First Detection of Ketoreductase in the Genome of Potentially Pathogenic Fast-Growing Environmental Mycobacteria Isolated in Ivory Coast | Chapter 04 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU), skin disease, is considered to be an environmental pathogen. The pathogenic virulence of MU is being linked to the expression of toxin called Mycolactone. The ketoreductase (KR) gene, is one of the synthesis genes of mycolactone enzymes previously found in M. ulcerans. Genetic analyses using variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) have shown high diversity in M. ulcerans and in mycolactone producing Mycobacteria (MPMs).

Aim: The purpose of this study is to detect ketoreductase gene in the genome of environmental mycobacteria strain, apart the M. ulcerans, from aquatic environments in Côte d’Ivoire.

Place and Duration of the Study: The analysis of the samples took place in the laboratories of Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire in Abidjan City between June 2014 and December 2015. Sampling was done in some hypoendemic and hyperendemic sites of Buruli Ulcer of Côte d’Ivoire.

Methodology: A total of 473 samples were collected comprising of 251 waters and 222 sediments based on sampling sites. PCR diagnostics using IS2404 and KR were performed on strains.

Results: 20% fast growing isolated mycobacteria species including Mycobacterium mucogenicum, Mycobacterium peregrinum and Mycobacterium sp. was found carrying the IS2404 gene previously found in M. ulcerans. 9.23% of strains carried the ketoreductase (KR) genes, one of the synthesis of mycolactone enzyme.

Conclusion: The results of this study proved the existence of ketoreductase (KR) genes in rapidly- growing mycobacteria. This study is one of the steps taken in order to understand different skin infections encountered in Côte d’Ivoire. Cutaneous ulceration is a public health problem in Côte d’Ivoire. This work showed a probable involvement of non ulcerans mycobacteria in the spread of this disease. Investigations must therefore continue in order to confirm this observation in clinical practice. All of which could help to determine the likely prevalence of skin ulcers due to Mycobacterium other than M. ulcerans to better adapt treatment in Côte d’Ivoire. This study will help to better diagnose patients suffering from skin infections other than Buruli ulcer and to consider strategies and means of protection of the population against all mycobacterioses by breaking the epidemiological chain.

Author  Details:

Dr Sabine N’Dri Vakou

Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and University Felix Houphouet-Boigny of Cocody, BPV 34 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Dr. David Coulibaly N’Golo

Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Professor Djaman Allico Joseph

Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and University Felix Houphouet-Boigny of Cocody, BPV 34 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Professor Dosso Mireille

Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and University Felix Houphouet-Boigny of Cocody, BPV 34 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Isolation of Rare Salmonella Serovars, Wangata and Penarth from Chicken in Nsukka, Nigeria | Chapter 03 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

Introduction: Salmonella infections remain a veterinary and public health problem of major importance. Poultry birds are known to be one of the major reservoirs of Salmonella and could consequently act as a vehicular transmission route to humans. Rare Salmonella serovars, whose epidemiological and serological patterns are not well understood, are becoming increasingly common in Nigeria and other parts of the world. We report the isolation of Salmonella enterica serovars Wangata and Penarth, two serovars that had not been previously reported in chicken in Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: A total of 300 chickens comprising of 150 intensively reared and 150 free range chickens, from selected farms and live bird markets, were sampled via cloacal vent using sterile cotton swab tips according to the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) standards. Following standard bacteriological techniques, samples were pre-enriched in buffered peptone water, before transferring into Rappaport Vassiliadis medium and finally streaked onto Salmonella-Shigella agar (SSA). Salmonella spp. were identified biochemically and serotyped based on reaction with somatic (O), flagella (H), and capsular (Vi) antisera. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed following Kirby-Bauer (disk-diffusion) method.

Results: Out of the 300 samples, 4% (n = 12) were positive for salmonellae. The isolates comprise of 6 isolates of S. enterica ser Wangata, 5 S. enterica ser Enteritidis and 1 S. enterica ser Penarth. All the rare serotypes S. Wangata and S. Penarth were isolated from free range chickens, while S. Enteritidis was isolated from both intensively reared and free range chickens. There was no difference in the sensitivity pattern between the rare serovars and serovar Enteritidis to the antibiotics tested. S. Penarth had a higher MIC to Cotrimoxazole, but lower MBC for gentamicin and tetracycline.

