Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies in Unvaccinated Rabies Occupational Risk Groups in Niger State, Nigeria | Chapter 13 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: To determine the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) as well the potency of the rVNA in rabies occupational risk humans in Niger State of Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration: Research was conducted at the Department of Veterinary Public Health, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and Rabies Unit, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, USA, between May, 2012 and March, 2013.

Materials and Methods: A total of 185 human volunteers were recruited from rabies risk occupational groups who filled a structured questionnaire on their previous bite history and vaccination status, between May and July, 2012. A 2 ml each of blood from volunteers was collected and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes and sera separated into pre-labeled vacutainers. Standard Rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) was used to detect the presence of rVNA in the sera. Further end point titration of the rVNA positive human sera was conducted to determine the potency.

Results: The results indicated that, detectable titre of rVNA was recorded in 16.4% (23 of 140) viable human sera screened. Although from the questionnaire survey, 21.7% (5 out of the 23 positives) responded to have been vaccinated over ten years prior. At least 3 of the respondents (1 dog butcher and 2 dog meat consumers) who responded not previously vaccinated had some neutralizing antibody titre range of 0.65 – 0.7 IU/ml which is above the minimum protective titre (0.5IU/ml) recommended by WHO. Similarly, 3 respondents (2 veterinarians and 1 animal health personnel) who responded to have been previously vaccinated (> 10 years earlier) yet had a high titre range of 0.5 – 5.4IU/ml. The highest specific rate for rVNA of 25% each was seen amongst the dog butchers and pet owners followed by hunters (20%) and dog meat consumers (14.8%). Up to 125 (67.6%) of the volunteers do consume dog meat with only 12 (9.6%) of them being dog butchers who source dogs for slaughter from households within and outside their territories.

Conclusion: Although the WHO minimum protective titre of rVNA is 0.5 IU/ml, the presence of relatively high titres amongst these risk groups in this report is an indication of a serious public health threat. This study recommends the vaccination of rabies high risk groups and further screening of rabies occupational risk and non risk groups in the study area and Nigeria at large. This study concludes that there is serological evidence of rVNA in the serum of vaccinated and unvaccinated rabies occupational risk groups in Nigeria. Rabies occupational risk groups are at risk of contracting rabies without overt symptoms of rabies, but serological response with some reasonable titres that may or may not be protective.

Author(s) Details

Dr.  A. Garba
Diagnostics and Extension Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria.

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Oral Hygiene in People with Disability | Chapter 12 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: To determine the effect of an educative intervention on the oral hygiene of people with Down Syndrome in two special education schools in Celaya, Gto.

Study Design: Quantitative, correlational, quasi-experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental group of the school of Special Education Mariana and the control group of the Center of Attention Multiple Henri Wallon in Celaya, Gto, between May 2016 and April 2017.

Methodology: We included 30 students (14 men, 16 women; age range 6-21 years) with Down Syndrome. An instrument based on Orem’s theory was used to evaluate self-care abilities in oral hygiene and a National Autonomous University of Mexico format of personal control of the dentobacterial plaque. The intervention “Oral hygiene in people with Down Syndrome” was implemented. All was analyzed with Student t for paired means and Student t for independent groups, and P-value.

Results: Self-care skills showed a significant change after the nursing intervention (P = .009), knowledge (P = .02) and skills (P = .003); which had no significant difference were motivations (P = .23) and the percentage of dentobacterial plaque (P = .40).

Conclusion: It is fundamental to apply a nursing intervention to improve the oral hygiene of people with Down Syndrome favoring their capacities for self-care and preventing oral pathologies. But nurses need more training in psychoeducation to improve motivation in people.

Author(s) Details

Maria Esther Patiño-López
Department of Clinical Nursing, Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, Camous Celaya-Salvatierra, University of Guanajuato, Mexico.

Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
School of Medicine, University of Celaya, Mexico.

Xiomara Arteaga Herrera
Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, Campus Celaya-Salvatierra, University of Guanajuato, Mexico.

María de Lourdes García Campos
Department of Clinical Nursing, Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, Camous Celaya-Salvatierra, University of Guanajuato, Mexico.

Dr. Vicente Beltrán Campos
Department of Clinical Nursing, Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, Campus Celaya-Salvatierra, University of Guanajuato, Mexico.

