Novel and Emerging Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Stratification: Role of Inflammatory and Other Biomarkers | Chapter 09 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 4

Apart from the use of cardiac biomarker for diagnosing and monitoring Acute ischemic disease, an acute  myocardial  infarction  (AMI)  and  Heart  failure,  the  same  biomarkers  can  also  be  used  for predicting the  chances of  suffering from  these diseases in future.  In a way these  can be used  as screening biomarkers. Since the biomarkers, which are intracellular biomolecules, are released in to the peripheral circulation from necrosis of myocytes. Lipids and lipoproteins do have high  value in assessing  the  risk  of  future  cardiac  disease,  but  are  not  produced  by  the  heart  and  don’t  directly reflect  the  status  of  the  heart,  rather  they  simply  provide  a  measurement  of  future  risk  of atherosclerosis. Cardiac biomarkers on the other hand can also provide or help in assesing the extent of damage that has been caused to the myocardium because of their specificity and rapid release or increase in the peripheral blood post injury to the myocardium, as well as their presence in plasma in low  concentrations  normally.  Hence  other  than  the  classic  cardiovascular  risk markers like LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides, presence in abnormal amounts of the emerging markers like apolipoprotein A1/apolipoprotein B100, Lp(a), oxidized LDL, LpPLA2,hsCRP, homocysteine, myeloperoxidase and as  well  as  lipoprotein  particle  size  and  concentration  can  indicate,  as  well  as  predict myocardial stress more accurately. The probability of developing a cardiac disease is higher if a particular risk marker is in abnormal amounts. Inflammatory markers predict MI and death. Some others predict the risk  of  acute  coronary  syndrome, incident  and  recurrent  cardiovascular  events.  All  the  merging biomarkers have all been well validated to predict death and heart failure following a MI and provide risk stratification information for heart failure. Rapidly developing new areas, such as assessment of micro-RNA, are also explored.  All the biomarkers reflect different aspects of the  development  of atherosclerosis. This, in no way means that the individual is certain to develop cardiac disease but is most likely to get the disease.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Sharique Ahmed

MLS Program, Allied Health Department, College of Health Sicences, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain.

Mohammed Abbas

Assistant Professor of Medical Laboratory Sciences (hematology and immunohematology), Medical Laboratory sciences Program, Allied Health Division, College of Health Sciences, University of Bahrain.

Dr. Naeem Anwar

MLS Program, Allied Health Department, College of Health Sicences, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain.

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Adsorptive Interactions of Natural Antifungals with Metal Ferrocyanides and its Pharmaceutical Potential | Chapter 08 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 4

The study aimed to investigate the adsorptive interactions of metal hexacyanoferrates (II) and ethanol and  acetone  extracts  of  natural  antifungals.  Nickel,  manganese  and  copper  hexacyanoferrates (II) were synthesized and characterized by elemental and spectral studies. Each metal hexacyanoferrate (II) was combined with two natural antifungals: coconut (Cocos nucifera)  and  ochro (Abelmoschusesculentus)  leaf  extract.  The  antifungal  potential  was  executed  by  the  disc  diffusion  method.  The acetone  and  ethanol  extract  of  A.  esculentus  at  10  mg/m L  paired  with  copper  and  nickel ferrocyanides,  respectively  were  found  to  possess  the  most  effective  antifungal potential.  Each interaction pair was further analyzed through infrared spectral studies and phytochemical analysis. The  interaction  of  natural  antifungals  Azadirachta  indica  (neem),  Ocimum  sanctum  (tulsi),  Cassia obtusifolia  (money  bush),  Cassia  alata  (canicro  bush)  and  Targetes  patula  (marigold)  with manganese, silver and titanium ferrocyanides and their medical applications were also evaluated.

Author(s) Details

Rebecca S. Harris

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Guyana,P .O. Box: 101110, Georgetown, Guyana.

Sharlene Roberts

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Guyana, P.O. Box: 101110, Georgetown, Guyana.

Professor  Brij B. Tewari

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Guyana, P.O. Box: 101110, Georgetown, Guyana.