Conclusions: Free range chickens could be vehicles for the transmission and/or reservoirs of the rare salmonellae serotypes in Nigeria. Any prophylactic program aimed at controlling these agents in poultry farms in Nigeria, must take into account the free range local chickens.

Author  Details:

Obi, Okechukwu J.

Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Ike, Anthony C.

Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Olovo, Chinasa V.

Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

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Assessment of Apo-B and TG/HDL-C Ratio as Indicators of Insulin Resistance in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome | Chapter 02 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

The concept of metabolic Syndrome was first introduced as Syndrome X by Gerald Reaven He delivered the Banting Lecture in 1988 at the American Diabetes Association national meeting. He stated that Syndrome X is aggregation of independent, risk factors present in the same individual which are seen in coronary heart disease (CHD). The various risk factors included in the syndrome were insulin resistance, defined as the inability of insulin to optimally stimulate the transport of    glucose into the body’s cell (hyperinsulinemia or impared glucose tolerance, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and low, high-density lipotrotein cholesterol (HDL) [1]. Syndrome X is referred as,the deadly quartet by Kaplan [2] and Foster described it as,a secret killer [3]. Reaven in his Banting Lecture described the point that insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia might be the underlying cause of the syndrome. Reaven also suggested that insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia was an underlying risk factor for T2D, which, at the time, was referred to as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In 1991, Ferrannini et al. [4] in his article published entitled,’ Hyperinsulinemia: the key feature of a cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome,’ described Reaven’s point of view about insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, use of the term MS acknowledges that this array of factors is associated with abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These authors emphasized that insulin resistance was the underlying factor and, once acquired, those with a genetic predisposition would develop all the other aspects of the disorder. Haffner et al. [5] coined the term “insulin resistance syndrome” for the disorder to highlight the fact that insulin resistance preceded other aspects of the syndrome. Some individuals still use the term insulin resistance syndrome but now the term “metabolic syndrome” is more commonly used to describe the aggregation of multiple CHD and T2D risk factors. Metabolic syndrome is a pathophysiological process, meaning that it is either caused by a disease or represents a dysregulation of normal physiological mechanisms occurring due to long standing insulin resistance. The baseline cause of metabolic syndrome is obesity which is mainly due to accumulation of fat. Thus cluster of condition seen in metabolic syndrome are mainly due to fat storage condition and insulin resistance is feature of fat storage condition. Increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations are typically associated with many insulin-resistant states. It is demonstrated in the animal experimental study that fatty acids compete with glucose for substrate oxidation in heart muscle and diaphragm muscle. It is speculated that increased fat oxidation causes the insulin resistance associated with obesity [6-8]. The mechanism proposed to explain the insulin resistance was that an increase in fatty acids caused an increase in the intra mitochondrial acetyl CoA/CoA and NADH/NAD+ ratios, with sub- sequent inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. This in turn would cause intracellular citrate concentrations to increase, leading to inhibition of phosphofructokinase, a key rate-controlling enzyme in glycolysis. Subsequent accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate would inhibit hexokinase II activity, resulting in an increase in intracellular glucose concentrations and decreased glucose uptake. The increase in plasma fatty acid concentrations initially induce insulin resistance by inhibiting glucose transport or phosphorylation activity, and that causes reduction in muscle glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation resp. The reduction in insulin-activated glucose transport and phosphorylation activity in normal subjects is observed at high plasma fatty acid levels and leading to accumulation of intramuscular fatty acids (or fatty acid metabolites). This appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance seen in obese patients and patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, fatty acids seem to interfere with a very early step in insulin stimulation of GLUT4 transporter activity or hexokinase II activity. Increasing intracellular fatty acid metabolites, such as diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA’s, or ceramides activates a serine/threonine kinase cascade (possibly initiated by protein kinase), leading to phosphorylation of serine/threonine sites on insulin receptor substrates. Serine-phosphorylated forms of these proteins fail to associate with or to activate PI 3-kinase, resulting in decreased activation of glucose transport and other downstream events, Any perturbation in these events results in accumulation of intracellular fatty acyl CoA’s or other fatty acid metabolites in muscle and liver, either through increased delivery or decreased metabolism, might be expected to induce insulin resistance.

