Unnatural Death of Foetus: A Forensic Study | Book Publisher International

Death may occur naturally, un-naturally, or as the result of a combination of both originating from oneself or another person. Foetal death is a death prior to the complete expulsion of a product of conception, irrespective of the period of pregnancy. The death is indicated by the fact that after such separation, the foetus does not breathe nor show any other evidence of life, such as the beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definitive movement of voluntary muscles. Heartbeats are to be distinguished from transient cardiac contractions; respirations are to be distinguished from fleeting respiratory efforts or gasps. For all foetal deaths aged 20 weeks and above as calculated from the start of the last menstrual period to the date of delivery, a different form called certificate of fetal death must be prepared and the causes of death completely filled out by the certifier

Author(s) Details

Ibtisam Jasim Sodani
Forensic DNA Center for Research and Training / Al-NahrainUniversity, Baghdad, Iraq.

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Nigerian Coastal Environmental Systems and Processes | Book Publisher International

Since Copenhagen 2002 declaration … Several books and research works have been published on different  aspects of  climatic  variability  and  effects  on  the  survival  of  planet  and  man.  Particular reference have been made on the effects of climate change and sea level rise on the coastal regions. From studies and scientific discourse it appears the coastal environmental system is the most affected by the global  warming and  the  consequent  sea level  rise.  Previous published works on coastal environment range from Physical Science and Social Science to Humanities. Some of these works focused on impact of climate change onhuman, others on mitigation, adaptation and coping aspects of climate change on the coastal areas. Nigerian coastal areas have also received attentions of authors in the last three decades such works include Ibe and Awosika(1995) Dublin-Green et al (1997), Awosika and Ibe (1989), Awosika (1995), Egberongbe et al 2006; Etuonovbe , 2007; Fabiyi, 2008 and Edafienene et al 2010.

Author(s) Details

Oluseyi Fabiyi
Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

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The Motives for Learning in Elementary Students: The Parents and Teachers Agency | Chapter 09 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 1

According to conception of cultural and historical development, motives represent essential structural component of any kind of activity. Learning at school is a kind of collective joint activity according to activity theory. Motives might be conformed and evaluated during learning process as its essential element. Different motive might be acquired during interactions within learning process. Pupils might share  their  motives,  but  also  might  present  differential  variants  of  combinations  of  types  motives: external  and  internal  motives.  The  objective  of  this  chapter  is  consideration  of  formation  and assessment of motives of pupils. The authors propose the qualitative way of analysis of the sphere of motives by specifically organized interview with teachers and parents. The procedure of interactive drawings with pupils is proposed as a new and original way for analysis of motives. The study was accomplished  in  a  private  school  in  the  Puebla city,  Mexico,  with  the  pupils  of  the  third  grade  of primary  school.  The  results  show  the  presence  of  both  external  and  internal  motives  in  pupils. External  motives  can  be  divided  into  three  groups:  motives,  which  support  the  learning  process, motives, which are indifferent to the learning process and motives, which become serious obstacles for cognition. Different strategies of analysis of the motives permit to understand better participation of different factors in conformation of the sphere of motives at school age. The data of the study have pointed  out  that  the  methods  of  qualitative  assessment  permitted  to  obtain  important  information about the sphere of motivation of pupils for learning activity as internal motives of learning activity. Other motives were external and were related to diverse external aspects of school live as friends, classroom,  kindness  of  the  teacher,  playing  games  and  so  on.  Positive  external  motivation  is  the predominant type of school motivation within included population of the third school grade of private primary  school.  Three  initial  years  of  education  at  primary  school are not  enough  for formation  of internal motives of study. At the same time, it is possible to observe that positive attitude of parents and teacher may influence on positive motives of the pupils. In all observed cases, we may conclude the presence of positive motivation of children. The motivation of the pupils was external and internal types. The motivation of the teacher was academic and internal. The motivation of the parents was positive of both external and internal types, exactly as the children. We might conclude that system of teaching based on activity theory is capable of introducing of initial positive motivation in pupils and teacher therefor it is possible to expect gradual changes of children’s motivation into profound internal interest for future studies.

Author(s) Details

Yulia Solovieva

Puebla Autonomous University, Mexico.

Adriana Mata

Program in Educational Sciences, Iberoamericana University, Puebla, Mexico.

