Evaluating of Sediment Delivery Ratio on Spatial and Temporal Variabilities in Semiarid Watershed Brazil | Chapter 14 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Evaluation of sediment delivery ratio is important for determining watershed sediment yield. Rates of both interrill and rill erosion were calculated under shrub and uncovered Inceptisols conditions and were not observed to the presence by ravines and gullies in the watershed of Jacu River, in a semiarid region, Brazil. Direct measurement campaigns of suspended sediment and bedload were also carried out by means of the US DH–48 for collection of suspended sediment samples and US BLH–84 used to collect samples bed load. The soil loss due to interril erosion under uncovered conditions was equal to 8.43 t ha-1 and was considered high, and the same was true for the values of rill erosion with erodibility equal to 0.0021142 kg N-1 s-1 and critical shear stress (τc) equal to 2.34 Pa. The mean value of sediment delivery ratio of Jacu watershed was equal to 0.165 and ranged from 0.29 in the year 2008 to 0.026 in 2010. This variation was associated with the natural variability of semiarid environment, indicating the necessity of assessment for a longer period to deepen our knowledge of sediment delivery ratio of the Jacu semiarid watershed.

Author(s) Details

Victor Casimiro Piscoya
Department of Rural Technology, Environmental Engineering Pós- Graduate Rural Federal of Pernambuco University (UFRPE), Recife-PE, Brazil.

Vijay P. Singh
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Zachry, Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2117, USA.

José Ramon Barros Cantalice
Department of Rural Technology, Environmental Engineering Pós- Graduate Rural Federal of Pernambuco University (UFRPE), Recife-PE, Brazil.

Moacyr Cunha Filho
Department of Informatics and Statistics, Rural Federal of Pernambuco University (UFRPE), Recife-PE, Brazil.

Sergio Monthezuma Santoianni Guerra
Department of Rural Technology, Environmental Engineering Pós- Graduate Rural Federal of Pernambuco University (UFRPE), Recife-PE, Brazil.

Cristina dos Santos Ribeiro
Environmental Engineering Pós- Graduate Rural Federal of Pernambuco University (UFRPE), Recife-PE, Brazil

Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho
Federal University of Tocantins (UFT), Tocantins, Brazil.

Sandro Augusto Bezerra
Federal Institute of Pernambuco-Campus Vitória de Santo Antão (IFPE), Recife-PE, Brazil.

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Mycorrhizal Colonization in Atriplex nummularia Lind. Subjected to Desalinizador Reject | Chapter 13 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

This work has the objective of evaluating the mycorrhizal colonization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus – AMF Claroideoglomus etunicatum in Atriplex nummularia Lind. subjected to desalinator reject. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the headquarters of Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco – IPA, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with the treatments constituted in a factorial scheme of five levels of salinity in AC= 2.86 mS/cm; T1= 11.54 mS/cm; T2= 12.04 mS/cm; T3= 13.13 mS/cm and T4= 14.16 mS/cm, associated with the presence and absence of fungus, presence and absence of nutrient solution, and autoclaved and non-autoclaved soil. 8.0 g of Hoagland & Arnon complete nutrient solution was added every fortnight. After five months, the roots of the treatments were collected and the root colonization was evaluated. It was found that in all treatments the association between Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Atriplex nummularia was beneficial. The correlation was positive for the treatment T4 (Reject + 14 gNaCl) + AMF. Thus, it was observed that salinity had no negative effect on the association as well as on the growth of the vegetable.

Author(s) Details

C. F. de Melo
Catholic University of Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

E. W. F. Gomes
Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco (IPA), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

A. S. Messias
Catholic University of Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.
Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco (IPA), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

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Phytoosociological Survey of Caatinga Trail under Extensive Grazing in Patos-PB Municipality | Chapter 12 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The caatinga is a typical Brazilian semi-arid vegetation, where dominant shrub species and some dispersed arboreal individuals are found, in addition to the marked presence of cacti.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the arboreal-shrub component, analyzing the floristic composition and phytosociology in caatinga area under extensive grazing in the Paraíba hinterland. The study area extends over 60 ha, and presents vegetation of the caatinga type with the presence of extensive cattle grazing. The vegetation data were obtained using the simple random sampling method, with plots with a standard size of 20 x 20 m, and randomly arranged 15 sample units. In each sample unit were measured all living or dead individuals, with Chest Height Circumference (CAP) ≥ 6 cm as well as total height of each individual. There were 1285 individuals belonging to 9 families, 16 species, 15 genera. The Fabaceae family obtained the largest number of individuals and species, with the Cenostigma bracteosum species being the most important, with 650 individuals. The first class of diameter, concentrated the largest number of individuals with 627 individuals (48.8%). Regarding height distribution, it was observed that 1154 individuals (89%) are grouped in the first three classes. the study area presents a low diversity, proving that the extensive grazing has been changing the floristic composition of the area.

