Ethical Challenges of Biobanks and Pathology Research in Egypt | Chapter 03 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 4

Background: Biobanking today plays a key tool in biomedical research. Establishment and proper running of biobanks in developing countries is confronted with a number of challenges of legal, ethical, and financial nature. Considering that there are no guidelines or regulations to control biobanking in Egypt;  major  ethical  issues  arise  and  are  often  managed  by  research  ethics  committees  (RECs). Pathologists are the custodians of tissue samples in different universities and hospitals; they have an important role in advancement of scientific research. So, they have to equip themselves adequately to manage the evolution of pathology work towards integration of biomarker analysis in clinical research and to deal with the ethical and legal issues of biobanks in Egypt.

Objective/Aim: The  purpose  of  this  review  is  to  highlight  the  current  situation  of  human  tissue research and biobanking in Egyptwith Comparative policy of other countries. We will address the role of pathologists and the difficulties and challenges facing the process of initiating biobanks and give some recommendations that might help different stakeholders for establishing biobanks in Egypt.

Conclusion: Egypt is one of the developing countries which are in need to implement biobanks to improve  the  quality  of  research.  The  review  highlights  the  different  challenges  facing  biobanks  in Egypt, mainly: lack of legislations, consent form, public trust, tissue transfer and commercialization. It also discuss the role of pathologists and research ethics committees in establishing and maintaining the work in these biobanks; and to make every effort for the interests of the participants, community and scientific progress, hopefully for good future of biomedical research in Egypt.

Author(s) Details

Professor Dr. Wafaa El-Sayed Abdel-Aal

Department of Pathology, Medical Division, Clinical Trial Unit, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Prof. Dr. Naglaa Fathy Abbas

Department of Pathology, Medical Division, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Prof. Dr. Sonia Labib Abd El-Fattah El-Sharkawy

Department of Pathology, Medical Division, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Prof. Dr. Manal Abd El-Magied Badawi

Department  of  Pathology,  Medical  Division,  Medical  Research  Ethics  Committee,  National  Research  Centre  (NRC),  Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

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Arterial Stiffness in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Its Correlation with Disease Severity: A Case Control Study | Chapter 02 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 4

Introduction: Arterial  stiffness  is  an  emerging  field  of  interest  in  atherosclerosis. Patients  with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are predisposed to have premature atherosclerosis.

Aims: To compare the arterial stiffness among patients with SLE and non-SLE controls. The study also compared arterial stiffness among SLE patients in relation to disease activity (SLEDAI) and end organ damage (SLICC index).

Study Design: Case control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Patients attending rheumatology clinic and those admitted to medical wards of the Internal Medicine and Nephrology departments of Government Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram.

Methodology: 53  SLE  patients  and  53  non-SLE  controls  were  studied.  Data  was  obtained  in  a structured format. Arterial stiffness indices were obtained by measuring the brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). The SLEDAI Score and SLICC Damage index were measured in the SLE group. Age-matched controls were obtained from the general population.

Results: SLE patients had higher brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) than the control non-SLE population (1194.9 ± 169.6 cm/s vs 1008.5 ± 62.5 cm/s; p<0.001), Mean arterial stiffness index (ASI) among SLE patients was significantly higher than that of control (26.2 ± 3.9 mm Hg vs. 23.7 ± 3.7 mm Hg, p=.001), mean augmentation index(AI) among SLE patients was significantly higher when compared with the control non-SLE population (13.9± 6.7% vs 6.2 ± 1.7%, p<0.001). Patients with SLE-related  end  organ  damage  (SLICC  index ≥1)  had  baPWV  elevated  over  those  with  SLICC index=0  (1234.5  ±  181.5  cm/s.1  vs  1124.1  ±  121.1  cm/s,  p=.021).  No  significant  difference  was observed between the mean ASI among the patients with SLICC index ≥1 and those with SLICC=0. (26.9  ±  4.1  mm  Hg  vs  24.8  ±  3.3  mm  Hg,  p=.070),  and  mean  AI  among  SLICC  index ≥1  was significantly higher than that of SLICC index ≥1 (15.6 ± 6.7% vs 11.1 ± 5.8%, p= .017). Patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI ≥6) had baPWV of 1278.9 ± 131.0 cm/s (95%CI 1229 cm/s.1-1328.7 cm/s)  vs  (1093.4  ±  156.5  cm/s;  95%  CI  1027.3  cm/s -1159.4  cm/s  p<0.001)  when  compared  with those having low activity (SLEDAI<6).

