The Role of Chromogenic Replica System for Isolation & Identification of Uropathogens in the Era of Molecular Diagnostics | Chapter 03 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 1

Multidrug resistance in uropathogens is a serious problem in a health care set up. To deal with that, rapid identification of the etiological agent from clinical urine sample is utmost important. Use of replica disc for presumptive identification of uropathogens is an easy to perform, cost effective and rapid method, which can be, adopted in the microbiology laboratories as a primary screening method.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Seema Bose

Department of Microbiology, Hind Institute of Medical Sciences, Safedabad, Lucknow, India.

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Delirious Mania: Recognition and Successful Treatment with Donepezil in the Context of Historical and Contemporary Investigations of Delirium and Delirious Mania | Chapter 02 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 1

Aims: Presentation of a case of severe delirious mania with resolution of delirium after treatment with donepezil.

Presentation of Case: KA was a 44 y/o Australian female with a history of bipolar affective disorder with psychotic manic episodes. Two weeks prior to her psychiatric admission she was admitted to a medical ward after an overdose (OD) of acetaminophen. On review, it appeared that this OD may have been the beginning of an unrecognized delirious mania. The patient was sent home and returned 2 weeks later for a prolonged psychiatric admission with multiple medical comorbidities. Psychiatric management and medical care were provided in intensive settings and despite adequate treatment and improvement in mood symptoms, her delirium did not resolve. Immediately upon institution of donepezil, her delirium resolved. After a period of stability, donepezil was stopped. Her delirium returned and donepezil was reinstituted with resolution of normal cognitive function.

Discussion: The DSM 5 criteria for Delirium and some inherent difficulties using these criteria are discussed. A review of the literature of delirious mania is presented which shows unresolved controversies but an evolving recognition of this disorder. A Cochrane Review shows no benefit in the use of acetylcholinesterases in the treatment of delirium. However, the multiple etiologies and pathological processes involved in delirium may require unique and individual recognition and management.

Conclusion: This case suggests that the use of donepezil is strongly recommended in the treatment of delirious mania.  Further study is required to clarify in this challenging disorder.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Laurie Jo Moore

Cairns Base Hospital, Mental Health Unit, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

Dr. Mila Goldner-Vukov

Cairns Base Hospital, Mental Health Unit, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

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Molecular Basis of Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2- a New Perspective | Chapter 01 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 1

Decreased insulin secretion due to beta cell dysfunction of the pancreas and defective utilization of insulin due to insulin resistance / Hyperinsulinemia are two important issues in the pathogenesis of DM2. There are many explanations in the literature to account for these two observed phenomena and their interrelationship. DM2 is believed to occur due to a complex interplay of environmental and Behavioural factors in genetically predisposed persons. Among the theories explaining the pathogenesis of DM2, the viscera- Portal hypothesis, the Ectopic fat hypothesis and the adipose tissue as an endocrinal gland are prominent. Besides, the role played by oxidative stress, metabolic stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, etc. are also advanced. It is felt that basic to and at the core of all the observed facts, is the shift of energy metabolism from normal glycolysis to B- oxidation of fats. Hence, how B – oxidation prevails over glycolysis is the fundamental issue to be addressed together with its interrelationships with insulin resistance, as to which is the cause and which is the effect. At the molecular level, an attempt to find answers to the above questions is made in this paper.

To this extent, the Randle fatty acid cycle (Substrate competition theory of Randle) is suitably modified and applied to explain the switch of Energy metabolisms in DM2. Defective disulfide bond formation of the insulin receptor which makes it physiologically ineffective, is suggested as the cause of the insulin resistance where as the prevailing molecular mechanisms stress on post-receptor signaling defect. The cause and effect of both are discussed. This line is considered to be a departure from traditional approaches broached above and briefly outlined in this article.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. S. V. Prasad

Department of Internal Medicine, G.I.T.A.M Dental Collage, Rishikonda, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Nutrient Solution: Agronomic Characteristics and Quality of Strawberry Fruits Cultivated in Substrate | Chapter 14 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Aims: This study determined a nutritive solution and evaluated the performance in the development, production and quality of strawberry cultivated in the substrate.

Study Design: The treatments were commercial and recommended nutritional solutions for strawberry using the methods of Castelane and Araújo (C.A.), Furlani and Fernandes Junior (F.F.J.) and the proposed solution with seven replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the experimental area of the Federal Technological University of Paraná, Brazil, in the period between May and December 2014.