Author(s) Details

Sérvio Túlio Pereira Justino
Federal University of Campina Grande, Av. Universitária s/n – Bairro Santa Cecília, Patos-PB, 58708-110, Brazil.

Roberta Patrícia de Sousa Silva
Federal University of Campina Grande, Av. Universitária s/n – Bairro Santa Cecília, Patos-PB, 58708-110, Brazil.

Amanda de Lira Freitas
Federal University of Campina Grande, Av. Universitária s/n – Bairro Santa Cecília, Patos-PB, 58708-110, Brazil.

Maria José de Holanda Leite
Federal University of Alagoas, Rodovia Br-104, sn-Km 14,Maceio-AL, 57072-970, Brazil.

José Lenildo Barbosa Leite da Silva
Federal University of Campina Grande, Av. Universitária s/n – Bairro Santa Cecília, Patos-PB, 58708-110, Brazil.

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Interrelationship and Cause – Effect of Morphological Traits with Grain Yield and Oil Content among Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss) Genotypes under Non- irrigated and Irrigated Condition | Chapter 11 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Water scarcity is a venomous upshot of climate change and is one of the sternest factors restraining global crop productivity. In order to study association and cause-effect of shortage in irrigation on some morphological and quality traits on yield, an experiment accommodating 20 genotypes of Indian  mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss), was conducted in Randomised Complete Block Design (RBCD) from various Rapeseed & Mustard centres  located across country, randomly in three replications  during Rabi 2016-17, one condition subjected to drought (devoid of irrigation) inside  the Rainout shelter under residual moisture condition and another situation with  normal irrigated field condition at research farm of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur. Genotypic correlations for grain yield and other characters were invariably higher than phenotypic correlations indicating indicated less influence of environment. Earliness in flowering (-0.010; -0.256) and maturity (-0.335; -0.185), Secondary branches per plant (0.267; 0.169), Siliqua on primary mother axis (0.162; 0.079), Length of primary axis (0.006; 0.275), Siliqua density (0.244; 0.189) and Biological yield (0.444*;0.411*) also had shown positive correlation with grain yield per plot at phenotypic level under both non- irrigated and irrigated condition indicated that improvement in these morphological parameters indicated genotypes with early flowering and maturity coupled with more secondary branches with  more siliqua accommodated by longer primary mother axis with increasing density of siliqua along with high biological yield and will ultimately enhance the grain yield.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Khushboo Chandra
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa (Samastipur), Bihar – 848125, India.

Dr. Anil Pandey
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa (Samastipur), Bihar – 848125, India.

S. B. Mishra
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa (Samastipur), Bihar – 848125, India.

Dr. Kavita
Department of Crop Physiology and Botany, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa (Samastipur), Bihar – 848125, India.

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Nematicidal Efficacy of Fluensulfone against False Root-knot Nematode (Nacobbus aberrans) in Cucumber Crop under Field Conditions | Chapter 10 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The present study was carried out to compare the efficacy of a nematicide of new generation for the control of the false root-knot nematode; Nacobbus aberrans, in cucumber crop (Cucumis sativus L.) under field conditions. The experiment was set up under a randomized complete block design with four replications. Six treatments were assessed for control of N. aberrans: four doses of fluensulfone, one of the nematicide oxamyl and a control with no application of nematicides. Ten days before transplanting, nematicides were applied in a single application via irrigation systems. Higher control under field conditions was obtained with the application of fluensulfone at a dose of 2.75 L.ha-1. The lowest final population densities of N. aberrans in cucumber crop were recorded in the plots treated with fluensulfone at the dose of 2.25 L.ha-1, with an average of 6.25 juveniles, and the lowest galling index was observed in plots treated with fluensulfone at the same dose, with a galling index of 2.1. The results indicated that application of fluensulfone to cucumber crop can provide good control of N. aberrans.

