Generation and Analysis of Biogas from Some Animal and Vegetable Wastes | Chapter 03 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 2

The world relies heavily on fossil fuels for both domestic and commercial energy needs but there is an environmental effect of these fossil fuels and as the energy consumption is becoming very significant as there is depletion of the fossil fuels. Research has to be in the development of alternative energy sources. The production of biogas plays an important role in reducing greenhouse gases emissions and facilitates a sustainable development of energy supply. The process of production only uses energy from renewable energy sources. Hence, no net carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere, making it an environmentally benign energy source. One of the alternative sources of energy is bio-energy. The common fuels obtainable from biomass are bio-ethanol and biogas. This study aims at the production of biogas from biologically degradable wastes by the co-digestion system and analysing the percentage composition of CH4 and CO2 in biogas produced. It involves using fruit (peels and seeds of orange, tomato, cucumber) and vegetable (efo shoko-leafy vegetable) wastes mixed with pig manure in an anaerobic digester. Thus giving an alternative energy source and making the environment cleaner by reducing the green energy gases and wastes. The gas content, therefore, is analysed. The composition of CO2 and CH4 content in biogas generated were CO2 28.1% and CH4 68.9%. Biogas-generating technology is a favourable dual-purpose technology at present: the biogas generated can be used to meet energy requirements while the organic residue is a useful fertiliser.

Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis of the fruit waste, vegetable waste and the pig waste were carried out. The proximate analyses were carried out for carbohydrates using Anthrone method, Total Lipids Using Bligh & Dyer Method; Crude Fibre, moisture content, total ash, and crude protein method as described by AOAC (1995); The high content of the methane obtained is a high indication that the waste materials used are a good source of biogas generation and can be used to provide a cleaner environment. Investigation shows that biogas can be successfully produced from co-digestion of manure with fruits and vegetable wastes without any chemical added to the system. The quality of methane composition in biogas and quantity of biogas produced depends on the composition of materials fed to the digester, fat and moisture content is important in methane yield. Through anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes, one can avoid the emission of harmful greenhouse gases and make a positive contribution to a cleaner environment. Production of biogas from fruit and vegetable waste and pig dung is a major step toward harnessing the least utilised renewable energy resource. From this work, methane gas has been produced. The CO2 generated in the mixture can be removed. The methane content is high, no additional energy was used as the microorganisms were used in an anaerobic condition, in the generation of the biogas.

Biography of author(s)

E. A. S. Osibote
Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

B. O. Odesanya
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Caleb University, Imota, Lagos State, Nigeria.

G. S. Soetan
Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

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Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Solvent Extracts and Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Seeds of Areca catechu L. | Chapter 02 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 2

The  present  study  was  carried  out  to  screen  phytochemicals  like  carbohydrates,  terpenoids,  resins, saponins,  tannins  and  alkaloids  in  the  seed  extract  of Areca  catechu by  standard  protocols  and antibacterial activities of seed extract as well as silver nanoparticles prepared from seed extracts. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated in the recent scientific developments throughoutthe  world,  due  to  their  potency  against  several  disease,  minor  side  effects  and  economic  viability. Several compounds widely distributed in plants which have been reported to exert multiple biological effect, including antioxidant, free radical scavenging abilities, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic. Nanoparticles  are  synthesized  using  plant  materials.  The  various  phytochemicals  present  within  the plant  result  in  effective  reduction  of  silver  salts  to  nanoparticles.  The  characterization  of  silver nanoparticles  was  studied  by  using  FTIR,  SEM  and  UV-  Visible  spectrophotometer.  Antibacterial activity  was  conducted  with  aqueous,  methanolic  and  AgNO3 seed  extracts  against  six  bacterial species  viz., Salmonella  typhi,  Klebsiella  pneumoniae,  Staphylococcus  aureus,  Escherichia  coli, Pseudomonas  aeruginosa and  Bacillus  subtilis by  agar  well  diffusion  method.  The  seed  extract showed  positive  results  for  carbohydrate,  proteins,  alkaloids,  glycosides,  terpenoids,  tannins  and saponins.  The  colour  of  the  solution  after  treating  with  AgNO3 was  changed  from  light  brown  to  dark brown  confirmed  the  reduction  of  silver  ion  in  presence  of  seed  extract  and  formation  of  silver nanoparticles.  Maximum  absorption  was  observed  at  400  nm  and  the  size  of  silver  nanoparticles produced  was  oval  in  shape  with  the  diameter  of  553-610  nm. Pseudomonas  aeruginosa  and Salmonella typhi were found to be the good organisms resistant against areca nut seed extracts while others  were  showed  intermediate  effects.  This  study  suggest  that A.  catechu  nut  extract  can  be  a potential  source  for  developing  antibacterial  agents  against  Gram  positive  bacteria  which  are commonly  found  on  human  oral  cavity  and  responsible  for  dental  caries.  This  present  study  also supports  the  use  of  natural  products  for  medication  as  antibacterial  agents  found  in  plant  extract, which  exhibits  antibacterial  activity  to  some  opportunistic  oral  bacteria,  we  have  some  reservations towards the side effects that need to be studied and evaluated more thoroughly. The results highlight the traditional use of “Areca nut” and some scientific validation of the claimed biological antimicrobial activity in vivo.