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Prevalence and Intensity of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and the Challenges of Microscopy and Rapid Test Diagnosis (RDT) Diagnostic methods in North- Western Nigeria | Chapter 11 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: The study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, in randomly selected areas of north-western Nigeria and to evaluate the efficiency of microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in detecting and determining intensity of P. falciparum infection.

Study Design: The study was conducted in north –western Nigeria, between April and August, 2013.

Methodology: A total of one thousand four hundred and seventy (1,470) blood samples were collected into EDTA sample bottles. Rapid one step malaria HRP2 Rapid test was carried out and  stained in Giemsa and examined by thick and thin blood smears using microscope (X 40 objective ) (Cheesbrough, 2016). 

Results: A total of eight hundred and thirty four 834(56.5%) cases were positive microscopically while two hundred and eighty seven 287(19.52%) were positive with the RDT which showed high significance (P<0.05) in the efficiency of the diagnostic methods. Low intensity (+) was higher in 542 (36.87%) and different significantly within the states (P<0.05).The RDT showed high specificity of 68.21% while a higher sensitivity of47.68% was observed from the microscopy results which differed significantly (P<0.05) when the two methods were compared.

Conclusion: The results of the study established that P. falciparum malaria was endemic in the region with a level of intensity. Microscopy was the most specific method of falciparum malaria diagnosis.

Author(s) Details

M. H. Ruqayyah
Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria.

I. H. Nock
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

I. S. Ndams
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Prof B. D. J. George
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

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Association between Immunoglobulin G Subtypes Immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1-19 and Malaria | Chapter 10 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: To determine Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subtypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) responses to PfMSP1-19 antigens and their associations with malaria across different age groups.

Study Design: A community based cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Bondo Ward, in Handeni district of Tanga Region between January and May 2016. 

Methodology: We included 331 participants; 216 females, 115 males aged between 1 and 82 years, with a median age of 10 years and an inter-quartile range 5 -30 years. Two milliliters of blood was collected from each participant in EDTA coated tubes for detection of malaria and serology. Anti-MSP1-19 IgG subtypes were measured by indirect ELISA based on a protocol developed by Afro Immuno-Assay Consortium. Demographic data were collected using designed record form.

Results: Out of 331 participants, 68 (20.5%) were malaria positive. We report malaria prevalence to be highest in the age category of between 6 and 15 years, compared to individuals above 15 years (OR= 4.5; 95% CI = 2.2–8.9). Most participants were seropositive for total IgG (87.0%), IgG1 (78.5%) and IgG3 (52.9%). Concentration (optical densities) of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 was generally lower in the 1-5 year age category. There was no clear pattern for IgG 2 and IgG4 seropositivity across age categories. After adjusting for age, only IgG1 seropositivity was significantly associated with lower malaria prevalence in all age categories (OR=0.4; 95% CI = 0.2 – 0.8).

Conclusion: IgG1subtype to MSP1-19 is associated with lower malaria prevalence which may imply its possible suitability a target of a prospective malaria vaccine.  We report a high prevalence of malaria in the study area, with highest malaria prevalence recorded in older children of 6-15 years of age. Our findings show that only IgG1 antibody to MSP1-19 is associated with low malaria prevalence, suggesting a possible protective role of the subtype against malaria. We report very low responses and seropositivity of IgG2 and IgG4 subtypes. Based on our present findings, IgG1 to MSP1-19 could be an important target of a prospective malaria vaccine.

Author(s) Details

Emmanuel Athanase
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O.Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania.

Arnold Ndaro
Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, P.O.Box 2236, Moshi, Tanzania.
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, P.O.Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania.

Linda Minja
Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, P.O.Box 2236, Moshi, Tanzania.

Jaffu Chilongola
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O.Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania.

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Level of Awareness and Use of Insecticide Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

This was a cross sectional study designed to assess the level of awareness, ownership and use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) by pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Anambra state, South Eastern Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was self administered to 700 volunteer pregnant women aged 17 to 45 years recruited during routine antenatal care in selected hospitals in the study area to capture information on use of ITNs. The information obtained was analyzed using simple ratios, percentages and charts. The result showed that 651 (93%) of the women were fully aware of the use of ITNs during pregnancy, 420 (60%) owned ITNs in their homes while only 308 (46%) used the nets partially or wholly, and 392 (56%) never used the nets. The level of awareness of pregnant women concerning the use of ITNs was high while actual ownership and use was low. Public health education needs to be intensified to create more awareness and increase ownership and use.