Methodology: Agronomic variables such as yield, number of fruits, nutrient content, physiological indicators, physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were analysed.

Results: The proposed nutrient solution resulted in larger masses of fresh and dry matter (225.4 g plant-1 and 27.5 g plant-1), number of fruits (40.1) and fresh fruit mass (750.4 g plant-¹), in relation to the other evaluated solutions. The proposed solution resulted in better physical and chemical characteristics such as soluble solids, reducing and total sugars, anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid and the strawberry fruits presented an attractive colour and met the quality standards for the consumer. The highest levels of nitrogen (33.7 g kg-1), phosphorus (9.3 g kg-1), and potassium (28.2 g kg-1) in the leaf tissue were found in the proposed solution and contributed to productivity and fruit quality gains of a strawberry.

Conclusion: These results provide a nutrient base and can be adapted to other cultivars in different locations. In this study, the proposed nutrient solution contributed to productivity gains, fruit quality and comes as an option of adequate nutrient content for the strawberry, with ionic balance, without excess nutrients. These results provide a nutrient base and can be adapted to other cultivars in different locations.

Author  Details:

Dalva Paulus

Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Technology – Paraná, Paraná – 85660-000, Brazil.

Anderson Santin

Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Technology – Paraná, Paraná – 85660-000, Brazil.

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Surface Water Nitrogen Load Due to Food Production-Supply System in South Asian Megacities: A Model-based Estimation | Chapter 13 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Food production and supply system contributed more than 90% of the nitrogen originated in south Asian megacities that pollute the surface water. Five megacities of three South Asian countries were considered in this study. These countries are developing and their population is increasing tremendously. All the five megacities are very densely urbanized. A numerical model has been used to calculate the anthropogenic nitrogen load on the environment. FAO statistics on fertilizer consumption and food balance data sheet has been used to calculate the nitrogen load. Human waste plays the vital role in nitrogen production of south Asian megacities. So, in these contexts the nitrogen load for all the study areas extremely harmful for environment and ever increasing population also increased the load of nitrogen on surface water produced from human waste which also very awful for the environment. So, a proper sewage treatment facility is compulsory for all the study areas.  Four findings has been identified are; (1) for all three countries, rice and wheat production-supply produce the maximum amount of nitrogen. (2) Though the amount of nitrogen due to fertilizer input more or less same among the countries but amount of produced nitrogen due to human waste is huge in Bangladesh. (3) Moreover, in city scale, the amount of nitrogen due to fertilizer input is maximum in Delhi city and negligible in Kolkata due to an insignificant amount of farmland. (4) Interestingly, the maximum amount of nitrogen load in surface water is in Kolkata city due to human waste but Mumbai and Dhaka shows a medium amount of nitrogen load. This can give the estimation for city wise untreated nitrate content and this is necessary for the capacity development of existing sewerage treatment plant as well as the establishment of new plants.

Author  Details:

Syeda Jesmin Haque

Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Science, Hiroshima University, Japan and Assistant Director, Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Room#415, 153 Pioneer Road, Segunbagicha, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. Shin-ichi Onodera

Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Japan.

Dr. Yuta Shimizu

Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Science, Hiroshima University, Japan.

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Soluble Bases and CEC Variation across Undisturbed and Disturbed Coastal Forests in Tanzania | Chapter 12 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Understanding of different levels of soil calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and percentage base saturation (BS), is important in the management of forest ecosystems. However, there is limited documentation on the status of these elements in the undisturbed forest sites (CFS) crop-agriculture (ADS) and livestock grazing (DGS) disturbances in the tropical coastal forests. This chapter attempts to address this deficit by presenting soil fertility based on exchangeable bases’ status and variations across undisturbed forest sites (used as a control), crop-agriculture and livestock disturbed sites in the coastal zone of Tanzania. The chapter aims to add knowledge on the management of tropical coastal forests. Indeed, this chapter shows that crop-agriculture and livestock grazing disturb soil chemical properties in tropical coastal forests. Therefore, it is essential to protect undisturbed forest while putting more efforts to restore the disturbed sites for sustainable forest management along the coastal areas.

Author  Details:

Elly Josephat Ligate

Department of Biosciences, Solomon Mahlangu College of Science and Education, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Can Chen

College of Forestry, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, P.R. China.