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Factors that Affect Student Motivation in Organic Chemistry: Measuring Correlations to Gauge Student Attitudes | Chapter 08 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 1

Motivation is the personal investment that an individual has reaching a desired state or outcome. In learning, motivation influences the direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of learning behaviors in which students engage. To measure the motivation of  students  enrolled  in  undergraduate  organic chemistry courses, a survey was developed to gauge student attitudes about the course value, self-efficacy,  and  class environment. The survey consisted of twelve statements to which respondents indicated agreement through a seven point Likert response scale. Since course value, self-efficacy, and a supportive class environment are all purported to be necessary factors to positively motivate students,  pairwise  correlations  between  the  student  responses  were  measured  and  assessed.  Although correlation was generally found in responses to statements pertaining to a specific factor, the lack of correlation between these three factors indicates that individual students probably did not perceive all three factors to be present simultaneously. This may contribute to students’ non-optimal performance despite  generally  positive responses to  individual  statements.  Despite responses that indicate all three factors purportedly required for motivation are present in organic chemistry classes, no correlation between the three is evidenced upon statistical analysis. The low correlation of several statements with other statements reveals that students have an overall low perception of the role of science classes and organic chemistry in their education.

Author(s) Details

Kathryn Cannon

Department of Chemistry, Penn State Abington College, 1600 Woodland Road, Abington, PA, 19001, USA.

Maureen Breen

Department of Finance, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Kevin Cannon

Department of Chemistry, Penn State Abington College, 1600 Woodland Road, Abington, PA, 19001, USA.

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The Social-role Play for the Formation of the Symbolic Perceptive Actions in Preschool Children | Chapter 07 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 1

The  goal  of  this  study  is  to  identify  how  it  is  possible  to  promote  the  development  of  symbolic perceptive actions by social role play in preschool children. 20 preschool children between 5 and 6 years old from the city of Bogota were included in the study. The level of symbolic development was assessed by application of qualitative protocol designed for this purpose before and after inclusion of the  children  in  the  social  role-play.  The  results  showed  low  level  of  symbolic development  before participation  on  the  playing  activity.  After  participation  in  program  based  on  social  role-play  the children  showed  enriched  development  of  symbolic  actions.  Such changes  were  observed  by implementation of the same protocol after the program. The results have permitted to propose some indicators of positive symbolic development at perceptive level in the social role play. Among such indicators there are: possibility of using visual representations (drawings) to solve problems that may occur during the play, to regulate the behavior of others and the behavior itself and to organize the actions corresponding to  the  roles. We discuss the  inclusion  of external  perceptual means  inside social role-play  in  order  to  guarantee  development  of  symbolic  function. Obtained  data  permits  to make  an  important  reflection  in  relation  to  method  for  assessment  of  psychological  development commonly used in preschool institutions. We stress that the level of development of symbolic activity depends not on social conditions, but on participation in specific organized guided activity between children with specific communicational purposes. The social role-play might be considered as one of the paths for such development. The  content  of plays  and  inclusion  of  possibility  for  creation  and usage  of  symbolic  representation  is  a  powerful  strategy  for  positive  development  of  preschool children.  Our  findings might  be useful for  reconsideration of traditional methods  used  in  preschool institutions  in  Latin America  and  new  positive  revalidation  of  the  meaning  of  social  role-play  for preschool age within the theory of cultural and historical development.

Author(s) Details

Claudia Ximena González-Moreno

Pontifical Javeriana University, Bogota, Colombia.

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Teaching of Grammar Categories: An Approach According to Activity Theory | Chapter 06 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 1

Acquisition  of  grammar  and  methods  for  teaching  of  grammar  is  a  topic  of  discussion  within educational system in many countries. Normally, pupils at primary and secondary school show strong difficulties  in independent  writing  production,  which  depends,  among  other  things,  on  general knowledge  of  basics  of  grammar.  No  original  strategies  or  innovation  methods  are  proposed  in traditional  education.  The  chapter  represents  an  effort  to  show  a  new  pedagogical  approach  to teaching initial grammar categories. The aim of the study was to obtain qualitative pedagogical data during the work with basic grammar categories through prior acquisition of certain skills of orientation and reflective comprehension of differences between essential characteristics of each type of word (basic  grammar  category).  Initial  categories  are  also  understood  as  basic  and  general  grammar categories. The study was carried out with Mexican regular pupils of second grade of primary school. Specific  symbolic  orientation  was  created  to  facilitate  identification  of  essential  features  of  basic grammar categories. According to the results of the study, all pupils have shown positive acquisition of  intellectual  actions  for  comparison  and  individual  production  of  basic  grammar  categories.  The authors  discuss  effectiveness  of  positive  results,  which  were  obtained  by  application  of  new pedagogical  experience.  Our  proposal  is  based  on  strategies  of  guided  orientation  according  to cultural  historical  psychology  and  activity  theory.  The  results  have  shown  positive  effects  of  the program for acquisition of initial grammar concepts by Mexican pupils. Orientation base of actions and usage  of  external  means  for  orientation  (special  cards)  were  main  instrument,  which  allowed  to achieve  effectiveness  in  reflective  knowledge  of  pupils  and  in  grammar  awareness.  The  main principles  of  guided  and  joint  activity  including  teacher  and  pupils  in  classroom  were  applied  with success  for  formation  of  general  grammar  concepts.  Formative  experiment  applied  to  introductive teaching of grammar categories proved to be useful method in educational psychology. Orientation used in teaching should take into account types, levels and essential contents feature of concepts of grammar: general grammar categories.