Author(s) Details

S. N. Ukibe
Department of Prosthesis and Orthopaedic Technology, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO), P.M.B 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

J. I. Mbanugo
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

N. R. Ukibe
Department of Human Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus, P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi,Nigeria.

L. C. Ikeakor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Awka, Nigeria.

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Intestinal Tuberculosis in Surgical Pathology | Chapter 08 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Background: Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) represents the most common type of abdominal TB. Definitive diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis is made on the basis of morphological examination of surgical specimens in majority of cases as clinico-radiological features are non-specific in initial stages of the disease.

Aims: To analyze the surgical pathology data on intestinal tuberculosis of the hospital and to document findings of morphological examination.

Setting: A descriptive study of intestinal tuberculous lesions encountered in surgical specimens received during a period of three years in the histopathology section of a tertiary care hospital.

Materials and Methods: 40 cases of intestinal tuberculosis out of 250 consecutive, surgically excised specimens of small and large bowel were included in this study. One year retrospective and two years prospective data is included in the study.

Results: Intestinal obstruction was the most frequent clinical presentation followed by perforation peritonitis in ITB cases in this series.9 patients had past history of pulmonary and/or intestinal tuberculosis. Out of 31patients without past history of TB, 25.80% were suspected of having TB preoperatively on the basis of clinical and imaging findings. Ileal and ileo-caecal region was most frequently involved. The three gross morphological forms of tuberculous enteritis seen were ulcerative in 82.5%, ulcero-hypertrophic in 15% and hypertrophic in 2.5% cases. Characteristic caseating granulomas were seen in 60% cases.

Conclusion: Changes in clinical presentation of Intestinal TB are being observed. High index of suspicion is needed at every step of diagnosis of intestinal TB as many non-tuberculous lesions share same clinical and radiological findings.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Sandhya V. Poflee
Department of Pathology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Dr. Balaji D. Baste, MBBS, MD Pathology
Department of Pathology, Seth GSMC and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Dr. Radha P. Munje, MBBS, DTCD, MD (Med)
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

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Contribution in the Malaria Control of Substituted 5- chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-b]-1,10- phenanthrolinone Compounds: Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities | Chapter 07 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Background: Malaria is one of the most common parasitic disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Plasmodium falciparum, one of the causative agent of malaria is resistant to many type of antimalarial drugs. This study present in vitro assessment of the antiplasmodial activity of substituted phénanthrolinone compounds.

Methods: A series of 7 substituents were used to substitute the chlorine on the 5 position in the 5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-b]-1,10-phenanthrolinone ring. In vitro antiplasmodial activities were evaluated on chloroquine-sensitive and resistant strains of P. falciparum.

Results: The results showed that compounds 7 and 8 possessing N,N-diethylamino side chain had the best antiplasmodial activities. In addition, the cytotoxic activities were evaluated on HeLa cells and compound 8 was the least cytotoxic of all studied compounds.

Conclusion: The synthesis and antimalarial activity of substituents of compound 2 were carried out. This study has shown that compounds with basic and lipophilic substituents exhibited the best antiplasmodial activity.  Drug resistance of parasites and anopheles remains a major problem in the malaria burden. At present, the best chemically solution to eradicate definitely this disease is establishment of new antimalarial drug which is exempt of any resistance. The 1,10-phenanthroline skeleton was synthesized and studied for it potential new antimalarial activity. Its pharmacomodulation led to several compounds among which compound 8 showed higher activity as compared to the parent compound 2. This compound should be used for future pharmacomodulation particularly to open the lactone ring in basic medium.

Author(s) Details

Pr. Cheikh Sall
Laboratoire de Chimie, UFR des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Thiès, BP 967 Thiès, Sénégal.

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Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs): Case Study on Gastrointestinal Parasites and Morbidity Indicators in Some Rural Villages of the South Region of Cameroon | Chapter 06 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Background: Parasitic diseases in tropical regions are important cause of morbidity and mortality. Some groups of infection that sufficient attention has not been attributed to by donors and planners worldwide still exist presently. These infections include schistosomiasis, soil transmited helminthes (STHs), amibiasis etc. Intestinal parasitic infections still constitute major public health threats in many parts of Cameroon. To improve on the different control measures and their effectiveness, continuous surveys are necessary to update epidemiological data.