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Abundance and Incidence of Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L) Flies in the Korhogo Department of Northern Côte d’Ivoire and Pest Control Methods Used by Farmers | Chapter 11 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

To improve the production of zucchini in Côte d’Ivoire and particularly in to Korhogo Department, a study was carried out at the Peleforo Gon Coulibaly University research site and at four farmers’ sites during dry and rainy seasons. On each plot, the number of healthy and attacked fruits was evaluated, based on a random sample of 100 fruits. The attacked fruits were transported to the laboratory and incubated to determine the causative agents. The methods and pesticides used to control insect pests by farmers were listed. During the rainy season, 86.06% of the fruit was attacked by flies while 13.94% remained healthy. In the dry season, for a total of 9,617 controlled fruits, 7,439 (77.35%) were healthy and 22.65% were attacked. Four insects species emerged from infested fruit. They were Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, Dacus bivittatus, belonging to the family of Tephritidae, and Scaeva pyrastri belonging to Syrphidae. The method used by farmers to control pests was not effective. In conclusion, flies represent the limiting factor of zucchini production during the rainy season in to Korhogo Department. At the end of this research, it emerges that the main zucchini pests in the Korhogo Department are Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, and Dacus bivittatus of the family Tephritidae. The species Scaeva pyrastri of the family of Syrphidae is not responsible for the loss of fruit; it comes only secondarily after the attack of Tephritidae. Pesticides used by growers in the control of pests are not indicated. Because of the strong presence of flies in the rainy season on zucchini and the damage they cause, the production of zucchini during this season may not be profitable.

Author  Details:

Yalamoussa Tuo

Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR) des Sciences Biologiques, Département de Biologie Animale, Université Peleforo Gon Coulibaly, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire.

Klana Kone

Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR) Biosciences, Département de Zoologie, Biologie Animale et Ecologie, Université Felix Houphouet-Boigny de Cocody, 22 Bp 1611 Abidjan 22, Abidjan,Côte d’Ivoire.

Michel Laurince Yapo

Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR) des Sciences Biologiques, Département de Biologie Animale, Université Peleforo Gon Coulibaly, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire.

Herve Kouakou Koua

Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR) Biosciences, Département de Zoologie, Biologie Animale et Ecologie, Université Felix Houphouet-Boigny de Cocody, 22 Bp 1611 Abidjan 22, Abidjan,Côte d’Ivoire.

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Phenotypic Plasticity: The Best Approach for Stress Selection | Chapter 10 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

The abiotic stresses are the main factors associated to low productivity, since they are related to the soil and the conditions of the environmental adversities. These are difficult to control factors and when severely affects production dramatically. The expand agricultural production to new crop areas in the tropical regions is an important strategy to supply the huge demand for food and renewable energy sources. However toxic aluminum (Al) present in tropical soils is a limiting factor for agricultural production. The objective of this study was to identify Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive sugarcane genotypes, based on phenotypic plasticity. Eleven sugarcane genotypes were evaluated under non-stress and Al-stress conditions. Genetic variability regarding Al tolerance was observed among the sugarcane genotypes by phenotypic plasticity. Al-stress caused a reduction in the primary root length and in the shoot dry weight, but an increase in the lateral root length. There was a difference between the genotypes related to Al accumulation in the roots and shoot, suggesting the existence of distinct tolerance mechanisms. Based on phenotypic plasticity genotypes can be classified as tolerant or sensitive to Al. The phenotypic plasticity is a simple form of analysis; however, it has great information about the behavior of the genotype. We characterized genotypes associated with Al-stress. The characterization of contrasting genotypes will be important for breeding programs involving sugarcane yield in regions subjected to stress.

Author  Details:

Ciro Maia

Department of Crop Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Paulo Mafra de Almeida Costa

Department of Crop Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Cleverson de Freitas Almeida

Department of Crop Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

Department of Statistics, Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Márcio Henrique Pereira Barbosa

Department of Crop Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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Riparian Buffer Strip Width Design in Semiarid Watershed Brazilian | Chapter 09 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

The use of riparian areas as water quality management tools, primarily derived from the studies of agricultural watersheds, where low phosphorus and large nitrate reductions in the suspended sediment are observed. A riparian strip performs many key functions, such as nutrient uptake, trapping of sediment or pesticides. Therefore, a number of different forms of protection strips have been applied in the field according to relief, steepness and location for use. Studies assessing technologies to design riparian strips using plant covers, based on sediment yield in river basins, are required for environmental protection. The removal of semi-shrubby, native vegetation in the Brazilian semiarid region, has contributed to the degradation of semiarid basins. The aim of this study was to design a riparian strip for the Jacu River in the semiarid region of Pernambuco as a function of sediment yield. Experiments were conducted during the years 2008-2011 in the Jacu River basin at Serra Talhada, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The sediment yield in the Jacu River channel was obtained by measuring suspended and background solid discharge. The riparian strip width estimated in the riparian areas of the Jacu River basin was 15 m. It was concluded that for this study, the sediment yield time and observation of hydrological data were important factors for determining the riparian strip width with greater security.

