Reduction of Metal Ion Species Associated With Pathological Conditions by Utilizing Potassium Ferrate (K2FeO4) Treatment | Chapter 03 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Aims: To demonstrate that potassium ferrate will remove potentially toxic metal ions from contaminated water samples.

Study Design: A known amount of metal ions were solubilized in aqueous solution, then exposed to potassium ferrate in known amounts. Extent of removal was monitored by ion chromatography and visible spectroscopy.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Durham Science Center, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha Nebraska 68182 USA.

Methodology: Known amounts of iron (II), manganese (II), copper (II), and calcium were solubilized in aqueous solution to known molarity. These mixtures were treated by utilizing potassium ferrate in known amounts. The presence of metal ions was monitored by ion chromatography and/or visible spectroscopy before and after treatment with potassium ferrate. Potassium ferrate was present with metallic ions for 24 hours at 21ºC.

Results: Metal ions were placed in aqueous solution, iron (II) as Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2, copper (II) as CuCl2•2H2O, manganese (II) as MnCl2•4H2O, and magnesium (II) as magnesium chloride, calcium as calcium chloride. Potassium ferrate treatment did not remove chloride (Cl-), ammonium (NH4+), and sulfate (SO42-). The cation calcium was decreased by 84.0%, magnesium was decreased by 42.5%, copper (II) was removed by 100%, iron (II) by 48.7%.

Reduction of calcium, magnesium, copper, and iron (II) was monitored by ion chromatography. Reduction of iron (II), manganese, and copper (II) was monitored by visible spectroscopy. Substantial reduction of metallic ions was found in all tests after a 24 hour period at 21ºC.

Conclusion: These metals have been associated with oxidative stress, damage to mental and central nervous system function. Potassium ferrate is shown to be efficient in removing many of these potentially harmful ions. Visible spectroscopy and ion chromatography is shown to be effective in monitoring the reduction of metallic ions during investigations or potassium ferrate treatment of contaminated water.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ronald Bartzatt
University of Nebraska, Durham Science Center, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68182, USA.

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Deadly Ultraviolet UV-C and UV-B Penetration to Earth’s Surface: Human and Environmental Health Implications | Chapter 02 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Aims: The dangerous portion of ultraviolet radiation is widely believed to be completely absorbed by the atmosphere before reaching Earth’s surface. Our objective is to make multiple measurements at Earth’s surface of the solar irradiance spectrum in the range 200-400 nm.

Methods: We made numerous measurements of the solar irradiance spectrum in the range 200-400 nm at an elevation of 56 m with International Light Technologies ILT950UV Spectral Radiometer mounted on a Meade LXD55 auto guider telescope tripod and mount assembly.

Results: Our multifold measurements of solar irradiance spectra demonstrate conclusively that all wavelengths in the spectral range 200-400 nm reach Earth’s surface, contrary to the widespread perception that all UV-C and the majority of UV-B never reach the surface. We confirm the surface UV-C measurements of D’Antoni et al. (2007) that were disputed, based on faulty computer model calculations of atmospheric ozone, and thereafter ignored by the geoscience community.

Conclusions: The veracity of our data and D’Antoni et al. (2007)’s data call into question the validity of atmospheric ozone models. Further, we call into question the simplistic supposition of the Montreal Protocol that chloro-fluoro-hydrocarbons are the primary cause of ozone depletion, and point to the very heavy burden of halogens introduced into the atmosphere by ongoing jet-sprayed coal-fly-ash geoengineering. We demonstrate that satellite-based LISIRD solar spectra irradiance at the top of the atmosphere is badly flawed with some regions of the spectrum being less intense than measured at Earth’s surface. That calls into question any calculations made utilizing LISIRD data. We provide introductory information on the devastating effects of UV-B and UV-C on humans, phytoplankton, coral, insects and plants. These will be discussed in greater detail in subsequent articles.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

Mark Whiteside
Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.

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Environmental Responsibility Accounting Practices Disclosure and Performance of Quoted Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria | Chapter 01 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

This study examined the relationship between environmental responsibility accounting practices disclosure and performance of quoted manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The study adopted environmental responsibility accounting practices disclosure (ERAP) based on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Reporting Guidelines as the dependent variable, while return on total assets (ROTA) and assets size (SIZE) were used to represent firm performance and the independent variables. The study which was anchored on the stakeholders’ theory used secondary data obtained from the annual reports of 73 manufacturing companies quoted on the floor of the Nigeria Stock Exchange for the years 2013- 2017. The ordinary least square (OLS) regression method was used as the basic technique of data analysis. Findings of the study revealed the existence of a significant positive relationship between firm performance and environmental responsibility accounting practices disclosure in the manufacturing sector of Nigeria. However, the findings of the study also indicated that environmental responsibility accounting practices disclosure in Nigeria is still developing and that manufacturing sector organizations report very little information about the impact of their operations on the environment. The study recommended, amongst others, that the relevant authorities and regulatory bodies in the country formulate statutory environmental friendly standards requirements for manufacturing sector organizations to comply with in order to facilitate environmental responsibility accounting practices disclosure.

Author(s) Details

Lyndon M. Etale
Department of Accountancy, Faculty of Management Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

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Ecotourism Attitudes, Adaptations and Impacts | Book Publisher International

Ecotourism or nature tourism is defined as travel to ecologically interesting places to support conservation efforts and observe wilderness, wildlife, and local societies without causing any adverse impacts. It is designed to stimulate an interest in, develop an understanding of, and create an appreciation for the natural wonders of Earth while stressing environmental awareness, nature interpretation, and wildlife conservation. Ecotourists tend to be mindful of the detrimental effects of human visitation to wildlife habitats. However, they recognize the positive influence environmentally sensitive tourism can have by creating a sustainable economic alternative to natural resource exploitation. This study examines the attitudes toward ecotourism, the ways indigenous people have adapted to ecotourism, as well as the positive and negative impacts of ecotourism.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mary Snow and Dr. Rich Snow
Department of Applied Aviation Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA.

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