Author  Details:

Dr. Parineeta Samant

Department of Biochemistry, MGM Medical College, Navi-Mumbai, India.

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The Mode of Transmission of Banana streak virus by Paracoccus burnerae (Homiptera, Planococcidae) Vector is Non-circulative | Chapter 01 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

The causative agent of banana streak disease (BSD) is Banana streak virus (BSV). In tropical countries such as Kenya, the virus causes considerable damage to the banana crop besides lowering banana production yields. Several mealy-bug species have been reported as vectors of BSV. The latent and retention time of the BSV in the oleander mealy-bug (Paracoccus burnerae) is however unknown. The latent and retention times of viruses in disease vectors are important characteristics in the determination of the mode of transmission of viruses by their vectors. The purpose of this study was to determine the latent and retention time of the BSV in its vector, P. burnerae. We employed both the Immuno-capture Polymerase Chain Reaction (IC-PCR) and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) techniques to select diseased and healthy plantlets for transmission trials. RCA assays were performed on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples of viruliferous mealy-bug instars of P. burnerae and on the DNA of virus-inoculated plantlets. The findings of the study indicated that BSV has no latent period in P. burnerae during transmission at ambient conditions (9-30°C). However, the vector can retain and transmit BSV for a period of four days under ambient temperatures (9-30°). The results revealed that the vector P. burnerae, transmits BSV semi-persistently which is an indication of a non-circulative mode of transmission of the virus. The results of this study contribute to the elucidation of the mode of transmission of BSV by P. burnerae and impetus for the development of novel control strategies of BSD. Further studies are recommended to determine the specific BSV and vector proteins involved in the transmission process. Such studies have the potential to contribute to development of novel disease management strategies based on the use of viral genes that encode for proteins that are defective to prevent vector inoculation and successful transmission of BSV by its vectors. From our results, we also recommend further screening studies for banana plant encoding molecules (e.g. peptides) that are able to bind to cuticle protein receptors in the vector mouthparts which may provide innovative virus management strategies by interfering with the process of virus retention.

Author  Details:

Samuel Mwangangi Muturi

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Eldoret, P.O.Box 1125, Eldoret, Kenya.

Prof. Francis Nyamu Wachira

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, South Eastern Kenya University, , P.O.Box 170-90200 Kitui, Kenya.

Laura Shali Karanja
Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALROI)-Njoro, P.O.Box Private Bag, Njoro, Kenya.

Njeru Lucyline Kajira

Department of Geography, Moi University, P.O.Box 3900, Eldoret, Kenya.

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The Effect of Anisotropy on the Structure Optimization Using BEM-GSS and BEM-NGGP Algorithms | Chapter 09 | Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science Vol. 1

Aims: A shape optimization technique is developed, using the boundary element method, for two-dimensional anisotropic structures to study the effects of anisotropy on the displacements and stresses, then minimize weight while satisfying certain constraints upon stresses and geometry.

Study Design:  Original Research Paper.

Place and Duration of Study: Jamoum University College, Mathematics Department, between June 2016 and July 2017.

Methodology: The shape design sensitivity analysis of a two-dimensional anisotropic structure using a singular formulation of the boundary element method is investigated to study the effects of anisotropy on the displacements and stresses. An Implicit differentiation technique of the discretized boundary integral equations is performed to produce terms that contain derivatives of the fundamental solutions employed in the analysis. This technique allows the coupling between optimization technique and numerical boundary element method (BEM) to form an optimum shape design algorithm that yields shape design sensitivities of the displacement and stress fields for anisotropic materials with very high accuracy. The fundamental solutions of displacements and tractions in terms of complex variables employed in the analysis. The boundary element method was developed and implemented for use with the golden-section search (GSS) algorithm and neutrosophic goal geometric programming (NGGP) algorithm as a numerical optimization technique for minimizing weight while satisfying all of the constraints.