Author(s) Details

Daniel Rosas Alvarez

Teacheron Psychology, Residence in Clinical Neuropsychology, Faculty of Higher Studies Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of Mexico, México.

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The Agricultural Extension System of Family Farm Schools in Cameroon | Chapter 05 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 1

This chapter analyzes the extension system used by Family Farm Schools in providing agricultural information to farmers to alleviate rural poverty and hunger in Cameroon. It examines the background of Family Farm Schools and the unemployment problem of school leavers and advances the view that moving away from pure state paternalism to a partnership between the state, private sector, NGOs, donors, civil society, and rural communities in promoting of agricultural training and extension would improve the asset levels and autonomy of rural youths. Data was obtained through field observations, focus discussions and programme documents. The conclusion highlights the unsatisfactory financial position of the Family Farm Schools’ extension system and suggests the way forward to develop a newly  conceived  policy  agenda  for  agricultural  training  and  extension  using  this  system;  adopt  a diversified  and  pluralistic  strategy  for  funding  the  programme;  build  a  platform  for  dialogue  and collaboration with the relevant extension service providers; and evaluate the programme within the economic  growth  and  poverty  reduction  strategy  for  government  action.  The agricultural extension techniques propagated by Family Farm Schools are but one part of meeting the challenge of poverty alleviation via education and self-employment. Equally demanding is the task of developing structures and  support  services  that  will  ensure  that  eventual  graduates  have  opportunities  to  invest  in agriculture. This requires the setting up of a credible rural development bank for providing financial services to farmers and concessions of agricultural land of reasonable sizes to be acquired by the young farmers for crop and livestock production. Other incentives like favourable prices, access to markets, transport facilities, agricultural inputs and effective linkages with agricultural research should be made available to encourage the young farmers. Global developments require a new vision and the promotion of improved best practices if agricultural extension systems are to be revitalized and made more effective to meet the diverse needs of farmers. In the absence of these efforts, innovative training  and  extension  systems  may  prepare  skilled  youth  who  are  committed  to  agricultural development goals but who have no means for effective  implementation of their action plans.  The development of agriculture is the key to alleviate rural poverty in Cameroon. The youths need the right education and training to enable them participate in farming as family business enterprises.

Author(s) Details

Fonteh Athanasius Amungwa

Associate Professor, Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Chair of Social Economy and Family Management at the Higher Technical Teacher Training College, University of Buea, Cameroon.

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Women and HIV/AID in Zambia | Chapter 04 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 1

Introduction: The possibility of an AIDS free generation cannot be realized unless we are able to prevent  HIV  infection  in  young  women.  Therefore,  information  on  sexual  behaviour  could  help  to mitigate the spread of HIV/AIDS by developing effective prevention strategies. Global estimates show decline HIV prevalence among young people, little is known about the burden of HIV and AIDS and how their needs for HIV prevention, care and treatments have been addressed. In Zambia, HIV and AIDS prevalence among the girls is still high (8.8%) compared to boys of the same age (4.3%) and many young people women engage in sexually activities very early with partners who are five years their senior and who may already have had a number of sexual partners.

Aim: The aim of the study wasto explore sexual behaviour among women aged 15 -25 years.

Study Design: Qualitative study.

Place and Duration of the Study: Nangoma mission hospital catchment area in Central province, and Chikankata Hospital catchment area in Chikankata district of Southern Province.

Methodology: We conducted 8 focus group discussions with 72 participants. The discussions were conducted  using  the  same  topic  guide  for  all  the  groups,  transcribed  and  subjected  to  framework analysis.

Results: The  study  findings  indicate  that  many  young  women  were  sexually  active  and  initiated sexual activity at an early age. Factors that contributed to early initiation of sexual activities include fear of rejection by stable partners, betrothals, coercion into marriages by guardians, incest, lack of negotiation  skills  with  sexual  partners  and  poverty.  Many  participants’  sexual  partners  at  first intercourse  were  more  than five  years older than  themselves.  Some  of  the  study  participants  had multiple  sexual  partners  due  to  various  factors  such  as  curiosity,  fear  of  partner  violence,  lack  of assertiveness, sign of beauty and poverty. Many  participants  in  both  groups  engaged  in  unprotected  sex  due  to  various  reasons.  Some  had never seen a condom before, some trusted their sexual partners and thought there was no need to use  a condom, others stated their partners  didn’t’ allow them to use a condom. Other participants didn’t use a condom because it wasn’t available, others couldn’t use it due to misconceptions such as lack  of  sexual  enjoyment.  In  some situations,  participants  couldn’t  use  a  condom  because  of  the environment in which they found themselves, those with casual  sexual partners stated that  sexual intercourse is usually performed in the bush and in hurry for fear of being discovered by passersby. Some participants couldn’t use the condom on account of their doctrine. A few participants used the condom for pregnancy protection. The study revealed that most participants would not initiate condom use with their sexual partners for fear of rejection, abandonment, infidelity and being suspected of having HIV and AIDS however, some participants were willing to initiate condom use with their sexual partners for pregnancy protection. Many  participants  in  didn’t  discuss  sexual  matters  nor  HIV  and  AIDS, and  sexually  transmitted infections with their sexual partners. A few participants discussed issues on pregnancy protection with their husbands.

