A Computerized Boundary Element Algorithm for Modeling and Optimization of Complex Magneto-Thermoelastic Problems in MFGA Structures | Chapter 11 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2

Aims: The aim of this article is to propose a boundary integral equation algorithm for modeling and optimization of magneto-thermoelastic problems in multilayered functionally graded anisotropic (MFGA) structures.

Study Design:  Original research paper.

Place and duration of Study: Jamoum laboratory, January 2018.

Methodology: a new dual reciprocity boundary element algorithm was implemented for solving the governing equations of magneto-thermoelastic problems in MFGA structures.

Results: A numerical results demonstrate validity, accuracy, and efficiency of the presented technique.

Conclusion: Our results thus confirm the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed technique. It is noted that the obtained dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM) results are more accurate than the FEM results, the DRBEM is more efficient and easy to use than FEM because it only needs the boundary of the domain needs to be discretized.

Author(s) Details

Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy

Department of Mathematics, Jamoum University College, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

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Consumption, “Tourism-Merchandise” and Actor-Network Theory: The Cartography of Controversies and the Case of Telegraph Rock Trail – RJ | Chapter 10 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2

The contemporaneity is marked, in part, by the Control Society, characterised, among other aspects, by consumption. In this scene, both the material and the immaterial objects come to have value in the market, so that one of the influential tools in this period is the use of sociotechnical networks, also involving the social behaviours of individuals and their desires of belonging. In this perspective, the research aims at analysing the use of the images inherent to the landscape of the Telegraph Rock Trail – Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – transmitted in these networks, as an influencing factor in the increase of the number of visitors in this place, having as background to the control society. The study attentive to Bruno Latour’s Actor-Network Theory (ANT), which measures the fact that the “human actor” and “non-human” can transform the society. Thus, Facebook posts were analysed from the Cartography of Controversies, which is the operationalisation of the Actor-Network Theory (ANT). For that, the contents of the publications from the years 2015 to 2017 were analysed, in the page called “Pedra do Telégrafo_RJ”, with 41 thousand participants. Clues point out that the use of socio-technical networks, in the scope of consumption may have influenced the process of production of the trail, through its transformation into a product that now has market value, through the logic “tourism-commodity”.  It is also identified that the market exhibits the image of nature in a produced and in agreement with the precepts of the control society, outlined by Deleuze. In this logic, natural attributes dissociate themselves from the roles of components of human subsistence and associate with components of the existence of a fluid and schizophrenic in their actions. Thus, while defending nature through their rhetoric, promote actions that can jeopardize its integrity, by the decision to know the place and go along said trail, aspects. However, this study is not competed to leverage new research with the respective theme.

Author(s) Details

Barbara Lucia Guimarães Alves

Psychosociology of Communities and Social Ecology (IP/UFRJ), Brazil.

Frederico Augusto Tavares

Psychosociology of Communities and Social Ecology (IP/UFRJ), Brazil.

Giselle Gama Torres Ferreira

Psychosociology of Communities and Social Ecology (IP/UFRJ), Brazil.

Jefferson Fernando Gonçalves Guedes da Costa

Psychosociology of Communities and Social Ecology (IP/UFRJ), Brazil.

Margarete Ribeiro Tavares

Psychosociology of Communities and Social Ecology (IP/UFRJ), Brazil.

Marlen Maria Cabral Ramalho

Psychosociology of Communities and Social Ecology (IP/UFRJ), Brazil.

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An Inquiry into the Meaning and Essence of Technology | Chapter 09 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2

Most definitions of technology offer simple and unobstructed descriptions of this term, while some of them also add a description of technology’s essence, the latter of which has also been questioned by some authors.  In light of the foregoing, this paper has two tasks: 1) to define technology for both its material and immaterial effects, making note of tools, devices, machines, and apparatuses on the one hand, and procedures, organisations, methods, and strategies on the other, and 2) to discuss and identify its essence.  In this twofold attempt, the relationship between definition and essence is analysed. Apart from any underlying complexity, this relationship indicates that essence means something other than a simple definition because definition and essence are not conterminous.

Author(s) Details

Theodore John Rivers

Independent Researcher, Forest Hills, USA.