Author(s) Details

José Alonso Calvo-Araya
Escuela de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica.

Martha Orozco-Aceves
Instituto Regional de Estudios en Sustancias Tóxicas, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica.

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Investing in Rural Communities of Nigeria for Agricultural Development: A Strategy for Reducing Rural-Urban Youth Migration | Chapter 09 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Rural-urban youth migration is increasing in developing countries, particularly Nigeria. This has resulted in loss of labour for agricultural production. Distress push factors such as lack of rural credit facilities, unemployment and rural poverty are most important contributory factors while demand pull factors such as perception of high wages from urban employment are also dominant. Decline in food production in developing countries such as Nigeria can be linked to the impart of rural-urban youth migration as well as other variable factors such as economic, soil quality, ecology, climatic conditions, socio-cultural setting and poor farm management. Rural-urban youth migration also reduces the rate of agricultural and rural development. Efforts are needed by Nigerian government at all levels in encouraging rural youths to remain in agriculture through adequate provision of physical and social infrastructure as well as creating an enabling environment devoid of insecurity. This will ensure growth of the agricultural sector and increase rural productivity.

Author(s) Details

E. N. Mbah
Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

A. J. Attah
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

N. E. Amah
Federal College of Animal Heath and Production Technology, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

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Changes of Microbial Community in the Irrigative Grey-Brown and Grey-Meadow Soils under Vegetable Cultures of Dry Subtropical Zone | Chapter 08 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Introduction: Soils contain a very high, but mostly unknown biodiversity, and soil biology remains an under studied topic. Soil organisms are a key factor for soil development and in turn depend on soils as a habitat. Microorganisms carrying out metabolic processes remove nutrients from the ecosystem and use them to build new cells. Microorganisms are the backbone of all ecosystems. Microbes are decomposers, with the ability to recycle nutrients from other organisms’ waste products.

Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of microorganisms in different types of agricultural soils.

Study Design: Comparative analysis of quantity of microorganisms in a crop rotation and constant (permanent) in a dry subtropical zone in different types of soils.

Methodology: Microorganisms quantity has been defined by (microorganisms total quantity meat-peptone-agaric (MPA) and starchy-ammoniac-agaric (SAA), actinomycetes starchy – agaric- agaric (SAA) and microscopic fungus quantity have been defined on Chapek agaric environment on the basis of the method received in the Institute of Microbiology of Moscow.

Results: The results showed that the quantity of microorganisms in a crop rotation was more, than permanent cultivation of these cultures. A mineralization of organic substances in soils under constant cultures occurred more intensively, than in a crop rotation.

Conclusion: Including in a crop rotation of legume cultures (Lucerne, haricot, bean) increases quantity of microorganisms, also slows down intensity mineralization of organic substances. This study showed that the soil microbial metabolic functional diversity had high variability. The number of bacteria in the irrigated meadow-serozemic soils was smaller than in the gray-brown soils, and the number of actinomycetes was on the contrary higher in the grey-brown and meadow-serozemic soils. The meadow-serozemic soils were characterized by the maximal intensity of the mineralization of the plant residues among the studied soils.

Author(s) Details

Naila Orudzheva Hidayat
Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, St. Mamed Rahim 5, Baku, 1073, Azerbaijan.

Magerram Babayev Pirverdi
Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, St. Mamed Rahim 5, Baku, 1073, Azerbaijan.

Gunel Asgerova Farhad
Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, St. Mamed Rahim 5, Baku, 1073, Azerbaijan.

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Sustainable Options for Scrap Tire in Vietnam: From Waste to Energy | Chapter 07 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The mass flow of waste tires grows with the increasing a number of vehicles on the roads.. This trend also holds in Vietnam. Currently, the waste-tires are collected, reused and recycled in several ways. This study carried out an investigation of waste tire generation collection, reuse and recycling in the South-East of Vietnam.  Pyrolysis approach had been applied in some countries and Vietnam now a day. The study had also use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method with Simapro solfware (Version 8.5.2.0) to calculate and evaluate the environmental impacts from the waste tires pyrolysis process. The results found that there are large savings from waste tire pyrolysis in terms of material and emissions, due to the substitution of pyrolysis products. The findings from this study are: Waste tire is not completed as waste, it can be seen as a byproduct which can be reused or applied as an input material to become other useful products. A sustainable approach for waste tires, based on collection, reuse, recycling, and utilization of scrap tire and appropriate management, can achieve the goal of almost zero discharge of waste tires. 