Conclusion: The study shows that women engage in risk sexual behaviour. Continued sensitization is required in order to prevent women from engaging in risky sexual behaviour. It is concluded that several knowledge gaps existed among  young women in relation to HIV and AIDS and that some

Author(s) Details

Dr. Catherine Mubita-Ngoma

Department of Nursing Sciences, University of Zambia, School of Medicine, P.O.Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia.

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Study of Learning Problems in Adolescents from the Historical-cultural Perspective in Neuropsychology | Chapter 03 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 1

The background of the article is historical and cultural neuropsychology, which proposes analysis of learning activity from the level of its functional brain organization. Qualitative assessment of difficulties and functional analysis of syndromes permits to determine brain  cortical and subcortical factors or mechanisms, which participate in fulfillment of different actions and operations of learning activity at school age. The objective of the present article is to contribute to consideration of ways and methods of neuropsychological assessment in cases of adolescents with learning disabilities and to share the opinion  about  the  advantages  of  neuropsychological  approach  for  the  understanding  of neuropsychological nature of learning disabilities in adolescents. Two cases of female adolescents with learning disability were included in the study. The scheme for neuropsychological assessment created for Spanish speaking patients was applied. Such kind of assessment permits to detect unique brain mechanism or factor responsible for pupil’s difficulties. The results have pointed out systemic difficulties  in  factors  of  motor  sequential  organization  and  regulation  and  control.  Identification  of concrete functional mechanism responsible for difficulties helps to obtain precise neuropsychological diagnostic  of  learning  disabilities.  The  functional  deficit  of  motor  sequential  organization  and regulation  and  control  and  voluntary  activity  might  be  identified  as  possible  reasons  of  learning disabilities and problems for realization of intellectual actions in secondary school. We conclude that the  methodology  of  qualitative  analysis  of  neuropsychological  syndrome  proposed  by  Luria  might serve as an example of usage of systemic approach for cases of learning disabilities in children and adolescents.

Author(s) Details

Yulia Solovieva

Faculty of Psychology, Puebla Autonomous University, Mexico.

María del Rosario Bonilla Sánchez

Department  of  Neuropsychological  Diagnosis  and  Rehabilitation,  Faculty  of  Psychology, Puebla  Autonomous  University, Mexico.

Luis Quintanar Rojas

Department  of  Neuropsychological  Diagnosis  and  Rehabilitation,  Faculty  of  Psychology, Puebla  Autonomous  University, Mexico.

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The Role of Problem-based Learning in Post-graduate Pain Medicine Education? | Chapter 02 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 1

Doctors are expected to assist, teach, train and assess colleagues at almost all stages of their careers yet doctors themselves have received little formal training on how to teach. Teaching is as much a science as an art. Teachers should know their audience to help personalize the learning experience. We propse that substituting a traditional “lecture series” structure with a postgraduate Problem Based Learning (PBL) structure in the context of a pain medicine educational program could improve trainee satisfaction  and  PBL  experience.  The  implementation  of  a  PBL  system  into  a  pain  medicine postgraduate program created a positive learning atmosphere, improved the trainee satisfaction and ultimately should enrich the learning experience in the area of pain medicine. Adapting to the learning needs  of individuals  interested  in  pain  medicine is important  so  that  we  create a  positive  learning atmosphere,  improve the trainee satisfaction and enrich the learning experience in the  area.  Then perhaps more  young doctors will  uncover the professional enjoyment  and exciting  challenges pain medicine provides those of us already involved on a daily basis.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Dominic A. Hegarty

BSc., BMedSc., MB., MSc. (Pain Management), PhD. FCARSCI, FFPMCAI, FIPP

Consultant in Pain Management and Neuromodulation,Mater Private Hospital Cork, Ireland.

Senior Clinical Lecturer UCC, Ireland.

Honorary Consultant, Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, England.

Clinical Lead Neuromodulation Research, Tyndall National Institute, Ireland.

Honorary Treasurer World Institute of Pain (WIP)

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