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Contribution of Three (3) Medicinal Plants of Senegalese Flora in the Management of Sickle Cell Disease | Chapter 07 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 4

Sickle cell disease is a major public health problem in Africa and many other areas across the world. Many  drugs  that  are  available  for  treating  the  disease  are  insufficiently  effective,  toxic,  or  too expensive. Therefore, there is a pressing need for safe, effective, and inexpensive therapeutic agents from  indigenous  plants  used  in  traditional  medicines.  In  Senegal,  a  lot  of  plants  are  proposed  by traditional healers to manage the sickle cell disease, among them Combretum glutinosum, Leptadenia hastate and Maytenus senegalensis.  These plants were studied in this work. Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of part of these plants were evaluated on SS sickles type to determine their anti-sickling potential. Antiradical properties of methanolic extract of C glutinosum were evaluated using the  DPPH  radical  as  oxidant.  Total  phenolic  content  of  the  methanol  extract  was  determined. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of methanol revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, anthracenics and flavonoids. Results show a good antisickling effect of methanol extracts with a maximum antisickling revers of 72, 80 and 81% for respectively M senegalensis, L hastateand C glutinosumat 10 mg/mL in 120 min incubation while ethyl acetate extract at the same conditions has 62, 66 and 77% of sickling reverse. Arginine used as the positive reference has 67% sickling reverse activity at 120 min of incubation. The measured IC50 were 0.65 and 0.163 for respectively the methanol  extract  and  ascorbic  acid.  Antiradical  powers  0.155  and  0.62  respectively  for  methanol extract and ascorbic acid were calculated from the effective concentrations. The results of this study confirm the traditional use these three plants in the management of sickle cell disease.

Author(s) Details

Pr. Cheikh Sall

Laboratory of Chemistry, Training and Research Unit of Health, Thies University, PB 967 Thies, Sénégal.

Pr Matar Seck

Laboratory of Organic and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology (F.M.P.O.), Cheikh Anta Diop University (U.C.A.D.), PB 5005 Dakar-Fann, Sénégal.

Rokhaya Sylla Gueye

Laboratory of Organic and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology (F.M.P.O.), Cheikh Anta Diop University (U.C.A.D.), PB 5005 Dakar-Fann, Sénégal.

Tandakha Ndiaye Dieye

Laboratory of Immunology, Pharmacy and Odontology (F.M.P.O.), Cheikh Anta Diop University (U.C.A.D.), Sénégal.

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The Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Exercise among Women Attending Antenatal Care at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia | Chapter 06 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 4

Introduction: Appropriate  exercises  during  pregnancy  have  proved  to  be  beneficial  to  many expectant  mothers,  though  how  much  and  what  kind  of  exercises  varies  from  person  to  person. Gaining a greater understanding of women’s knowledge, attitudes and practices about exercise during pregnancy may inform the design of exercise interventions for this population to maximise exercise adherence and lifelong physical activity patterns.

Aims: The  aim  of  the  study  was  to  obtain  information  on  the  knowledge,  attitudes  and  practices towards  exercise  among  women  attending  antenatal  care  at  the  University  Teaching  Hospital  in Lusaka, Zambia.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study. Data was collected using asemi structured questionnaire  and  summarized  using  descriptive  statistics.  The  chi-square  test  was  used  to  test associations and the significance level was set at 5%.

Results: Pregnant  women  practice  general  physical  activities  of daily  living  such  as  walking  and household chores during pregnancy. Threehundred pregnant women participated in the study and majority  (n=222)  74%  showed  inadequate levels  of knowledge  on  the  type  of  exercises  done  in pregnancy.  Knowledge  and  attitude werepositively  associated  with  the  educational  level  (p<0.03) although  exercise  practice  in  relation  to  the  educational  level  was  insignificant.  The  number  of pregnancies were also positively associated with the pregnant women’s knowledge (p=0.001), attitude (p<0.01) and practice (p=0.01) towards exercise in pregnancy.

Conclusions: Pregnant women practice general physical activities of daily living such as walking and household  chores  during  pregnancy.  Additionally,  their  information  on  exercise  lacked  detail,  was inconsistent and with little  specificity.  This implies that during  antenatal  health talks  information on exercise activities given to the pregnant may be lacking detail Health professionals who are experts in exercise sciences must be involved to provide correct and adequate information on exercises to the women. This is because engaging in exercise activities for pregnant women will only help maintain fitness levels but also, contribute to the reduction of discomforts and prevention of diseases such as gestational diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and back pain disabilities.

Author(s) Details

Loveness A. Nkhata

University of Zambia, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 50110, Lusaka, Zabia.

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Measuring the Alkylation Kinetics and Drug Likeness of Four Novel Antineoplastic Compounds | Chapter 05 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 4

Aims: To synthesize small molecule alkylating compounds and analyze the kinetics of the alkylation in aqueous solution. Determine molecular properties and the drug likeness of these four compounds as  potential  antineoplastic  agents  and  apply  statistical  analysis  to  identify  interrelationships  of properties.

Study  Design: Four  compounds  were  synthesized,  characterized,  and  studied  for  alkylation capability.  The  alkylation  kinetics was elucidated,  as  well  as  drug  likeness  properties.  The interrelationships of properties were examined by statistical methodology.

Place  and  Duration  of  Study: Department  of  Chemistry,  Durham  Science  Center,  University  of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha NE, from May 2015 to June 2015.

