam Obi
Department of Geology, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Anthony Michael George
Department of Physics, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

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Air Temperature Time Series Trend Analysis of Upper Ganga Canal Command by Mann Kendall Test | Chapter 05 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 1

Worldwide  climatologists  are  investigating  to  find  a  possible  relation  of  climate  change  with anthropogenic behavior by studying trends in different climatic parameters. However, the changes in temperature are not equal for all regions especially in India and have localized intensity and must be quantified locally to manage the natural resources. Aim of the study is to determine trend in annual mean and monthly Temperature time series using nonparametric methods (i.e. the Mann–Kendall and Sen’s T tests). The magnitudes of trend in a Temperature time series have been estimated by Sen’s estimator method. Auto correlation effect is reduced from the Temperature series before applying the Mann–Kendall test. In the  present study, an investigation has been made to study the  spatial and temporal variability in the maximum, the minimum of Upper Ganga Canal Command located in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand on monthly, annual and seasonal series from 1901 to 2018. The annual maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.63°C and 0.64°C, respectively, over the past  118  years.  On  a  seasonal  basis,  the  winters  are  warmer  than  summers.  The  temperature decreased during the less urbanized period of 1901 to 1951 and increased during the more urbanized period  of  1961  to  2018.  It  is  also  found  that  the  minimum  temperature  increased  at  higher  rate (0.43°C) and the maximum (0.33°C) air temperatures, during the more urbanized period. The study analyzed the temperature data of 118 years from 1901 to 2018 to determine the trend of temperature in the  Upper Ganga  Canal Command region.  As  this region is rapidly  growing, any change  in the temperature trend pattern may have considerable impact on the people of this region. The Z values of the MK Test revealed an increasing trend in temperature. It can, therefore, be concluded that there may be an impact on climate change, contributing to the prolonged and higher temperatures which are rising with time. Similarly, Sen’s Slope Estimator has also estimated an increasing magnitude of slope for the temperature data.

Biography of author(s)

Mr. Nitin Mishra
Department of Civil Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed To Be University, Dehradun, India.

Dr. Deepak Khare
Departmant of WRD&M, IIT Roorkee, India.

Priya
Department of Civil Engineering, Graphic EraDeemed To Be University, Dehradun, India.

Pooja Negi
Department of Civil Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed To Be University, Dehradun, India.

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Impacts of Flood Simulation in 3D and SWAT Environment of Terengganu River Catchment | Chapter 04 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 1

Flood is a natural hazard  influenced by climatic and  anthropogenic factors.  The Terengganu  River catchment is located near the South China Sea has been flooding during heavy monsoon season with strongrain-bearing  winds  to  the  interior  coastal  zones  of  Kuala  Terengganu.  The  ArcSWAT2012extension  of  ArcGIS10.3  and  ArcScene10.3  has  been  used  to  design  3D  models  simulations  to predict flood risk event through the stream flow and elevation data derived from ASTER DEM. The Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) provided the sub-basins parameters which are overlaid with the real-time simulations to determine which sub-basins are affected by flood risk. The flood animation is developed for mitigation and quick decision making for safety and evacuation of flood victims in the Terengganu River catchment. The 3D simulations produce flood risk zones models which illustrate the affected zones by the flood. The 25 sub-basins parameters have distinct characters which influence the  stream  flow,  soils,  slopes  and  land  cover.  That  represent  areas  affected  by  flood  in  Kuala Terengganu. The 25 sub-basins parameters have unique characteristics that influence the river flow, land  cover,  soil  and  slopes.  One  of  the  effective  ways  offlood  monitoring  is  to  see  it  physically occurring  or  happening  in  real-time.  The  solution  is  to  set  the  model  at  the  simulation  in  the  3D environment. The Terengganu River catchment was successfully delineated and simulated using the sub-basins to identify zones that are affected by the flood risk. The impacts of flood risk usually take place during the monsoon period, especially in Peninsular Malaysia. The Terengganu catchment is liable to flooding  during the period of monsoon. The average rainfall during flash  flood reaches to 3000mm of rain, with more than 24 hours of a continuous heavy rain shower. The flood event mostly affects peninsular Malaysia from Decembers to January.

