Nutrient Release from a Rapid Organic Fertilizer and Growth and Yield Responses in Banana | Chapter 12 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

A field experiment was conducted for 10 months in banana (Musa spp. variety Nendran) in Randomized Block Design with eight treatments in three replications at the College of Agriculture, Trivandrum, Kerala, India to assess the feasibility of applying a rapid organic fertilizer and the response of banana crop with regard to the soil properties, nutrient mineralization, crop biometric characters and bunch yield. The rapid organic fertilizer produced by thermochemical processing of degradable solid waste was compared with farmyard manure based and soil test based fertilizer recommendations. Treatments to study the combined effect were also included. Fertilizers were applied basally and in six split doses as stipulated in the recommended package of practices. The rapid organic fertilizer imparted a better buffering action to soil and without significant changes in electrical conductivity, ensuring a continuous steady supply of major nutrients synchronous with the active growth stages of the crop. Biometric characters like number of leaves and pseudostem girth, bunch weight, productivity and total dry matter production also differed significantly. Correlation studies revealed strong positive correlation of number of leaves and pseudostem girth with bunch yield.  It can be inferred that the organic fertilizer produced by rapid thermochemical decomposition of solid wastes is a viable, effective replacement to farmyard manure for banana cultivation.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Naveen Leno
College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani 695 522, Kerala, India.

Dr. (Mrs.) C. R. Sudharmaidevi
College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani 695 522, Kerala, India.

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Geochemical Characteristics of Six Formations Based on Organic Geochemical Parameters, Murzuq Basin, Libya | Chapter 11 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

Cutting samples (n = 150) and Core samples (n = 6) from the Taouratine, Dembaba, Assedjefar Marar, Awaynat Wanin, Tanezzuft and Mamuniyat Formations (Jurassic to Ordovician), derived from wells (A-3, B-1, H-1 and H-15), locate in the A, B and H fields, present in Murzuq Basin were analysed. Rock-Eval Pyrolysis, Total Organic Carbon and specific Aromatic Molecular Biomarker (by the use of chromatography- mass spectrometry GC-MS) as geochemical parameters implemented to investigate their Lithology, kerogen type, organic matter (OM) richness and maturity evaluation. Such Formations are fair to very good quantity of organic matter passing in the course of excellent source rocks, have average of organic carbon richness (TOC) value ranged between  0.2% to 16.7% with one anomalously rich sample at 666m (well H-1) where a dark grey shale has a TOC content of 46.1% and high potential yield over 90000 ppm. The studied rocks are ranged from immature to mature of hydrogen index (HI) ranged between 24 – 302 mg HC/g TOC versus pyrolysis Tmax, with dominance of kerogen II/III Type, resulted  based on HI versus oxygen index (OI), ranged from 3 to 161 mg CO2/g TOC. The Tmax , spore colouration (SCI)  and Vitrinite Reflectance (% Ro) as maturity parameters ranged among  425 – 445, 5 – 8.5 and 0.35 – 3 respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon ratios by use of gas chromatography – mass spectrometry pointed to two levels of thermal maturity, where the high level of thermal maturity recorded in lower Silurian, whereas the less maturity was from other formations.

Author(s) Details

Dr. S. Aboglila
Department of Geochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya.

Dr. M. Elaalem
Department of Geochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya.

Dr. E. Farifr
Department of Geochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya.

Y. Ezlit
Department of Geochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya.

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Biotechnological Approaches for Weed Management | Chapter 10 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

Biotechnology has provided new dimensions to herbicide technology. Transgenic technology has generated herbicide-resistant crops (HRCs), which have had a profound impact on the herbicide market. This same technology has the potential to make crops better competitors with weeds through improving competitive traits or making the crop more allelopathic. Living bio control agents can sometimes be applied to weeds, much like a herbicide. In the bio herbicide approach, microbial plant pathogens are applied to target weeds. Fungi, bacteria and viruses offer great promise as bioherbicides. Formulations of Phytophthora palmivora (De Vine) as a selective mycoherbicide for the control of milk weed (Morreniaodorata) in citrus, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Collego) for the control of Northern joint vetch in rice and soybean, are now widely used in developed countries. Extensive research has demonstrated that several allelochemicals possess good herbicidal activity. Thus, A crop that is genetically engineered to be resistant to yet another selective herbicide must fulfill a weed management need that is unmet, such as those niches that were filled by bromoxynil-resistant crops.

Author(s) Details

Bal Manohar
Department of Agronomy, Bihar Agricultural College, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India.

Sushmita
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Bihar Agricultural College, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India.