Methodology: Four compounds were modified by the covalent bonding of an alkyl halide substituent or nitrogen mustard group. The four compounds were placed in aqueous solution at pH 7.4 and 37°C to  monitor  alkylation  efficiency  that  targeted  p-chloroaniline.  Alkylation  was  monitored  utilizing fluorescamine  and  measurement  at  400  nm.  Time  and  absorbance  plots  determined  whether alkylation step is first-order or second-order. Molecular properties Log P, formula weight, polar surface area, etc., were determined. Statistical analysis and path analysis revealed which molecular property was most responsible for rate constant values.

Results: Compounds A, B, C, and D showed ranges of Log P, formula weight, and polar surface area of  0.010  to  4.21,  177.59  to  714.77,  and  29.64  to  88.63,  respectively.  All  compounds  showed  a favorable drug likeness, with only compound C showing a violation of the Rule of 5. The Log P values and number of alkylation reactive sites were most responsible for rate constant value.

Conclusion: Small molecule alkylating agents are synthesized, the efficiency of alkylation measured in aqueous solution utilizing fluorescamine at pH 7.4 and 37°C. Rate-order of reactions is determined utilizing  fluorescamine  assay  for  surviving  primary  amine  groups.  The  four  compounds  showed  a favorable drug likeness based on molecular properties.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ronald Bartzatt

University of Nebraska, Durham Science Center, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68182, USA.

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Detection of Tumour Based on Breast Tissue Categorization | Chapter 04 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 4

Background: Breast cancer originates in breast tissue, which is made up of glands for milk production (lobules),  and  the  ducts  that  connect  lobules  to  the  nipple.  Breasts  contain  both  dense  tissue (glandular  tissue  and  connective  tissue,  together  known  as  fibro-glandular  tissue)  and  fatty  tissue. Fatty tissue appears dark on a mammogram, whereas fibro-glandular tissue appears as white. Despite the benefits of Computer Aided Detection (CAD), false detection of breast tumour is still a challenging issue with oncologist. A mammography is a non-invasive screening tool that uses low energy X-rays to show the pathology structure of breast tissue. Interpreting mammogram visually is a time consuming process  and  requires  a  great  deal  of  skill  and  experience. Earlier  Computer  Aided  Techniques emphasis detection of tumour in breast tissues rather than categorization of breast into Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS) which is the medically understandable method of reporting.

Aim: The work centred on developing a CAD system which is capable of not only detecting but also categorizing breast tissue in line with BI-RADS scale.

Methodology: The acquired images were pre-processed to remove unwanted contents. Two stage medical procedural approach was designed to categorize thetissue in breast images into low dense (fatty) and high dense. Tumours in the low dense breasts were segmented, and then classified as normal,  benign  and  malignant.  The  developed  system  was  evaluated  using  sensitivity,  specificity, false positive reduction, false negative reduction and overall performance.

Results: The  developed  CAD  achieved  90.65%  sensitivity,  73.59%  specificity,  0.02  positive reduction, 0.04 false negative reduction and 85.71% overall performance.

Conclusion: The  false  positive  reduction  result  obtained  shows  that  false  detection  has  been minimized as a result of categorization procedure of the breast tissue in mammograms. This article has  reported  breast  tumour  detection  from  breast  tissue  categorisation  using  Medical  procedural approach.  The  developed  system  assisted  in  identification  of  suspicious  mammograms  and identification  of  dense  and  fatty  breasts.  The  classification  of  the  segmented  mammogram  into normal,  benign  and  malignant  achieved  a  better  false  positive  reduction  (0.02)  andfalse  negative reduction  (0.04)  and  thus  provided  an  improved  method  for  detection  and  classification  of  breast tumour in terms of overall performance.

Author(s) Details

Temilola Morufat Adepoju

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, LAUTECH, Nigeria.

John Adedapo Ojo

Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, LAUTECH, Nigeria.

Elijah Olusayo Omidiora

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, LAUTECH, Nigeria.

Bello Temitope Olugbenga

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, LAUTECH, Nigeria.

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The “Syndrome of Cardiogenic Insulin Resistance” | Chapter 03 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 4

Hyperglycemia in patients admitted in intensive care units (ICU) with acute myocardial infarction is a common phenomena observed. This unique situation of cardiogenic insulin resistance does not spare neither diabetics nor non -diabetics. It is in addition to the inherent insulin resistance that is a part of diabetes mellatus, type 2 (DM2). It is brought about by various cytokines released from the damaged heart muscle. This cardiogenic insulin resistance has cardiac as well as systemic effects. The grave and  independent  risk  role  in  post  myocardial  infarction  (MI)  and  the  complications,  of  the  cardiac insulin resistance are highlighted. The concerted action of cardiologist and endocrinologist while in hospital is called for, so as to cover the grey areas between the two specialties, which otherwise falls into no man’s island. The systemic insulin resistance, once the patient is back in home setting, would test  the  patience  of the  physician,  as  usual doses  of  insulin  just  do  not  work!  The article  aims  at creating awareness regarding concerted effects of all concerned to deliver holistic treatment to the patients.