Biography of author(s)

Ibrahim Sufiyan
Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

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Estimation of Environmental Chemical Pollution of Al-Baiji Oil Refinery in Iraq | Chapter 03 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 1

All kinds of industries like oil plants, petrochemicals and chemical industries are causing tremendous chemical pollution of  environment  components  like  air,  water and  soil.  The  first  target  of  chemical pollution is the environment of the refinery itself. It was seen that the protection and control measures of chemical pollution locally followed for oil refinery environment and its community were very limited. This  worse  situation  might  lead  health  hazards  to  workers  in  oil  refinery  and  consequently  to  its vicinity. This study was conducted to assess the degree of chemical pollution and impact caused by Al-Baiji Oil Refinery of Iraq on its own environment. Six heavy metals concentrations were estimated in selected  samples  of  soil  and  water  collected  from  different  sites  in  oil  refinery  by  using  atomic absorption  spectrophotometery.  These  metals  were  cadmium,  copper,  nickel,  lead,  vanadium  and zinc. Estimation of pollutant gases utilized a portable digital device. Results showed that some of the heavy  metals tested  (Cu  and  Zn)  were  at  acceptable  levels  whereas  the  other  four  heavy  metals (cadimium,  nickel,  lead  and  vanadium)  revealed  higher  values  than  maximum  allowable  limits. Determination  of  hydrogen  sulphide  (H2S),  nitrogen  dioxide  (NO2),  carbon  monoxide  (CO)  and oxygen (O2) gases were also done. Acceptable concentrations of H2S (4.16)ppm and CO (29.5)ppm were recorded, while those of NO2 (0.108)ppm and O2 (20.6%)ppm were not acceptable. Inhalation of metal particles might be more dangerous than through gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or dermal routes. Concentration  of  gaseous  pollutants  was  almost  close  to  the  acceptable  concentrations,  with exception of nitrogen dioxide which was noted to be more than the acceptable limits. It was concluded that concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water of oil refinery were higher than the maximum allowable levels recommended by WHO. Gases of Al-Baiji oil refinery of Iraq especially NO2 were elevated too. These high levels of chemical pollutants suggest a lack of efficient control measures in the refinery. Consequently, this  situation might lead to pathophysiological changes of human body systems particularly the respiratory tract of refinery workers and the vicinity community.

Biography of author(s)

Mohemid M. Al-Jebouri
Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq.

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Sedimentary Processes and Environments of Deposition of Part of the Benin Formation, Southeastern Nigeria | Chapter 02 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 1

This chapter involves the study of the sedimentological processes and depositional environment from two  major  exposed  sections  of  the  Benin  Formation  in  the  vicinity  of  the  southern  fringes  of  the CalabarFlank.  Stratigraphic  logs  were  produced;  textural  description  was  carried  out  using  20 samples  collected  from  the  road  cuts.  Within  the  mudstone  interval,  lenticular  beds  and  skolithos traces were observed. Other sedimentary structures (cross beds, ripplemarks) were measured and analysed for paleocurrent patterns. The results from the textural analyses of the sandstones show that the sediments were predominantly medium to coarse grain (ɸ-0.13 –1.63), moderate to poorly sorted (ɸ1.02 –2.03). Skewness and kurtosis values range from strongly coarse -coarse skewed (ɸ-0.66 –0.13) and leptokurtic to platykurtic (ɸ0.72 –2.00) respectively. Bivariate analysis reveals that 100% of the sandstone samples are continental (fluvial) in origin with predominant deposition within rolling and saltation sub-population of the C-M plot. The points were restricted to the P-Q section of the C-M plot signifying  high  energy  deposition.  Lenticular  beds  characterized  tidal  influence  in  the  thick  mudflat deposit. Break in sedimentation was identified by the presence of a paleosol and the unimodal and unidirectional pattern of the paleocurrent markers suggest fluvial setting.

Biography of author(s)

Prof Nse Udo Essien
Geology Department, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

Mr Okon Emmanuel Etim
Geology Department, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

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Critical Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Ring Size Distribution in Marshy Soils and Sediments in Warri City and Its Environs, Southern Nigeria | Chapter 01 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 1