Aim: This study aim to evaluate the transmission level of intestinal parasitosis and morbidity indicators link to infections in inhabitants of Lolodorf Health district in south Cameroon. Informations from such studies will permit to build concrete recommendations for the National control program for these infections.

Methodology: A total of 423 participants were recruited for the study. Stool samples were collected and examined microscopically for the search of helminthes eggs and protozoan cysts using Kato Katz and concentration formol-ether techniques respectively. Anemia was evaluated by measuring heamoglobin level using the spectrophotometic technic with a hemoglobinometer URIT-12 while malnutrition was determined by taking anthropometric parameters.

Results: Out of 423 participants examined, 321 (75.9%) were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides (30.3%), Trichuris trichiura (64.5%), Hookworms (12.5%), E. histolytica/ E. dispar (9.9%) and E. coli (34.0%). Among infected individuals, 117 (36.4%) had single infections, while 204 (63.6%) had multiple infections. Multiple infections were significantly high (P= 0.0001) compared to single infections.  E. histolytica/ E. dispar infection was significantly more prevalent in females than in males (P=0.01), same as in participants of 3-5 years for Hookworms (P= 0.02), 3-5 years and 11-15 years for E. coli (P= 0.04). T. trichura infections occurred more frequently as single infection (P= 0.0001). Interactions between T. trichiura+ E. coli led to a significant increase of E. coli prevalence (P= 0.001). Significant high egg load was observed for T. trichiura (P= 0.00001) and in people between 3-5 years infected by T. trichiura (P=0.0001) and hookworms (P=0.0001). Low infection intensity was significantly more observed compared to moderate and high infection intensities (P= 0.0001) for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and Hookworm. T. trichiura density increases significantly when it interacts with A. lumbricoides + Hookworms, A. lumbricoides + E. coli, Hookworms + E. coli, E. histolytica/ E. dispar + E. coli, A. lumbricoides + Hookworms + E. coli and A. lumbricoides + E. histolytica/ E. dispar + E. coli (P< 0.05).Anemia and malnutrition were the morbidity indicators evaluated. Participants were severely anemic (46.2%) with probable chronic malnutrition (36.7%). Moderate anemia was significantly more observed in infected participants (49.7%: P<0.0001), same for participants of 11-15 years for the two indicators (P<0.0001).

Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the Ngovayang health area in the health district of Lolodorf is highly endemic for intestinal parasites with high level of anemia and malnutrition observed in individuals, constitutes an area with high risk of transmission. This implies that, the protocol of mass drug administration recommended by MINSANTE might not be adequate to reduce the endemicity level and morbidity caused by these parasites.  Also, recommendations for control measures should be done while taking into consideration the impact of morbidity indicators in infected population.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Nkengazong Lucia
Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies (IMPM), Yaounde, P.O.Box 13033, Cameroon & Laboratory of Parasitology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O.Box 812, Cameroon.

Ngo Ngue Thérèse Nadyne
Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, P.O.Box 454, Cameroon.

Professor Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan
Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, P.O.Box 454, Cameroon.

Ngué Monique
Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies (IMPM), Yaounde, P.O.Box 13033, Cameroon.

Prof. Moyou-Somo Roger
Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies (IMPM), Yaounde, P.O.Box 13033, Cameroon.

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Assessment of Antimalarial Drug Use among the Patients in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern Part of Nigeria | Chapter 05 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: To assess the pattern of antimalarial drug use among the patients attending the teaching hospital in Jos North local Government of Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Tertiary hospital in Jos North Local Government of Plateau state of Nigeria, between July and September, 2012.

Methodology: A sample size of 441 male and female patients was selected into this study using a universal sampling. Information on the knowledge, attitudes and practices with respect to antimalarial drug use were obtained with the aid of a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using the SPSS software.

Results: Four hundred and forty one (441) patients completed the questionnaire. Respondent knowledge of malaria with respect to description of malaria decreased (42.7% to 0.2%). Almost all the patients were able to describe the causes and symptoms of malaria. One hundred and sixty nine (38.3%) frequently treated their malaria with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) combination, Three hundred and eighty two (86.6%) reported to have used oral preparation, almost half of the respondents (47.6%) obtained these medications from many sources apart from hospitals, only two hundred and forty eight reported to comply to treatment. Majority of the participants always used some methods for the prevention of malaria.