Author(s) Details

A. S. V. Prasad

Department of Internal Medicine, G.I.T.A.M Dental College, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Estimation of Radiation Risk Due to Exposure to Terrestrial Radiation | Chapter 02 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 4

An in-situ measurement of background radiation level of Ewoi community in Ogbia Local Government Area of Bayelsa State Nigeria was done using two radiation meters (Digilert-200 and Radalert-100). Exposure ratemeasured ranged from 0.010 to 0.028 mRh-1 with mean value of 0.016 mRh-1. The mean value of absorbed dose was 128.67 nGyh-1 while the mean indoor and outdoor annual effective dose equivalents were 0.40 mSvy-1 and 0.13 mSvy-1 respectively. The mean excess lifetime cancer risk  estimated  from  both  indoor  and  outdoor  effective  doses  were  1.0  ×  10-3  and  0.33  ×  10-3 respectively.  It  was  observed  that  all  the  radiological  parameters  estimated  from  the  radiation exposure rate were higher than their world average values except the annual effective doses. The result of this study shows that Ewoi community recorded slightly high background radiation level and this may be attributed to oil and gas exploration activity in the area. The result of this work serves as radiological baseline data of the area for future studies. Considering the values obtained in this research work and the likely health impact, it is important that further  studies  be  carried  out  on  activity  concentration  of  radionuclide  on  the  soil,  water  (drinking water  resources  of  the  community),  and  food  crops  from  Ewoi  community  for  identification  of radionuclides present and their concentrations in order to quantify their radiological health implicationand ways to control it.

Author(s) Details

U. L. Anekwe

Department of Physics, Federal University, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Dr Ibe Stephen Onyejiuwaka

Department of Physics, Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa, Nigeria.

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Reflections on the Glycating Power of Simple Carbohydrates in the Maillard Reaction: The Conceptual DFT Viewpoint | Chapter 01 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 4

This  study  features  an  assessment  of  multiple  density  functionals  in  calculating  the  molecular structures  and  inherent  properties  in  simple  carbohydrates  participating  in  nonenzymatic  glycation involving  amino acids  and  proteins  in  Maillard  reactions.  The  occurrences  of  nucleophilic  addition involving nonenzymatic glycation, initiate protein glycation reaction involving a carbonyl group derived from  reeducating  sugars  and  free  amino  group  forming  a  reversible  Schiff  base.  Calculations  of chemical reactivity descriptors are attained in each molecular system using Conceptual DFT. A cross-sectional comparison of results obtained through ∆SCF procedure is attained to check for accuracy and validity of the density functional in “Koopmans in DFT” (KID) procedure. The calculated HOMO and  LUMO  of  each  carbohydrate  are  presented  through  graphical  sketches  overlapped  to  their chemical  structures.  The  Fukui  function  indices  and  condensed  dual  descriptor ∆f(r)  are  used  to examine the active sites where nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks occur. The assessment identifies several relationships involving glycating power and reactivity descriptors. The latter are found capable of predicting glycating behaviour in complex carbohydrates. The results obtained for this work shows the ability to predict the interaction sites of simple carbohydrates by applying DFT-based descriptors of chemical reactivity. Such include global electronegativity, global hardness, global electrophilicity, electrodonating powers, electroaccepting powers, net electrophilicity, Fukui function and condensed dual descriptor. Their use in characterising and describing preferred reactivity sites generated a firm explanation on the molecule reactivity.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Juan Frau

Full professor at University of Balearic Islands (Palma de Mallorca, Spain).

Dr. Daniel Glossman-Mitnik

Titular  Researcher  at  the  Centro  de  Investigación  en  Materiales  Avanzados  (CIMAV),  Chihuahua,  Mexico  &  National Researcher of Level III of the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Mexico.

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Nanostructure Thin Films Prepared by Using PLD and SILAR Method | Chapter 11 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 3

There are several types of binary, ternary and quaternary thin films have been prepared using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. These methods have many advantages such as able to control the dimensions, the growth rate, film thickness and produce nano-particles. In this work, PLD and SILAR methods were briefly discussed. Experimental results for the films prepared using these two deposition techniques from literature review will be described.  Characterization of thin films using various tools (SEM, EDAX, XRD, XPS, FTIR, UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Raman Spectra) showed these deposition techniques were suitable to prepare metal chalcogenide thin films.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ho Soon Min

Assistant Professor, Centre for Green Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, INTI International University, Putra Nilai, 71800, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.

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