Industrialization and urbanization have advanced socio-economic development. As a consequence, amyriad of environmental problems have become prevalent in urban areas, including contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via various pathways. PAHs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and are released into the environments via various routes. They have been largely detected in  various  environmental  media,  such  as  organism,atmosphere,  water,  soils  and  sediments.  This study  was  carried  out  to  analyze  the  ring  size  distribution  of  PAHs  in  marshy  soils  and  sediment samples in Warri City, Southern Nigeria. The samples were collected during dry and rainy seasons from four locations within Warri and a control location in Agbarho, 20km away. Levels of 16 priority PAHs listed in United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were determined using Gas Chromatography  coupled  with  Flame  Ionization  detector  (GC-FID).  This  study  was  carried  from January  to March  and  June  to August,  representing  the  dry  and wet  seasons  respectively.  It  was observed  that  PAHs  concentration  was  generally  higher  in  dry  than  rainy  seasons  for  soil  and sediment samples. The two-ringed PAHs analysed were naphthalene, 2-methyl naphthalene and 1-methyl  naphthalene  while  the  three-ringed  PAHs  were  acenaphthylene,  acenaphthene,  fluorine, anthracene  and  phenanthrene.  The  four-ringed  PAHs  were  fluoranthene,  chrysene,  pyrene  and benzo(a)anthracene.  The  five-ringed  PAHs  were  benzo(a)pyrene,  benzo(b)fluoranthene  and benzo(k)fluoranthrene   while   the   six-ringed   PAHs   were   indeno   (1,2,3-c,d)   pyrene   and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(g,h.i)perylene. Moreover, the ring size analysis revealed that for soils, two to three-ringed as well as four-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Ugboroke location, five-ringed PAHs in Okotie and six-ringed PAHs in Ogunu location. Overall, five-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Okotie location in the dry season. However, for sediments, two to three-ringed as well as four-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Okotie location, five-ringed PAHs in Ogunu and six-ringed PAHs in Ugboroke location. Overall, two to three-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Okotie location in the dry season for sediment samples. Furthermore,in the marshy soil samples, the ring size distribution is as follows; 5-ring PAHs ˃ 2-3 ring PAHs ˃ 6-ring PAHs ˃ 4-ring PAHs. Considering  the  dominance  of  5-ring  PAHs; high  lipophilicity,  low water solubility  and low  volatility PAHs are prevalent in the study area. As a result, they are predominantly in solid state, decreasing their mobility and increasing their persistence in the environment.In the marshy sediment samples, the ring size distribution is as follows; 2 to 3-ring PAHs ˃ 5-ring PAHs ˃ 4-ring PAHs ˃ 6-ring PAHs. The dominance of 2 to 3-ring PAHs indicates that the PAHs found in the study area may have low lipophilicity, high water solubility and high volatility. As a consequence of their high volatility, they may readily appear in the atmosphere predominantly in gaseous form. Furthermore, being highly soluble in water, they are readily available for biological uptake and degradation. Hence, they are less toxic with decreased carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potential.

Biography of author(s)

Prof. Iwekumo E. Agbozu
Department of Environmental Managementand Toxicology, Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun, P.M.B.1221, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria

Adejoke V. Bayowa
College of Agriculture and Environmental Science, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.

Osayomwanbor E. Oghama
Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun, P.M.B. 1221, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria.

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Assessment of Changes in Beta-carotene Content and Sensory Attributes of Two Sweet Potato Varieties as Influenced by Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers and Storage Methods | Chapter 14 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 2

Two field experiments were conducted at two seasons at the research fields of the University of Education, Winneba-Mampong campus  from September, 2011 to January, 2012  and April to July, 2012 to assess changes in beta-carotene content and sensory attributes of two sweet potato varieties (Okumkom and Apomuden) grown under organic and inorganic fertilizers and three different storage methods in Ghana. Cooked samples of the harvested sweet potato roots were evaluated for their sensory attributes. In the storability studies, the harvested roots were sorted, cured and stored under three storage methods for 3 months. The beta- carotene changes in the stored roots were assessed. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between Apomuden and Okumkom grown under amendment and the control in beta-carotene content at harvest and in pit store in both seasons. The beta- carotene content of Apomuden increased by 15-30% in pit store during the minor season than at harvest. Both varieties grown under amendment and the control and stored in pit was the most effective storage method in terms of beta-carotene over ash and grass storage in both seasons. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between Okumkom and Apomuden in root texture and palatability at harvest and after cooking during the minor season. Apomuden differed significantly (p<0.05) from Okumkom in root colour and flavour at harvest and after cooking during the major season. The application of 30-45-45 kg/ha NPK to both varieties was more acceptable with regard to root taste, colour and palatability than the other treatments during the minor season.  For high beta-carotene content of sweet potato, farmers should grow Apomuden in both seasons than Okumkom. Farmers should store sweet potato roots in pit than in ash or grass after harvest for high beta-carotene content in both growing seasons. Farmers are to grow sweet potato on amended plots, especially on15-30-30 kg/ha NPK +5t/ha CM and 10t/ha CM plots during the minor season and on 30-45-45 kg/ha NPK plot during the major season for high beta-carotene content. Farmers should grow sweet potato, especially Okumkom on 30-45-45 kg/ha NPK plot for fibrous texture, palatable and overall acceptable roots during the minor season. Farmers should grow Apomuden during the major season for high root colour, flavour and overall acceptable roots. This suggests the need to modify the nutrient supply according to environmental conditions. Knowledge of these changes can facilitate the estimation of growth period, modification of nutrient supply in relation to environmental conditions, storage condition and time for different sweet potato varieties in order to meet different food industry needs.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. (Mrs.) Margaret Esi Essilfie
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Education, Faculty of Agriculture Education, University of Education, Winneba, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana.

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