Results: The proposed method has been verified by using the two-dimensional plate with an elliptical hole as the numerical example. The numerical results show that the proposed method is suitable and effective tool for the computer implementation of the solution.

Conclusion: From the research that has been performed, it is possible to conclude that the optimal shape of the two-dimensional plate with an elliptical hole is crucial when elastic field is sensitive to boundary shape. Also from this knowledge of the effects of anisotropy on the displacements and stresses, we can design various anisotropic structures to meet specific engineering requirements and utilize within which to place new information can be more effective.

Author  Details:

Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy
Faculty of Computer and Informatics, Suez Canal University, New Campus, 4.5 Km, Ring Road, El Salam District, 41522 Ismailia, Egypt.

Jamoum University College, Umm Al-Qura University, Alshohdaa 25371, Jamoum, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

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A New Definition of Limit of Periodic Function and Periodic g-Contractive Mapping at Infinity | Chapter 08 | Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science Vol. 1

Limit is a basic concept of calculus. However, according to the updated definition, the limit of periodic function at infinity is not in existence. This conclusion of description does not suit with the periodic phenomenon. For example, the temperature on earth is changed periodically every year since the birth of the earth (viewed as t=0). Today (viewed as t →∞) the temperature on earth is continuing. Continuation means that the limit exists. In this paper, a new definition of limit of periodic function and periodic g-contractive mapping at infinity is defined by the value of its initial point based on transformation of variables. Similar definition is made for g- contractive ratio of periodic g-contractive mapping with k-related fixed points. These definitions can be used to describe the k-polar problems and calculation the limit of combinations of periodic functions at infinity. Furthermore, the new definition on contractive ratio of periodic iterative g-contractive mapping at infinity can help us to find the constant G and improves the application of the periodic iterative g-contractive mapping theorem.

Author  Details:

Tian-Quan Yun

School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641, P.R. China.

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Recursive Computation of Binomial and Multinomial Coefficients and Probabilities | Chapter 07 | Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science Vol. 1

This chapter studies a prominent class of recursively-defined combinatorial functions, namely, the binomial and multinomial coefficients and probabilities. The chapter reviews the basic notions and mathematical definitions of these four functions. Subsequently, it characterizes each of these functions via a recursive relation that is valid over a certain two-dimensional or multi-dimensional region and is supplemented with certain boundary conditions. Visual interpretations of these characterizations are given in terms of regular acyclic signal flow graphs. The graph for the binomial coefficients resembles a Pascal Triangle, while that for trinomial or multinomial coefficients looks like a Pascal Pyramid, Tetrahedron, or Hyper-Pyramid. Each of the four functions is computed using both its conventional and recursive definitions. Moreover, the recursive structures of the binomial coefficient and the corresponding probability are utilized in an iterative scheme, which is substantially more efficient than the conventional or recursive evaluation. Analogous iterative evaluations of the multinomial coefficient and probability can be constructed similarly. Applications to the reliability evaluation for two-valued and multi-valued k-out-of-n systems are also pointed out. 

Author  Details:

Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O.Box 80204, Jeddah, 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Mohamed Abdul Rahman Al-Amoudi

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O.Box 80204, Jeddah, 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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On the Proof Complexities of Strongly Equal Non-classical Tautologies | Chapter 06 | Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science Vol. 1

The strong equality of classical tautologies and their proof complexities comparative analysis in certain proof systems were given by first author in previous studies. Here we introduce the analogous notions of strong equality for non-classical (intuitionistic and minimal) tautologies and investigate the relations between the proof complexity measures of strongly equal non-classical tautologies in some proof systems.  We prove that 1) the strongly equal tautologies have the same proof complexities in some proof systems and 2) there are such proof systems, in which some measures of proof complexities for strongly equal tautologies are the same, while the other measures differ from each other only as a function of the sizes of tautologies.