Conclusion: Patients with SLE had increased arterial stiffness. End organ damage and high disease activity  among  SLE  patients  correlated  to  increased  arterial  stiffness,  and  is contributory  to  an increased risk of atherosclerosis.

Author(s) Details

Dr. C. Rajasekharan

Department of Medicine, Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695011, India.

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It is Time that Health Authorities Promote the Use of the Ozone as a Biological Modulator in the Treatment of the Chronic Oxidative Stress Diseases | Chapter 01 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 4

Ozone is a very reactive gas and is toxic for the respiratory system but, under precise rules, it can be therapeutically useful  for  human  disease  with  a  chronic  oxidative  stress.  Ozone  is  an  extremely versatile  drug  and  the  therapeutic  range  has  been  precisely  defined  to  exclude  acute  and  chronic toxicity.  It  is  remarkable  that  the  majority  of  patients  report  a  feeling  of  wellness  using  prolonged ozone therapy. Particularly in chronic skin infections and ulcers, which affect millions of patients, the use of parenteral and topical ozone applications is far more effective than conventional medications for enhancing healing, simply because ozone disinfects, oxygenates and stimulates cell proliferation. The critical point remains an exhaustive clinical evaluation of ozone therapy in the outlined diseases. Orthodox  medicine  remains  skeptical  because  multi-center  and  extensive  clinical  trials  are  not  yet available  owing  to  the  lack  of  sponsors.  An  unfavorable  combination  of  factors  such  as  a  wrong dogma, the fact that ozone is one of the worst troposphere pollutants and past misuse of ozone have led to a poor consideration of ozone therapy. However, basic and clinical work, developed during the last  two  decades, clarified  both  the  biochemical  and  molecular  mechanisms  of  action  of  ozone  in biology and medicine. A judicious dose of ozone dissolved in blood immediately triggers a cascade of well  defined  chemical  compounds  acting  on  multiple  cellular  targets  according  to  well-known biochemical and molecular pathways. Ozone therapy is proving to be very useful in the dry form of age-related  macular  degeneration  (AMD),  cardiovascular  diseases,  chronic  obstructive  pulmonary disease  (COPD),  cerebral  diseases  and  healing  disorders,  where  conventional  medicine  appears insufficient  and  too  expensive.  It  is  time  that  World  Health  Authorities  abandon  prejudice  and skepticism and start to take advantage of an integrative medical application able to help the majority of world population. Among complementary medical approaches, ozone therapy is known all over the world  but  it  is  not  yet  practiced  correctly  everywhere  because  of  the  incomplete  knowledge  by improvised ozone therapists. However, on the basis of basic and small clinical studies performed in the last two decades, it has become clear that ozone, in very small dosages, behaves as a real drug and the biochemical and molecular mechanism of action are well within orthodox medicine. Ethical Committees  are sometimes reluctant  to  give  permission  for  clinical  trials  because  they  prefer pharmaceuticals  able  to  pay  huge  sums  for  insurance  and  all  clinical  tests. The  few  and  small National  Associations  of  ozone  therapy,  in  comparison  to  the  Pharmaceutical  Industries,  which register an annual business of many billion dollars, have no financial power and are unable to support expensive clinical studies.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Emma Borrelli

Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Italy.