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Historical, Social and Psychological Preconditions for the Development of E-learning in Yemen’s Higher Education | Chapter 09 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

Computers allow simulation and visualization at all levels and lifestyles – from microorganisms to macrocosmic phenomena crucial to human development. Computer science involves various fields of study. The present paper explores the historical, social and psychological factors that determine educational policies in Yemen throughout its tumultuous history. The new ways of teaching and learning is the emergence of e-learning, defined as a way of learning by using the communication mechanisms of modern computer networks and multimedia, including voice, image, and graphics and mechanisms to search electronic libraries, as well as web portals, whether in the context of distance learning or in the classroom. The work examines the latest trends in e-learning and its application in higher education in the Republic of Yemen. The article in brief presents the results of questionnaire research for the student’s readiness for e-learning in Yemeni universities. The successful integration of information technology in higher education will contribute to the solution of many problems facing developing countries. The application of Information technology in higher education in Arab countries, and especially in Yemen, should not be based on technical decision but on strategic planning as a national choice to improve higher education so it can meet the economic and social development needs.

Author(s) Details

Adnan Sharaf Ali Yousef Al-Absi
South-West University “Neofit Rilski”, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria.

Krasimir Yordzhev
South-West University “Neofit Rilski”, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria.

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Glycobiomarkers in Human Serum Using Electrochemical Strategies | Chapter 08 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

Changes in glycosylation profiles have emerged as indicators of diseases. Altered glycans and glycoproteins secreted by pathological tissues are found in human serum and are potential glycobiomarkers for early diagnostic and prognostic of diseases such as inflammation, infection and cancer. To obtain serum samples is a simple procedure and minimally invasive; thus the detection of glycobiomarkers in serum is attractive for clinical applications. Electrochemical biosensors are a friendly strategy for rapid, easy and highly sensitive measuring of glycans and glycoprotein biomarkers. The use of lectins as biorecognition elements in glycobiosensors has provided a specific detection and profiling of glycans linked to glycoproteins. Electrochemical glycobiosensors based on lectin interactions employed to characterize glycan profiles in serum glycoproteins constitute a promising tool in diagnostic and monitoring of diseases.

Author(s) Details

Priscila Marcelino dos Santos Silva
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, 50670-420, Brazil.

Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, 50670-420, Brazil.

Maria Tereza dos Santos Correia
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, 50670-420, Brazil.

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The Transportation Climate Change Connection | Chapter 07 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

The transportation sector consumes more than two-thirds of oil supplies in the United States each year and accounts for approximately one-third of the United States carbon dioxide emissions. A draft of the Fourth U.S. Climate Action Report states that the current United States climate policy will culminate in the emission of 9.2 billion tons of greenhouse gases in 2020, which represents a 19 percent increase from 2000 levels. These higher levels of greenhouse gases contribute to rising temperatures while causing numerous transportation problems as abnormally hot days become more frequent and extreme. Due to the threat of such impacts and the finite supply of oil, myriad players in the transportation industry are researching conservation measures and alternative energy as well as the development of infrastructure and attitudes that promote emission reductions. This research examines a variety of practical and feasible solutions to decreasing greenhouse gases within the transportation sector based on the notion that as a result, new jobs would be created, billions of dollars could be saved, and dependence on foreign oil would diminish leading to greater national security while mitigating climate change.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mary Snow and Dr. Rich Snow
Department of Applied Aviation Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA.

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Effect of the Type of Load at Infinity over Circular Discontinuity in Elastic Regime: A Theoretical Review | Chapter 06 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

A comprehensive review on the methodology to obtain two dimensional stress field around a discontinuity in the form of a circular hole in the plate subjected to various types of, uniform, axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric monotonic loads at infinity viz. uni-axial tensile, equal bi-axial (tensile-tensile and tensile-compressive) and pure shear is presented with the help of the basic principles of elasticity. The material of the plate is considered to be homogenous, isotropic and linear elastic. Effect of the difference in the type of far field load over the nature and the magnitude of stress fields is examined. Fundamental bi-harmonic equation involving Airy’s stress function is used. The stress function, determined by assuming it in the form of trigonometric series and by employing suitable mathematical substitutions, is made to satisfy the bi-harmonic equation. Constants of the stress function are found from the boundary conditions. Stress concentrations at the surface of the hole and at locations away from the hole are obtained for all the investigated load cases. Stress solutions in cases of bi-axial loads of un-identical magnitudes are also presented.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Sunil Bhat
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SET, Jain University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Dr. H. Adarsha
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SET, Jain University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

G. Ukadgaonker
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai, India.

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Wave Energy Impact on Benin’s Coastline Dynamics, Gulf of Guinea | Chapter 05 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

Most of the shorelines around the world are affected by the phenomenon of coastal erosion, especially the Benin’s coastline.