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Plain Text Encoding/Decoding Technique Using a Combination of Huffman and Run-Length Algorithms | Chapter 08 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2

This work is devoted to study the effect of applying a hybrid encoding/decoding algorithm to textual data. The sole purpose is to analyze the effect on the size as well as the complexity of the output encoded data. The proposed combination is that of Huffman and Run-Length algorithms. This study focuses on the sequence of applying the two algorithms to see if it has an effect on the output data or not, and the impact of input data format on the result. Results show that the data format and the sequence in which the algorithms are applied actually affect the output. Moreover, it is shown why these two algorithms were chosen and each of them contribute to the overall result.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ahmed Z. Ibrahim

Department of Computer Sciences, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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The Problems and Prospects of Experimentation and Power Point Presentation | Chapter 07 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2

There are two issues surrounding design and establishment of experiments. Among these is even when resources are available, it may be difficult to conduct purpose driven research. On the other hand, in the midst of scarce resources, there are often unrecognized opportunities. These challenges may be due to ignorance of the components of experiments which should not be ignored or taken for granted. These two limitations of researchers retard the progress and contribution of research to knowledge and development. The objective of this paper therefore was to provide a guide that will stimulate and sustain research interest through experiments that can impact positively on the scientist, work place and the society. In this regard, attention should be paid to the four cardinal aspects of an experiment, which are planning, conduct, data collection, collation and storage, data analysis and writing, presentation or documentation of report.

Author(s) Details

Frederick Akpomedaye AKPOBOME

Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 1049, Benin City, Nigeria.

Kenneth Omokhafe

Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 1049, Benin City, Nigeria.

Emmanuel Imoren

Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 1049, Benin City, Nigeria.

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Evaluating the Performance of Two Hybrid Feature Selection Model of Machine Learning for Credit Card Fraud Detection on Classification and Prediction Methods | Chapter 06 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2

The hybrid and non-hybrid feature selection model aimed at predicting and classifying whether a transaction is fraudulent or non-fraudulent using machine learning approaches. The objective of this study was to use supervised learning framework to differentiate fraudulent and genuine transactions. The proposed hybrid model utilizes feature selection methods namely; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and PCA-Backward elimination with multiple linear regression and Reduced Error Pruning Tree classifier (RepT) using Python and WEKA. Through five experiments carried out in this study, the proposed approach has proven to be effective for eliminating redundant features in the dataset that does not have significant impact using PCA and Backward elimination method to optimize the predictive behaviour of the credit card transactions. Our first findings from the experimental results revealed that the RepT with PCA-Backward-Elimination prediction accuracy 87.37% is higher than that of multiple linear regressions with PCA 73.35% and PCA-Backward-Elimination 73.34%. Our second findings also revealed that the RepT with PCA-Backward-Elimination classification accuracy of 99.9368% is higher than that of multiple linear regressions with PCA 99.9122% and PCA-Backward-Elimination 99.9105%. The performance metrics measures on the classification model of the logistic regression with PCA-Backward-Elimination indicates that the hybrid model negates it with the expectation of maximization to minimization (99.9122% to 99.9105%) but returns the same results on the RepT decision tree classification in both cases of  99.9368%. The proposed hybrid feature selection method with machine learning algorithms outperforms the non-hybrid feature selection method with machine learning algorithms for classification and prediction accuracy.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Stephen Gbenga Fashoto

University of Swaziland, Kwaluseni, Swaziland.

Prof. Olumide Owolabi

University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.

Mr Elliot Mbunge

University of Swaziland, Kwaluseni, Swaziland.

Dr. Andile Simphiwe Metfula

University of Swaziland, Kwaluseni, Swaziland.

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Weak Solutions and Numerical Blow-up for the p(x)-Laplacian Equation | Chapter 05 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2

Author(s) Details

Hamid El Ouardi

Research laboratory in Engineering (LRI), University Hassan II of Casablanca, National Higher Schoolof Electricity and Mechanics, Equipe S ́ecurit ́e, Syst`emes & Mod ́elisations. ENSEM, BP. 8118, Km7,Morocco.

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Chaos and Boundary Values Problems of Dynamical Systems | Chapter 04 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2

The boundary values of problem that are determined from observations play a decisive role in solving any problem in mathematical models of dynamic systems.