Conclusion: Concerted effort should be made to educate the population on malaria as well as the importance of drug adherence. Provision of ACTs at subsidized costs will go a long way in improving malaria treatment services in Nigeria, indigenous plantations for cultivating active ingredients and local manufacturing of ACTs is further expected to lower the costs of the drugs and increase its utilization and lower the incidence and impact of malaria. It will be important for interventions to be directed at educating the consumers on malaria pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and prevention and importance of drug adherence in order to improve the quality, efficacy of treatments and to reduce local morbidity and mortality in the future.

Author(s) Details

Modupe I. Builders
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Dr. Jonah Y. Peter
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.

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The Antibiotic Resisting Profile of Salmonella spp Isolated from the Sewage of the Campus of the University of Cocody, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire | Chapter 04 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Background: Recent studies have shown that wastewater is contaminated by salmonella sp., pathogenic antibiotics-resisting bacteria. Using wastewater in periurban agriculture in Abidjan is likely to be the source of food-borne diseases such as salmonellosis. However, what we know about these resistant salmonella spp. in wastewater is limited in the country.

Aims: This study aims to establish the susceptibility profile of Salmonella spp., isolated from wastewater to antibiotics and to antimetabolite commonly used by medical practitioners.

Study Design: Spatio-temporal variation was taken into account.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place from August 2008 to January 2009 at the main campus of the University of Cocody in Abidjan.

Methodology: Sampling was done on a weekly basis. Wastewater samples were collected at four different sewers in the campus area. Salmonella sp was isolated by a standard method of laboratory. The resistance of these isolated species to antibiotics was determined according to the disk diffusion method of Kirby-Baeur. The serotypes of salmonella were identified with the Kauffman-White table

Results: Five serotypes of eleven strains, which consist of 4 Hato, 3 Farmsen, 2 Derby, 1 Essen and 1 Ovonmouth, were isolated and tested in order to determine their resistance to antibiotics.   Amongst the various classes of antibiotics, high resistance was found to sulfonamid (100%), followed by cefotaxime (46.67%) and tetracycline (9.1%).  Ampicillin, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, gentamicin, kanamycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacine,  nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol had a high potentiality: their efficacity in the elimination of the Salmonella sp was proved at a level of 100%. Although the majority of strains tested (85.94%) were eliminated by the antibiotics, the serotypes Derby, Hato and Farmsen   showed resistance.

Conclusion: The Wastewater in the area of the main campus of the University of Cocody contains the antibiotic-resisting strains of salmonella sp. In spite of the fact that the efficacity of some antibiotics in the elimination of Salmonella sp. is proved, the resistance of these strains to third generation of cephalosporin and sulfamid is worrisome. Further studies should be carried out to determine the effects of this antibiotic-resisting salmonella species on humain health. This study revealed, the presence of various Salmonella serotypes in wastewater Salmonella Derby, S. Essen, S. Farmsen, S. Hato and S. ovonmouth. It also showed out the degree of resistance of these strains to commonly used antibiotic drugs. It also revealed that the strains are resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins (β-lactam antibiotics (cefotaxime)), cyclin including tetracycline and antimetabolites (sulfonamide). Even though, 11.58% of Salmonella strains resisted to antibiotics, Salmonella serovars remain totally sensitive to  phenicoles, aminoglycosides, quinolones and other β-lactam particularly the penicillins Group A. These phenotypic characters of Salmonella allow to understand the challenges related to the treatment of salmonellosis and also to understand the necessity on a rational use of antibiotics.

Author(s) Details

Coulibaly Kalpy Julien
Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, Laboratory Studies and Research Chemicals and Microbiological Contaminants in Foods (UNERCO) Unit, Côte d’Ivoire.
Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Pasteur Institute, Côte d’Ivoire.

Gadji Alahou André Gabazé
Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, Laboratory Studies and Research Chemicals and Microbiological Contaminants in Foods (UNERCO) Unit, Côte d’Ivoire.
Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, University Nangui Abrogoua, Côte d’Ivoire.

Koffi Kouadio Stephane
Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Pasteur Institute, Côte d’Ivoire.

Yapo Ossey Bernard, PhD
Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, University Nangui Abrogoua, Côte d’Ivoire.

Professor Dosso Mireille
Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, Laboratory Studies and Research Chemicals and Microbiological Contaminants in Foods (UNERCO) Unit, Côte d’Ivoire.

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