Combined Anti-diabetic Effects of Extracts of Artemisia annua var. Chiknensis (CBGE/CHNA/09/LTNGS/G) and Each of Three Other Plants (Momordica charantia Linn. Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Aegle marmelos Correa) Traditionally Used in Nigeria for the Treatment of Diabetes | Chapter 11 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

The combined anti-diabetic effects of Extracts of Artemisia annua var. chiknensis with Laboratory code number (CBGE/CHINA/09/LTNGS/G), Momordica charantia Linn, Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Aegle marmelos Correa traditionally employed in Nigeria for the treatment of diabetes were studied. Fifty male albino rats which had been subjected to overnight fasting were rendered diabetic through single intraperitoneal alloxan injections (120 mg/kg body weight). They were then divided into 5 batches of ten rats each. The first batch was treated with A. annua leaf extract only. The second batch was treated with a combination of A. annua and M. charantia extracts. The third batch was treated with a combination of A. annua and V. amygdalina extracts while the fourth batch was treated with a combination of A. annua and Aegle marmelos extracts. The extracts were used in the ratio of 1:1 and treatment was done twice daily for a period of 30 days. The fifth batch of diabetic rats was not treated and thus served as control. The sixth batch of non-diabetic rats (10) was set up for comparison. Both the A. annua extract and its various combinations with the other experimental plant extracts resulted in insulin level enhancements and fasting blood glucose level reductions of the diabetic rats. There were significant differences (P≤0.05) in the insulin level of diabetic rats treated with A. annua leaf extract alone and those treated with different combinations of the plant extracts. The mean effects of the extracts on insulin and fasting blood glucose levels were most significant in A. annua + M. charantia (38.65 µlU/ml and 87.55 mg/dl) and A. annua + A. marmelos (38.55 µlU/ml and 87.92 mg/dl) treatments at P≤0.05. The non-treated diabetic rats had an average body weight of 94.90 g as compared to the original average body weight of 100 g at the commencement of the study. The treated diabetic rats had average body weight increments from 108.83g to 109.29 g. The non-diabetic rats had an average body weight of 114.10 g as compared to their initial average body weight of 100 g. The experimental plants were found to contain various biochemical constituents which were probably responsible for the blood serum insulin level enhancements and fasting blood glucose level reductions. The results obtained have shown that the A. annua leaf extract and its combinations with the other plant extracts could be employed in the management of hyperglycemia. The results have shown how effective A. annua var. chiknensis extract is in terms of lowering the blood glucose level or in the prevention of hyperglycemia. The results have also revealed that such blood glucose level reduction could be enhanced when the said extract is used in combination with other plant extracts that have similar effects in terms of management of hyperglycemia. It is hoped that new diabetes drugs that stem from the findings can be developed. However, in order to minimize the risk of diabetes cases in Nigeria, both conventional and traditional preventive measures should be considered.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Chike I. C. Ogbonna
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Research Unit, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Dr. (Mrs) Abigail. I. Ogbonna
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Research Unit, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria.

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Semiconductor Device Simulation with MATLABTM | Chapter 10 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

The purpose of this project is to develop a functional semiconductor device simulator that is modular in nature in order to allow for flexibility during programming and to allow for future development with relative ease. In addition, the program’s main goal is to provide a tool that can supplement device modeling and the standard course material covered in a basic college level introduction, semiconductor device physics, course or and numerical analysis course and to construct basic PN semiconductor devices which can be studied using standard numerical analysis techniques. A device modeling program is developed using the basic MATLAB tools necessary to understand the operation of the program and allow future developments as necessary. MATLAB’s capability and inherent nature of handling matrices and matrix operations makes this approach an excellent technique to develop numerical analysis algorithms.

The program solution will be used to examine device parameters such as carrier statistics, device potential, and internal electric fields. The device solution is compared to analytical approximations in order to further strengthen the understanding between theory and exact numerical solutions and how those solutions are obtained.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Hamid Fardi
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, United States of America.

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Effect of Date of Sowing and Topping on Seed Production of Jute in Red and Laterite Zone of West Bengal | Chapter 09 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

Aim: To assess the effects of date of sowing and topping on seed production of tossa and white jute.