They lead to the search of answer to the following questions:

From observations, is it possible to find such boundary values, which could become the guarantor of the existence of smooth or chaotic solutions of the problem?

This paper presents estimates of variations calculated from numerous observations: border estimates of the variations of the gravitational constant of the solar system:

Ratings (I)-(V) obtained from the analysis of sums of infinitesimal perturbations of range less than or equal to the errors of observation.

When satisfying the boundary estimates (I) – (V) of Solar System, orbits of V satellite and daily satellites are stable. Once these conditions are violated, chaos creeps in the orbits of the Solar System, V satellites and daily satellites and the orbits become unstable.

Author(s) Details

G. T. Arazov

Institute of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics, Baku State University, Azerbaijan.

T. H. Aliyeva

Institute of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics, Baku State University, Azerbaijan.

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On ‘Big’ Boolean-Equation Solving and Its Utility in Combinatorial Digital Design | Chapter 03 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2

This chapter considers the problem of solving a system of Boolean equations over a finite (atomic) Boolean  algebra  other  than  the  two-valued  one.  A  prominent  “misnomer”  in  mathematical  and engineering  circles  is  the  term  ‘Boolean  algebra’.  This  term  is  widely  used  to  refer  to  switching algebra, which is just one particular case of a ‘Boolean algebra’ that has 0 generators, 1 atom and two elements belonging to B={0,1}.The chapter outlines classical and novel direct methods for deriving the general parametric solution of such a system and for listing all its particular solutions. A detailed example over Bis  used to illustrate these two methods as well as a third method that  starts by deriving  the  subsumptive  solution  first.  The  example  demonstrates  how  the  consistency  condition forces  a  collapse  of  the  underlying  Boolean  algebra  to a  subalgebra,  and  also  how  to list  a  huge number of particular solutions in a very compact space. Subsequently, the chapter proposes some potential  applications  for  the  techniques  of  Boolean-equation  solving.  These  techniques  are  very promising as useful extensions of classical techniques based on two-valued Boolean algebra.

Author(s) Details

Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O.Box 80204, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

Sultan Sameer Zagzoog

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O.Box 80204, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

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Continental Application of Foamed Concrete Technology: Lessons for Civil Engineering Infrastructures Development for Africa | Chapter 02 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2

The properties of foamed concrete as a variable density concrete, is now being tapped for effective application in the global construction industry. Foamed concrete is applicable in various continental climates. In hot continental climates, with very hot days and cold nights with temperatures of 90°C and 10°C respectively, it is successfully used in Kazachstan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. This study presents the properties and applications of this type of concrete at varying densities highlighting the advantages and circumstances for its use. Economic and Other Considerations together with its multipurpose applications were also presented. Comparative study of the involvement levels in the use  of  foamed  concrete  technology  economy  by  the  various  continents was  undertaken.  Results indicated  that  Asia  and  Europe  alone  accounted  for  50%  and  33.3%  respectively,  totaling  83%. Africa’s  exposure  level  to  foamed  concrete  technology  is  only  5.6%  which  is  grossly  non-commensurable  to  the  population  on the  Continent  compared  with  shares from  other  parts.  Some research  and  development  efforts  were  presented  to  show  that  there  are  opportunities  for groundbreaking research works in this field. Africa and Australia each has a share of 5.6% in global involvement in foamed concrete technology economy. This stresses that  Africa’s exposure level to foamed  concrete  technology  of  5.6%  only  is  grossly  non-commensurable  to the  population  on the Continent compared with shares from other parts of the globe. The world experience has shown that the special technological feature of foamed concrete allows it to be used for multipurpose applications in the building and other infrastructural developments industries as highlighted in the text. This impliesthat  Africa  needs  to  rise  up  to  tap opportunities  that  abound  in  this  context  to  improve  her infrastructural development rates. There are also opportunities for new ventures on the platform of foamed concrete applications and equipment.

Author(s) Details

Felix Adeniran OGINNI, B.Sc. PhD, DMS.

Department of Civil Engineering, Osun State University, P.M.B. 4494, Oshogbo, Nigeria.

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