Author(s) Details

Pham Thi Anh
Institute for Environmental and Transport Studies, Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

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Comparatives Effectiveness of Two VetiverGrass Species (Chrysopogon zizanioides and Chrysopogon nigritana) for Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals | Chapter 06 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The study was carried out at the screen house of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (I.A.R&T) to determine the responses of two vetiver grass cultivars (Chrysopogon zizanioides and Chrysopogon nigritana) on heavy metal contaminated soils, and their potential for remediation. The experiment was a 3 x 4 factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated thrice. The two vetiver grass cultivars and no vetiver grass were evaluated on  soils (soils from mechanic village, urban dumpsite, industrial waste site and an agrarian soil). The absorption of metal contaminants: lead, cadmium, and zinc, by the two vetiver cultivars was determined in all treatments. In mechanic village soil, C. zizanioides absorbed more of zinc than C. nigritana with 7.0% and 5.9% reduction in lead levels respectively. In industrial waste soil, C. zizanioides and C. nigritana  reduced the zinc levels in the soil by  27.6% and 18.8% , respectively. Also, in urban dumpsite soil, the respective  zinc reductions by C. nigritana and C. zizanioides,  were 13.7% and 6.1% by . For cadmium, C. nigritana absorbed more of cadmium than C. zizanioides in mechanic village soil, with percentage reduction reductions amount to 30.5% and 26.2% by C. nigritana and C. zizanioides, respectively. In urban dumpsite soil, there were percentage reductions of 7.1% and 6.8% by C. nigritana and C. zizanioides. Lead absorption by C. nigritana in mechanic village soil, was higher than C. zizanioides with percentage reduction of 43.4% while C. zizanioides reduced lead level by 36.3%. In urban dumpsite soil, lead levels in the soil were reduced to 10.2% and 6.3% by C. zizanioides and C. Nigritana, respectively. However, in industrial waste soil, C. zizanioides reduced lead level in the soil by 39.2%, whereas C. nigritana reduced it 29.9% Chrysopogon nigritana, the locally sourced variety, proved to have the great potential of phytoextracting the heavy metals in the contaminated soils than the exotic cultivar (C. zizanioides).

Author(s) Details

Dr. M. O. Adigun
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Crawford University, P.M.B 2001, Faith City, Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Dr. K. S. Are
Land and Water Resources Management Program, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria.

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Feed Intake, Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Moringa oleifera, Gliricidia sepium or Cassava Fodder as Supplements to Panicum maximum | Chapter 05 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The performance and carcass characteristics of West African dwarf (WAD) sheep fed Panicum maximum supplemented with Moringa oleifera, Gliricidia sepium or cassava fodder, were investigated in a randomized complete block and completely randomized design experiments respectively. Twenty four growing WAD sheep (10.7 kg average live weight) were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments: 1: 100% P. maximum (control), 2: 75% P. maximum + 25% M. oleifera, 3: 75% P. maximum + 25% G. sepium, 4: 75% P. maximum + 25% Cassava leaves. Dry matter (DM) intake (g/kgW0.75/day) ranged between 74.6 for treatment 4 and 92.7 for treatment 3. Crude protein (CP) intake in treatment 3 was higher than in treatments 1 and 4. Growth rate ranged between 6.53 g/day to 12.74 g/day for treatments 1 and 4 respectively while treatments 2 and 4 had better feed conversion ratio than treatment 1. Average dressing percentage was 33.9% and there was no significant difference in the carcass characteristics among the various treatments. It was concluded that Moringa oleifera is a suitable alternative to Gliricidia sepium as supplement in small ruminant diets.

Author(s) Details

A. A. Fadiyimu
Department of Animal Health and Production, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Nigeria.

J. A. Alokan
Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

A. N. Fajemisin
Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

G. E. Onibi
Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

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