We investigated the parameters (significant height, peak period and peak direction) and wave energy potential offshore Benin from ECMWF ERAI reanalysis. ERAI data have been adjusted with in situ data coming from the buoy installed off Autonomous Port of Cotonou (Benin) over a period of 14 years. Next, statistical analysis has been used to establish the link between wave energy and Benin’s coastline dynamics. Wave energy assessment has been carried using the empirical formula for medium water depths consideration (equation (10)).

The results show that in Benin’s coastal area, wave energy potential is moderate and available (Hs ≃1.36m, Tp≃ 9.6 s and P ≃15.56kW.m-1). At seasonal scale, wave energy density P and coastline displacement are strongly linked (R2=0.9).

Wave energy exploitation will contribute to energy independence and will play a crucial role in mitigating of coastal erosion effects and consequently in the protection of the country’s coastline. Given the link between wave energy variability and coastline evolution, wave energy exploitation will help Benin country to improve its energy autonomy and consequently contribute to the mitigation of coastal erosion phenomenon observed this coast.

Author(s) Details

Guy Hervé Houngue
Département de Physique (FAST) et Formation Doctorale Sciences des Matériaux (FDSM), Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin.
Laboratoire de Physique du Rayonnement (LPR), FAST-UAC, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin.

Basile Bruno Kounouhéwa
Département de Physique (FAST) et Formation Doctorale Sciences des Matériaux (FDSM), Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin.
Laboratoire de Physique du Rayonnement (LPR), FAST-UAC, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin.
Institut des Recherches Industrielles, Technologiques et en Sciences Exactes (IRITESE/CBRSI), Bénin.

Bernard Noukpo Tokpohozin
Laboratoire de Physique du Rayonnement (LPR), FAST-UAC, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin.
Institut de Mathématique et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Dangbo, Bénin.

Mathias Adjimon Houékpohéha
Laboratoire de Physique du Rayonnement (LPR), FAST-UAC, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin.
Institut de Mathématique et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Dangbo, Bénin.

Vianou Irénée Madogni
Département de Physique (FAST) et Formation Doctorale Sciences des Matériaux (FDSM), Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin.
Laboratoire de Physique du Rayonnement (LPR), FAST-UAC, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin.

Rafael Almar
LEGOS (CNRS/CNES/IRD/Université de Toulouse), France.

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A Novel Technique to Fabricate Iris Shading of Ocular Prosthesis – A Case Report | Chapter 04 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

The eye is a vital organ not only in terms of vision but also being an important component of facial expression. Loss of an eye or a disfigured eye has a far-reaching impact on an individual’s psychology. Additionally it affects ones social and professional life. The need for artificial eye’s can sometimes be made satisfied by stock prosthesis that are available in standard sizes, shapes and colors.

Proper positioning of the iris disk in the sclera is vital in fabricating the custom made artificial eye to mimic natural appearance if not may result in squint eyed appearance.

There are many techniques to fabricate the ocular prosthesis to mimic the natural eye. The present technique is simple and economical to fabricate the ocular prosthesis with commercially available color contact lens.

Author(s) Details

Prashant A. Karni
Department of Prosthodontics, KAHE’s (KLE University’s), KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum-590010, Karnataka, India.

Dolly Gupta
Department of Prosthodontics, KAHE’s (KLE University’s), KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum-590010, Karnataka, India.

Dr. Heena Sharma (M. D. S. Prosthodontist)
Department of Prosthodontics, KAHE’s (KLE University’s), KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum-590010, Karnataka, India.

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Information and Communication Technologies as Veritable Tools for Bridging Gaps among Stakeholders in Agricultural Development | Chapter 03 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

People living in rural areas depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. Agriculture is an important sector in many developing countries. It is critical to sustainable development and agricultural production by smallholders in lower-income countries contributes substantially to the food security of both rural and urban populations. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) in agriculture have the potential to facilitate greater access to information that drives or supports knowledge sharing. However, in the past two decades, Internet and mobile-based channels have emerged. ICTs also include computer-based applications and communication tools such as social media, digital information repositories and digital photography and video as well as mobile phones. An integrated approach to the expansion of Internet services will promote often neglected communication between agencies linked to rural and agricultural development. Government should provide rural infrastructure for wide spread of agricultural information at the grass root levels. Public, private and non-governmental organizations should play more active roles in Information and Communication Technology education of the farmers by getting in close collaboration with the universities and other research institutions.

Author(s) Details

E. N. Mbah
Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

A. J. Attah
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

V. C. Chukwukere
Department of Diagnostic and Extension, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

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