Design: Split plot.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2014 and 2015 at Regional Research Sub-station, Raghunathpur, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Purulia, West Bengal, India.

Methodology: Two separate experiments were carried out on tossa jute, Corchorus olitorius L.(cv. JRO-8432) and white jute, Corchorus capsularis L. (cv.JRC-698), each having 3 replications, with 3 main plots of dates of sowing (D1-15th June, D2-15th July and D3-15th August) and 4 sub plots for topping treatments [T1-No topping, T2-Topping at 30 Days After Sowing (DAS),T3-Topping at 45 DAS and T4-Topping at 60 DAS] under rainfed condition.

Results: In both the jute varieties, the first date of sowing (15th June) proved superiority over other sowing dates irrespective of topping, however, topping at 45 DAS revealed best results as compared to other topping treatments in both the years. First date of sowing (15th June) along with topping at 45 DAS (30th July) recorded the highest number of primary branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1 and the highest seed yield which contributed to significantly higher gross and net return in both the varieties in both the years of experimentation.

Conclusion: Early sowing i.e. around 15th June and topping at 45 DAS could be recommended for enhancement of total seed production in olitorius as well as capsularis jute in red and laterite zone of West Bengal.

Author(s) Details

Kasturi Ghosh
Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, Pin-741252, India.

Ajoy Das
Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, Pin-741252, India.

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Beyond the Construction, Design and Planning Scenarios of Eco-Buildings | Chapter 08 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

Lately, even in Romania, the interest in ecological buildings has begun to take on proportions. Gifted with curiosity, but especially by reorienting towards a new (more) healthier lifestyle, people are looking to find out as much detail as possible about them – thus capturing the outline and also the subject of this study. Although, the construction of ecological buildings is not simple, and eliminates many of the heavy stages of a classical construction, future homeowners omit, due to lack of information, this option, especially in the context in which we do not have a good filter of information about this subject, which will give us the real benefits we have.

Ecologic houses seem to be a trend with strong growth, because the shapes that they can wear are extremely varied. The great variety, low price and promise of ecological housing is likely to convince people to completely change their lifestyle.

How well are we prepared for sustainable development? How do we meet the demands of today’s society? What does a green house look like, how does it behave in time, and how much does it cost? What are the trends in designing a green house? These are just a few questions that we will try to answer during the present work.

Author(s) Details

Bogdan Cioruța
Office for IT and Communication, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca – North University Centre of Baia Mare, Victor Babeș 62A, 430083, Baia Mare, Romania and Faculty of Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca – North University Centre of Baia Mare, Victor Babeș 62A, 430083, Baia Mare, Romania.

Mirela Coman
Faculty of Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca – North University Centre of Baia Mare, Victor Babeș 62A, 430083, Baia Mare, Romania.

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Meteorological Factors in Dispersion Modelling of SO2 and NO2 in Baia Mare, Romania | Chapter 07 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

Atmospheric dispersion characterizes the evolution in time and space of an ensemble of pollutants (aerosols, gases, dust, etc.) emitted into the atmosphere. Atmospheric dispersion phenomenon is influenced by different atmospheric conditions, soil and relief parameters and emission values. The atmospheric dispersion model is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse. Such models are used to estimate the concentration of air pollutants emitted from industrial activity, domestic, rural and diffuse sources.

The paper presents the variety of atmospheric dispersion models on concentrations of SO2 and NO2 made according to the time variation of meteorological parameters (atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed, solar radiation, etc.) specific to the Maramureș area, in particular to the Baia Mare Urban System area. The results had been correlated between specific climatic factors with the pollution of the atmosphere, referred to data monthly and weekly fluctuations of NO2 and SO2. For the climatic measurements, recordings have been made on the following parameters: air temperature, air relative humidity, wind speed, cloud coverage and solar radiation. Measurements have been made between 2010 and 2013, and interpreted using the models offered by G.S. Surfer software. The use of G.S. Surfer software in climatic studies is useful because it creates a great precision graphic representation for everyone interested in having an idea about climate and related pollution issues regarding a specific urban area.