Biography of author(s)

Dr. Rama Bhat P.
Prof. & Head, PG Department of Biotechnology, Alva’s College, Moodbidri – 574 227, Karnataka, India.
Coordinator of Internal Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC),
Member, Tree Authority, Department of Forest and Environmental  Sciences, Govt. of Karnataka, India.

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Soil Bacteria as a Natural Source of Antifungal Agents against Phytopathogenic Fungus: Aspergillus niger | Chapter 01 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 2

Soil bacteria are able to synthesize a wide range of metabolites with fungicidal activity. Nine bacterial isolates were obtained from the botanical garden of University of Calabar. Preliminary examination of isolates was carried out using morphological characteristics and biochemical analysis. These isolates were designated  with codes SB1, SB2, SB3, SB4,  SB5, SB6, SB7, and  SB8. Bacterial  isolates  were evaluated for their potentials of antagonism against Aspergillus niger isolated from spoiled vegetables like  tomatoes  by  using  agar  diffusion  technique.  Percentage  inhibition  of  mycelial  growth  by  these isolates  recorded  values  as  27%,  0%,  66%,  40%,  97%,  0%  and  23%  respectively.  Isolates  were analyzed  through  several  biochemical  tests  and  were  identified  as Bacillus  sp., Enterobacter  spp., Pseudomonas  spp., Proteus  spp., Escherichia  coli, Streptococcus  spp.  and Staphylococcus  spp.respectively.  These  result  indicated  that  bacterial  species  exhibited  varying  degree  of  antagonism against  the  fungus Aspergillus  niger. Escherichia  coli  showed  maximum  inhibitory  potential  against tested fungus  with reduction of up to 97% in their mycelial fungal growth, followed by Pseudomonas spp.  and Bacillus  spp.  with  66.7%  reduction.  From  the  results  obtained,  it  is  found  that  the  bacterial species  isolated  from  the  soil  samples  are  effective  as  antifungal  agents  against  phyto-pathogenic fungi. Escherichia  coli,  Pseudomonas  spp.,  Bacillus  spp.  had  more  antagonistic  effect  on  vegetative growth  of  tested  fungi  (Aspergillus  niger).  These  bacterial  species  showed  higher  levels  of inhibitory effect  on  fungal  spore  germination.  The  presented  data  exhibit  the  antifungal  activity  of  bacterial species and indicate the possibility of using these bacterial species as a biological agent to control the phyto pathogenic fungi.

Biography of author(s)

Mrs. Anitha Prakash Rao
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria.

Dr. Bassey Etta Agbo
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria.

Dr. (Mrs.) Nsikan S. Udoekong
Department of Science and Technology, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria.

Miss Hannah A. Etuk
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria.

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