Author  Details:

Anahit Chubaryan

Department of Informatics and Applied Mathematics, Yerevan State University, Armenia.

Sergey Sayadyan

Department of Informatics and Applied Mathematics, Yerevan State University, Armenia.

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DRBEM Sensitivity Analysis and Shape Optimization of Rotating Magneto-Thermo-Viscoelastic FGA Structures Using DRBEM-GSS and DRBEM-NGGP Algorithms | Chapter 05 | Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science Vol. 1

Aims: A practicalshape optimization technique is developed, using the dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM) with the golden-section search algorithm based on uniform bicubic B-splines, for rotating magneto-thermo-viscoelastic functionally graded anisotropic (FGA) structures subjected to a moving heat source in the context of the Green and Naghdi theory of type III.

Study Design: Original Research Paper.

Place and Duration of Study: Jamoum University College, Mathematics Department, between July 2016 and August 2017.

Methodology: An implicit-implicit staggered algorithm was proposed for use with the DRBEM to obtain the final DRBEM coupled linear system of equations for displacements and temperature that describe the magneto-thermo-viscoelastic structural analysis problem. An implicit differentiation of the discretized dual reciprocity boundary integral equation with respect to design variables is used to calculate shape displacement sensitivities of anisotropic materials with very high accuracy. This method allows the coupling between optimization technique and a dual reciprocity boundary element method. The feasible direction method was developed and implemented for use with the one-dimensional golden-section search technique based on uniform bicubic B-splines, as a numerical optimization method for minimizing weight while satisfying all of the constraints. The DRBEM was developed and implemented for use with the golden-section search (DRBEM-GSS) algorithm and also implemented with the neutrosophic goal geometric programming (DRBEM-NGGP) algorithm as a numerical optimization techniques for minimizing weight while satisfying all of the constraints.

Results: The optimum shape design of fillet in tension bars used as the numerical example in order to verify the formulation and the implementation of the proposed technique. The numerical results show our technique is efficient and precise.

Conclusion: From the research that has been performed, it is possible to conclude that the optimal shape of the top half of the fillet under stress constraint based on magneto-thermo-viscoelasticity is crucial when magneto-thermoviscoelastic field is sensitive to boundary shape. Also from this knowledge of the variation of the displacements and temperature sensitivities with time for magneto-thermo-viscoelastic FGA structures, we can design various magneto-thermoviscoelastic structures to meet specific engineering requirements and utilize within which to place new information can be more effective.

Author  Details:

Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy

Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Suez Canal University, New Campus, 4.5 Km, Ring Road,  El Salam District, 41522 Ismailia, Egypt. and Jamoum University College, Umm Al-Qura University, Alshohdaa 25371, Jamoum, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

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Examples of Simply and Multiply Connected Fatou Sets for a Class of Meromorphic Functions | Chapter 04 | Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science Vol. 1

Aims: We give some families of functions which are meromorphic outside a compact countable set B of essential singularities. Our aim is to give some examples of the stable set (called the Fatou set) and the unstable set (called the Julia set) since there are not many examples of parametric family of this class of functions (called in the introduction functions of class K) in complex dynamics.

Study design: We study components of the Fatou set and some theorems related with the iteration of functions in class K and design a computational program to give examples of the Julia and Fatou sets.

Place and Duration of Study: Facultad de Ciencias F__sico Matem_aticas, Benem_erita Universidad Aut_onoma de Puebla, M_exico between June 2011 and July 2012.

Methodology: We use some theorems of complex dynamics in order to study components of the Fatou set. We program some algorithms in C and get some _gures of the Fatou set.

Results: Given a family of functions in class K we get some mathematical results of the Fatou and Julia sets and its _gures for some parameters given.

Conclusion: Taking some families in class K ∩ Sk we give examples of the Fatou set which can be either simply-connected or multiply-connected in the last case the Julia set is a totally disconnected set.

Author  Details:

P. Domínguez

F.C. Físico-Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.U., Puebla Pue., 72570, México.

A. Hernández

F.C. Físico-Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.U., Puebla Pue., 72570, México.

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