Author(s) Details

Bogdan Cioruța
Faculty of Science, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca – North University Centre Baia Mare, Victoriei Str., No. 76, Baia Mare, Maramureș County, Romania.

Mirela Coman
Faculty of Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca – North University Centre Baia Mare, Victor Babeș str., No. 62, Baia Mare, Maramureș County, Romania.

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Intestinal Helminthiasis and Its Association with Hemoglobin Level among Primary School Children in Sokoto Metropolis | Chapter 06 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

Intestinal helminthes are associated with the reduction in the level of haemoglobin. This abnormal reduction in haemoglobin results in anemia. The study determined the prevalence of parasitic infection and its relationship with haemoglobin level among primary school children in Sokoto metropolis. Stool and blood samples were collected from 224 children from some selected primary schools in Sokoto Metropolis. The stool specimens were examined for parasites by both macroscopic and microscopic methods (saline and wet iodine mount, and formol-ether concentration) while haemoglobin concentration in the blood sample was estimated using hemocue hemoglobin method. A prevalence rate of 8.5% was seen among the children sampled. Hookworm had the highest prevalence of 3.1%, followed by Hymenolepis nana (1.8%). Ascaris lumbricoides had a prevalence of 1.3%, Schistosoma mansoni (0.9%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.4%). 0.9% showed mixed infection with H. nana and Hookworm. Children within the age group of 4-6years had the highest prevalence rate (60%). Male children had a higher prevalence (4.5%) than female (4.0%). The mean haemoglobin concentration in the healthy subject was 11.82 g/dl, while in infected subjects it was 11.03 g/dl, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The study demonstrated that there was a low prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis among children in Sokoto metropolis. However, the haemoglobin concentrations of infected children were significantly affected by parasitic infection. Low haemoglobin concentration in children can lead to behavioural disturbances as a result of impaired neurological development and reduced scholastic performance. Based on these findings, efforts must be made to create better sanitary and toilet facilities in schools at all times to avoid indiscriminate defecation that could lead to the transmission of helminthic infections.

Author(s) Details

O. F. Ashcroft
Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Sokoto, Nigeria.

A. E. Ahmad
Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

N. M. Bunza
Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Sokoto, Nigeria.

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Hill’s Equation in Arm Push of Shot Put and in Braking of Arm Rotation | Chapter 05 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

This chapter consists of the earlier study of shot put where A.V. Hill’s force-velocity relationship was transformed into a constant maximum power model consisting of three different components of power. In addition, the braking phase of the arm rotation movement was examined where Hill’s equation was applied for accelerated motions. Hill’s force-velocity relationship was tested by fitting it into two arm push measurements of shot put experiments and one braking phase of whole arm rotation. Theoretically derived equation for accelerated motions was in agreement with the measured data of shot put experiments and the braking phase of the whole arm rotation experiment. Maximum power in these experiments was also tested by three different equations and two of them seemed to function well. The progress of movement in the studied experiments was concluded to be as follows: 1) the state of low speed and maximal acceleration which applies to the hypothesis of constant force, 2) the state of high speed and maximal power which applies to the hypothesis of constant power.

Author(s) Details

Ahti Rahikainen
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, P.O.Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland.

Mikko Virmavirta
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, P.O.Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland.

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Influence of Species, Particle Size and Compacting Pressure on Impact Resistance Index and Water Resistance of Fuel Briquettes | Chapter 04 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

The desirable characteristics of fuel briquettes are that they remain solid until they have served their function and also performed well as a fuel. The first aspect which is related to its physical and mechanical properties is mainly a function of the quality of the densification process for a given raw material. This paper reports the findings of a study on the effect of species, particle size and compacting pressure on impact resistance index and water resistance quality of fuel briquettes. Briquettes were compacted at room temperature using compacting pressure levels of 10 to 50 MPa. The briquetting process and physical properties test were conducted using standard laboratory procedures. Results indicate that species, compacting pressure and particle size of sawdust at 5% level of significance have significant effect on the impact resistance index and water resistance quality of briquettes. Additionally, compacting pressure of 40 MPa was adequate to produce briquettes with good impact resistance index irrespective of the species. However, briquettes produced did not have good water resistance quality. The multiple correlation coefficient (R) and adjusted R2 for the regression model between impact resistance index of briquettes, and species density and compacting pressure were 0.74 and 0.54 respectively. Additionally, the multiple correlation coefficient and adjusted R2 for the regression model between water resistance quality, and species density, particle size and compacting pressure were 0.82 and 0.67 respectively. The above therefore suggests that even though briquettes produced from sawdust of tropical hardwoods at room temperature using low compacting pressure have adequate impact resistance index, they need to be protected from moisture.