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Low Dose Aspirin and Omega 3 Fatty Acids in the Pro Resolving Pathway of Cardiovascular Disorders | Chapter 14 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Newer mechanisms of action of Acetyl Salicylic acid have been discovered in proresolving pathway of various disorders. Omega 3 fatty acids are also involved in the synthesis of resolvins via an aspirin triggered pathway. The  present  review  aims  to  discuss  the  role  of  recently  discovered  aspirin triggered lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins in understanding the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction  in  various  cardiovascular  disorders,  especially  hypertension.  The  concept  of  aspirin triggered lipoxins (15-epi-LXA4 and 15-epi-LX4)counteracting the action of LTB4.PGE2, and TXA2 is discussed. Aspirin triggered lipoxins also block the expression of IL-8 gene. Aspirin is the only known NSAID to induce NO in a dose dependent manner. In this chapter, we describe role of acetyl salicylic acid in the pro-resolution pathways that might prevent or reduce complications in patients with high blood pressure. Aspirin is a low cost intervention that can prevent the atherosclerosis of vessels by its anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet and proresolving abilities. Recent understanding of the pathophysiology of  hypertension  and  proresolving  pathways  can  help  to  understand  the  rational  use  of  aspirin  in prevention  and  reducing  the  complications  of  high  blood  pressure.  A  combination  of  aspirin  and omega 3 fatty acids has potential benefits. DHA metabolites have been found to have potent role in the resolution pathway of inflammation. Future endeavors would focus on the identification of subset of high-risk hypertensive patients who will benefit most from aspirin, omega 3 fatty acids and DHA. Different  dosage  and  time  of  initiation  in  various  high-risk  groups  needs  to  be  identified.  Further research is also required to identify the correct time and the oral doses that will help in minimizing the long-term risk of future cardiovascular diseases.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Jayavelan Ramkumar

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and University, Chennai-600116, India.

Dr. Nidhi Sharma

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Chennai-602105,India.

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Cytology Services Utilisation Pattern in North-Central Nigeria | Chapter 13 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Introduction: Cytology  is  a  simple,  fast,  low  cost,  minimally  invasive  and  sensitive  technique  for evaluating  cells  sampled  from  lesions  in  the  body. Cytology  also  has  the  peculiar  advantages  of minimal invasiveness, low cost and speed. It is an aspect of pathology service at its fledgling stage in most institutions in sub-Saharan African countries.

Aims: This  study  examined  the  pattern  of  the  cytology  samples  received  in  the  laboratory  of  a relatively new tertiary hospital in north-central Nigeria.

Materials and  Methods: Three years archival slides and records of cytology samples were retrieved and analysed.

Results: Cytology specimens were 775 (27.5%) of 2,823 samples  accessioned during the  period. Most  of  the  samples  were  cervical  smears  constituting  436  (56.3%)  and  an  annual  rate  of  218 samples  per  year.  This  was  followed  by  134  (17.3%)  breast  fine  needle  aspiration  (FNA)  with  an annual rate of 67 samples per year. The 48 (6.2%) lymph nodes FNA samples had an annual rate of 24 samples per year. Soft tissue and thyroidmasses were 40 (5.2%) and 37 (4.8%), respectively. The sites of other less commonly requested cytology samples in this study included the liver, nose, eyes, testes, urine and peritoneal fluids. The patients’ age ranged from 14 months to 80 years.

Conclusions: This  study  shows  a  still  very  low  utilisation  of  cytology  services  in  management  of patients.  There  remains  the  need  of  developing  diagnostic  cytology  services  in  Nigeria,  taking advantage of its low cost, accuracy and timeliness as a simple, yet highly useful diagnostic tool in a resource deficient environment. In the north –central region of Nigeria, cytology is still grossly under-utilized  as  a  diagnostic  tool  in  the  management  of  patients.  Although  mostly  employed  in  routine cervical cancer screening, other patients need to benefit more from this simple, minimally invasive, cheap, highly sensitive and accurate investigative modality.

Author(s) Details

Raymond Akpobome Vhriterhire

Department of Anatomical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Joseph Aondowase Orkuma

Department of Anatomical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Joseph Aondowase Ngbea

Department of Anatomical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Barnabas Agaba Eke

Department of Anatomical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Godwin T. A. Jombo

Department of Anatomical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Amali Adekwu

Department of Human Physiology, University ofJos, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

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Maternal Risk Factors Predisposing to Congenital Heart Disease | Chapter 12 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Background: Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD) are defined as malformations of the heart and great vessels that develop in utero which may manifest at birth or later in childhood. They can be caused by numerous genetic and environmental factors.  Genetic factors are nonmodifiable.  However, identification  of  modifiable  environmental  risk  factors  is  important  to  develop  population  based prevention strategies to reduce the incidence of CHD.

Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to find an association of the maternal lifestyles with CHD in new-borns. The secondary outcome of the study was to identify maternal factors that can be modified for the primary prevention of CHD.

Materials  and  Methods: This  prospective  study  involved  cardiovascular  system  examination  of newborns after delivery in term gestations in 1394 singleton pregnancies. The maternal risk factors considered were age, prepregnancy Body Mass Index  (BMI),  consanguineous  marriage,  caffeine intake, diabetes, stress and intake of periconceptional Folic acid tablets.

Results: In  this  study,  22  (1.58%)  out  of  1394  pregnancies  resulted  in  Congenital  Heart  Defects. Teenage pregnancy (p value= 0.0002), consanguineous marriage (p value=0.0004), overt diabetes mellitus (p value=0.0001), caffeine intake (p value=0.0031), prepregnancy BMI>24(p value=0.0001), maternal stress (p value<0.0001, history of previous congenital malformations (p value=0.004) and non intake of folic acid tablets in the first trimester (p value=0.0023 were found to be the most likely risk factor associated with CHD.

Conclusion: Community  education  programmes  should  be  initiated  in  the  high-risk  population  to prevent teenage pregnancies and consanguineous marriages.   Maternal counseling for periconceptional control of blood glucose, adequate weight maintenance, intake of folic acid tablets, avoidance of stress and caffeine is needed to prevent CHD. The results of numerous studies suggest that in reducing the incidence of CHD, public health strategy needs to focus on avoidance of teenage pregnancy and consanguineous marriages. Pregnancy associated with stress should be monitored more closely.  Prepregnancy  maternal  BMI,  coffee  intake  and  folic  acid  deficiency  have  to  be corrected. Maternal overt diabetes and hyperglycemia during pregnancy needs to be screened and managed timely to reduce the incidence of CHD.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Jayavelan Ramkumar

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and University, Chennai-600116, India.

Benjamin M. Sagayaraj

Department of Pediatrics, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Chennai-602105, India.

Dr. Nidhi Sharma

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Chennai-602105, India.

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Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf (DC) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-induced Dyslipidemia: Current Knowledge | Chapter 11 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Introduction: Diabetic dyslipidemia (DD)  is  a collection  of  quantitative,  qualitative and  kinetic  lipid abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus that together caused the lipid profile to become more atherogenic.  It  consists  of  elevated  serum  concentration  of  triglyceride-cholesterol  (TG-C),  a  high serum level of small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sd LDL-C), low level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and normal to slightly elevated level of total low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C).

Aims: Diabetic  dyslipidemia  is  a  recognized  risk  factor  for  coronary  heart  disease  (CHD). Plant medicinal  agents  such  as Cymbopogon  citratus (C.  citratus)  have  shown  potential  as alternative therapies for reducing cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C. citratus leaf extract on the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in diabetic dyslipidemic rats (n=35).

Materials and Methods: A C. citratus extract was prepared by ethanol extraction of leaf material. Rats were divided into seven groups (n=5) as follows: (a) Normal diet control, (b) Hyperlipidemic diet (HLD)  control,  (c)  HLD  +  65 mg/kg  streptozotocin  (STZ)  control  (d)  HLD  +  STZ  +  250mg/kg C. citratusextract (CCE), (e) HLD + STZ + 500mg/kg CCE, (f) HLD + STZ + 1000mg/kg CCE, and (g) HLD + STZ + 5mg/kg atorvastatin + 600μg/g glibenclamide. Animals were treated with HLD for 14 days and then injected intraperitoneally with 65mg/kg STZ. Confirmed diabetic dyslipidemic animals were  treated  intragastrically  with  CCE  at  doses  of  250,  500,  and  1000mg/kg,  with  5mg/kg atorvastatin, and with 600μg/g glibenclamide for 30 days.