Author  Details:

Mr. Victor Piscoya

Department of Rural Technology-Environmental Engineering, Rural Federal of Pernambuco University (UFRPE), Recife-PE, Brazil.

Professor V. P. Singh

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2117, USA.

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Genetic Variability of Sugarcane Clones as Affected by Major Endemic Diseases in Ferké, Northern Ivory Coast | Chapter 08 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Background: Sugarcane is a major commercial crop grown in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, including West and Central Africa. Across this region, smut, leaf scald and pokkah boeng are considered as endemic diseases, the first two being economically important.

Aims: The overall objective of study was to contribute to sugarcane yield improvement in Ivory Coast. The specific objective was to evaluate the diversity of susceptible sugarcane genotypes mainly in first ratoon crop to three major endemic diseases under natural infection, namely leaf scald, smut and pokkah boeng.

Methodology: The study was carried out over 2 seasons (2016-18) as plant and first ratoon cane at Ferké 1 experimental station under full covering sprinkler irrigation in northern Ivory Coast. Treatments were composed of 863 sugarcane genotypes split into 39 families planted at single row density. Planting was done per genotype in rows of 3 m long depending on families, without replication and compared to the check variety SP70/1006. That check was replicated every five rows to ease comparison with the clones. Phytosanitary observations regarding the three endemic diseases made at the age of five months were subjected to a series of multivariate analyses.

Results: The study showed that most relevant diseases determining the diversity of susceptible sugarcane genotypes were, in descending order, pokkah boeng, smut and leaf scald. Increase in clone infestations on first ratoon cane compared with plant cane was observed regarding the three endemic diseases but more importantly for smut by 51%. The dendrogram deduced from cluster analysis showed that infected genotypes were split into six groups with same families belonging often to different clusters so that no family investigated specifically susceptible or resistant to any disease was determined. In other words, each family investigated was composed of disease-free as well as susceptible genotypes in proportions varying from one family to another.

Conclusions: All families investigated were relevant to maintain the diversity required for the breeding process under way. Examples of recommended families were the following: disease-free (F02, F03, F04, F05, F06), resistant (F01, F06, F07, F08, F09), moderately resistant (F10, F11, F12, F13, F14). It came out from the study that most relevant diseases determining the diversity of susceptible sugarcane genotypes were, in descending order, pokkah boeng, smut and leaf scald. Increase in clone infestations on first ratoon cane compared with plant cane was observed regarding the three endemic diseases but more importantly for smut by 51%. Each family investigated was composed of disease-free as well as susceptible genotypes in a certain proportion which varied from one family to another. Cluster 5 was the most prolific of infected genotypes with 286 clones (33%) split into 36 families (92%) whereas clusters 2, 3 and 4 were the least prolific ones, with 42, 52 and 56 infected genotypes split into 14, 23 and 21 families, respectively. Clusters 1 and 2 were much more associated with genotypes susceptible to smut and pokkah boeng but also with genotypes moderately susceptible to pokkah boeng. Clusters 3 and 4 were associated with genotypes susceptible or highly susceptible to leaf scald. In contrast, clusters 0, 5 and 6 were related to disease-free, resistant or moderately resistant genotypes and which crosses or families would, therefore, be recommended for Ferké agro-ecology. Examples of such families were the following: disease-free (F02, F03, F04, F05, F06), resistant (F01, F06, F07, F08, F09), moderately resistant (F10, F11, F12, F13, F14).

Author  Details:

Yavo Yanick Michaël Béhou

Department of Research and Development, SucafCI/SOMDIAA, 22 Rue Des Carrossiers Treichville Zone 3, 01 P.O.Box 1967 Abidjan 01, Ivory Coast, Côte d’Ivoire and UMRI: Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, EDP/National Polytechnic Institute (INPHB), P.O.Box 1313 Yamoussoukro, Ivory Coast, Côte d’Ivoire

Crépin B. Péné

Department of Research and Development, SucafCI/SOMDIAA, 22 Rue Des Carrossiers Treichville Zone 3, 01 P.O.Box 1967 Abidjan 01, Ivory Coast, Côte d’Ivoire.

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