Author(s) Details

Stephen Jobson Mitchual
Department of Construction and Wood Technology Education, University of Education, Winneba, Kumasi Campus, P.O.Box 1277, Kumasi, Ghana.

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Palm Nut Dimensional Relationship Relevant to its Primary Processing | Chapter 03 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

This chapter attempts to solve the problem associated with separation of cracked nut mixture to obtain high purity kernels. Palm nuts used were obtained from Ideas Oil mill, Ibesikpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The nuts were treated as appropriate and experimental data generated. Various models based on the relationship between nut dimensions (minor diameter d1, intermediate diameter d2, major diameter d3 and shell thickness ts) were developed for the Dura and Tenera palm nut varieties. The models were aimed to tackle the following challenges: design of silo for palm kernels and nuts storage; conditioning of nuts to have optimum moisture to enhance the cracking of nuts to release whole kernels, energy and power requirements to effectively cracked nuts to have little or no objectionable damage to the kernels; the separation techniques and methods to obtain shell fragments that could be easier for separation to obtain kernels of high purity. These models developed were tested and validated. The models could be used to aid in the following: design of storage facilities for kernels and nuts respectively; application of energy that would crack nuts to yield  high percentage of whole kernel; determination of optimum moisture content that would enhance cracking of nuts to release whole kernels; application of appropriate operating conditions to enhance the separation of cracked nut mixture to yield kernels of high purity through appropriate techniques/methods coupled with production of small shell fragments that are of comparable sizes with kernels.

Author(s) Details

Orua Antia
Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

William Olosunde
Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

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Tomato Value Chain in Nigeria: Issues, Challenges and Strategies | Chapter 02 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

The study was carried out to appraise tomato value chain in order to promote the development of tomato production and processing industry in Nigeria. Currently in Nigeria, about 1.8 Million tonnes of fresh tomato are produced per year, but over 50% of these are lost due to poor storage system, poor transportation and lack of processing enterprises. This makes it important to develop strategies for the development of tomato value chain. The method employed in this study includes semi-structured informal interviews with key value chain actors such as producers, intermediate traders, retailers and input suppliers and a critical review of available literature. The study revealed that there are good varieties of tomatoes in Nigeria, but only a few are suitable for industrial processing with regard to quantity and quality. The research also revealed that Nigeria is still not a major exporter of either fresh or processed tomato products despite the high production of fresh tomatoes. This was found to be due to inadequate supply of good quality seeds, inadequate storage facilities, poor disease and pest management, and poor processing facilities. The development of tomato for industrial use is currently gaining momentum, in the area of production of tomato juice, paste, ketchup, puree, and powder. Strategies identified to overcome the challenges include: policy shift to encourage Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) as well as Industries along the value chain; improved input supplies; organisation of farmers into cooperatives so as to initiate innovative funding mechanism for them; establishment of clusters for processors; improvement in marketing strategies including guaranteed price for fresh tomato products; adjustment in tariff regime to favour local manufacturers including outright ban on importation of processed tomato products; increased investments in Research and Development (R&D) to produce improved seed varieties and develop technologies for storage and processing; adoption of Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) by farmers and a strong National Commodity Association or Network.

Author(s) Details

Dr. (Mrs) C. U. Ugonna
School of Built Environment, Liverpool John Moors University, Liverpool, UK.

Dr. M. A. Jolaoso
Department of Agricultural and Agro-Allied, Raw Materials Research and Development Council, Abuja, Nigeria.

Prof. A. P. Onwualu
Department of Research and Innovation, National Universities Commission, Abuja, Nigeria.

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