Results: The extract, which tested positive for tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, etc. lowered fasting  blood  glucose  and  glycosylated  hemoglobin  levels,  and  dose-dependently  decreased  the serum levels of T-chol, LDL, VLDL, and β-HMG-CoA reductase, while simultaneously increasing HDL levels. The AIP was lowered in a dose-dependent manner by 33, 43.7, and 52.4% in groups treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg of CCE respectively.

Conclusion: The  results  indicate  that  the C.  citrates extract  had  an  ameliorative  effect  on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and atherogenic index of plasma.

Author(s) Details

Christopher Edet Ekpenyong

Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria.

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Vibrant Soundbridge and Bonebridge: Bilateral Application in a Child with Bilateral Congenital Ear Canal Atresia | Chapter 10 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

A 12-year-old child with bilateral congenital microtia and ear canal atresia was bilaterally implanted with a Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) on the right side and a Bonebridge on the left side. Prior to these surgeries the child was using percutaneous bone conduction devices (BCDs) on a headband for more than 9 years. No complications occurred during the surgeries. Sound field audiological testing showed cumulative benefit when both devices were used simultaneously. Directional hearing was tested in a sound-attenuated  room. To  ensure  that the  subject  could only  use acoustic  information  to  localize sounds, the test was performed in complete darkness. The ability to localize sounds was poor when listening with either the VSB or Bonebridge, but increased significantly when both devices were used simultaneously. To our knowledge this is the first case report about the bilateral implantation of a VSB and Bonebridge. The VSB and Bonebridge were effectively combined in a teenager with aural atresia on both sides. It should be noted that from age 3 until the time of implant surgery, the patient had used bilateral BCDs on headbands, so he had almost 10 years of experience with bilateral auditory input. That might have been beneficial with respect to binaural hearing.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Myrthe Hol

Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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Potential of Physical Analgesia in the Complex Rehabilitation of Patients with Stump Pain and Phantom Pain After Lower Limb Amputation (A Double-blind Randomised Controlled Trial of Efficacy of Deep Oscillation, Laser Therapy and Paravertebral Infiltrations) | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Introduction: Most of amputees feel residual limb (stump) pain, phantom sensations and phantom pain. Our purpose was to remind the wide public of the impact of rehabilitation (including the modern physical  modalities  Deep  Oscillation – DO  and  Laser  therapy –L Th)  in  the  pain  management  of amputees. According the medical definitions the amputation is ‘’the intentional surgical removal of a limb  or  body  part;  performed  for  the  following  reasons:  to  remove  malignant  tumors,  after  severe trauma, and to remove tissues without adequate blood supply, because of injury to the blood vessel, hardening of the arteries, arterial embolism, impaired circulation, repeated severe infection that leads to gangrene, severe frostbite, Raynaud’s disease, or Buerger’s disease’’.

Aims: Comparative evaluation of drug, physical (including DO and LTh) and combined analgesia in the complex rehabilitation of patients after trans-femoral amputation suffering from stump pain and phantom pain. In the current chapter, we tested the hypothesis that  some  modern  preformed modalities (Deep Oscillation and Laser therapy) in combination with paravertebral infiltrations have the capacity to provide an analgesic effect, to relieve reactive depression and to ameliorate the quality of life of amputees.

Materials and Methods: During last years a total of 105 amputees with stump pain and phantom pain were  observed  and  investigated.  The  investigation  was  conducted  with  consideration  for  the protection of patients, as outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki, and was approved by the appropriate institutional review boards and ethic commissions. All patients gave written informed consent before undergoing any examination or study procedure. A  simple  randomization  was  used.  Patients  were  sequentially  numbered  and  randomized  into  five treatment groups of 21 each one. All  patients  received  a  complex  rehabilitation  programme  including  physical  therapy  and  patients’ education. In group 1 we applied too drug therapy – paravertebral infiltrations with steroids, lidocaine and B vitamins. Patients of group 2 received a complex rehabilitation programme, including DO. In group 3 we applied drug and physical analgesia techniques (infiltrations and DO). Patients of group 4 received  a  complex  rehabilitation  programme,  including  LaserTh.  In  group  5  we  applied  drug  and physical analgesia techniques (infiltrations and LTh). For statistical evaluation we used t-test (ANOVA) and Wilcoxon rank test (non-parametrical correlation analysis), performed using SPSS package. The treatment difference was considered as statistically significant if the P valuewas < 0.05.

Results: The comparative analysis of results shows a significant improvement of the symptoms of the patients,  concerning: pain  relief  (visualized  by  the  analysis  of  results  of  Visual  analogue  scale, evaluation  of  stump  tenderness),  and  depression  (scales  of  Zung  and  McGill  Quality  of  life questionnaire). In all cases we detected reduction of pain sensation and depression; amelioration of the independence in ADL.  The  drug  analgesia  in  group  1 was  fast,  but  short;  the  efficacy in physiotherapy groups 2 & 4 was slow, but stable, and durable. We received best results in combined groups 3 & 5.

Discussion: The drug therapy is efficient but with short duration. The physical analgesia with DO and L Th initiates  its  effect  slowly,  but  the  results  are  stable.  Best  efficacy  was  observed  in  case  of combination  of medication  with physical  modalities – in  the  beginning  due  to the  steroid  injection, toward the moment of effective «input» of the physical modalities. Current  paper  proposes  personal  opinions  on  some  contemporaneous  theories  of  pain  and therapeutic concepts of analgesia, including physical analgesia. We mentioned principal natural and preformed physical modalities, with effectiveness in clinical practice. Authors suggest a conception of mechanisms  of  physical  analgesia, especially  in  case of  application  of  Deep oscillation  and  Laser therapy.

Conclusion: We  consider  most  effective  the  combination  of  drug  and  non-drug  analgesia  in  all patients after lower limb amputation. We could recommend the complex program for treatment of the pain in amputees. Pain management is an important part of the rehabilitation algorithms in amputated patients with stump and phantom limb pain. The efficacy of Deep Oscillation is probably due to a block of  nociceptors. The application  of  Laser  therapy  is  most  effective  in  cases  with  trophic alterations.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Ivet Borissova Koleva

Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Borislav Radoslavov Yoshinov

Medical Faculty of Sofia University, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Prof. Radoslav Yoshinov

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Telematics, Sofia, Bulgaria.

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Physical Activity and Its Relationship with Body Weight in Older Adults | Chapter 08 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Purpose: To  determine  the  relationship  between  calories  intake,  level  of  physical  activity  and overweight/obesity in adults over 60 years in Celaya, Mexico.

Study Design: It was a cross-sectional study.

Place and  Duration  of  Study: Population: 754 adults between 60 and 70 years old from Day Care Centers for the elderly from Celaya, Guanajuato, México between August 2014 and July 2015.

Methodology: We included a sample of 100 of adults, both genders, who signed the consent form; the  calories  intake  was  measure  with  SNUT  survey,  physical  activity  with  International  Physical Activity Questionnaire and measuring of overweight/obesity with Body Mass Index. Statistical analysis was with Pearson’s r, and lineal regression equation between mean daily calories intake and Body Mass  Index  and  between  physical activity  (METS/min/week)  and  Body  Mass  Index.  The  variables were categorized and it was calculated Chi squared test, p value, Odds Ratio and it was generated in a logistic multivariable model.

Results: The  sample  was  100  adults  between  60  and  70  years  old.  There  was  not  a  correlation between  caloric  intake  and  Body  Mass  Index  in  males  nor  females  (P>0.05).  There  was  a  good negative correlation between physical activity and body mass index (r=-0.56) and a negative lineal relationship (P<0.05). There was a relationship between physical activity and overweight/obesity (X2= 47.29, df 1 P=.00001)  and  OR=102.60.  There  was  not  a relationship between  Mean  Daily  Caloric Intake and overweight/obesity (X2= 0.84 dg 1 P=.36).

Conclusion: There is a strong negative correlation and lineal relationship between physical activity and Body Mass Index. There is an relationship between physical activity and overweight/obesity in the elderly from Celaya, Mexico.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza

School of Medicine, University of Celaya, Mexico.

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