Comparative Evaluation of Organic and Conventional Vegetables on Physical and Chemical Parameters and Antioxidant Activity | Chapter 13 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

The objective of this research was to perform a quantitative and comparative analysis of physical and chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity in organic and conventional carrot (Daucus carota), green pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Five representative samples of each conventional vegetables, certified organic and non-certified organic vegetables were gotten from farms and supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All samples were underwent the following analyzes: reducing sugars, total sugars, ºBrix, vitamin C, density, acidity, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. The result shows that the organic carrot showed higher acidity (0.11 g% citric acid) and total sugar (5.68 g%) than those found in standard samples and certified organic ones (p<0.05). Regarding the density analysis and total soluble solids, there was no statistical difference between carrots, green peppers and lettuce from all types (p>0.05). It was observed that the vitamin C levels in carrot samples levels had no significant difference between the different forms of production (p>0.05). Conventional lettuce and certified organic pepper showed higher vitamin C than the other samples (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity of the samples was analyzed by the capacity to reduce the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl- hydrazyl) radical, in which carrot and conventional pepper showed lower antioxidant activity (p<0.05) when compared to organic samples. There were no significant differences among the different forms of production in the lettuce samples (p>0.05). Carrot and green pepper, with seal certification or not, showed higher capacity to reduce DPPH than the conventional ones, this suggests that the form of cultivation has a direct relationship with the nutritional values of the vegetables.

Author(s) Details

Fernanda de Oliveira Pereira
Nutritional Biochemistry Core, Laboratory of Functional Food and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro State, UNIRIO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Renata dos Santos Pereira
Nutritional Biochemistry Core, Laboratory of Functional Food and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro State, UNIRIO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Lana de Souza Rosa
Nutritional Biochemistry Core, Laboratory of Functional Food and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro State, UNIRIO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Dr. Anderson Junger Teodoro
Nutritional Biochemistry Core, Laboratory of Functional Food and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro State, UNIRIO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Coating on Shelf Life and quality Retention of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Fruits during Storage | Chapter 12 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. Effect of Neem leaf coating on the shelf life and quality retention of tomato fruits during storage was investigated. Three varieties of tomato fruits (UTC, Shase and Hoozua) obtained from Wurukum market in Makurdi were treated with Neem leaf coating to extend their shelf life and maintain their quality during storage. Significant variations were observed among the varieties in relation to most of the parameters studied. Irrespective of treatment, weight loss, postharvest decay, marketability and firmness decreased with increase in storage duration. Temperature ranged from 28.43 – 31.89°C. For weight evaluation, UTC ranged from 4.95 – 45.28, Shase ranged from 4.40 – 45.16 and Hoozua ranged from 4.62 – 59.48. Among the three varieties, UTC and Shase showed lower postharvest decay of 0.00 – 10.00 than Hoozua with postharvest decay of 1.00 – 10.00 and the lower postharvest decay was found in the treated fruits. Marketability ranged from 10.00 – 0.00 for all varieties and firmness ranged 4.00 – 2.00 for all varieties. Comparatively, all varieties treated with Neem leaf powder had same shelf life of (22.0±0.00) days, while control fruits of Hoozua variety produced the least shelf life of (15.0±0.00) days and UTC control fruits produced the highest with (19.0±0.00) days. Four fungi namely Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Botryodiplodia theobromae were isolated from the decaying tomato fruits. The findings of this research indicate that powder from the leaf of Neem plant can be used to extend the shelf life and maintain the quality of tomato fruits beyond their known natural limits.

Author(s) Details

Zakki Yula Hosea
Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, P.M.B 102119, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Dr. Liamngee Kator
Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, P.M.B 102119, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Terna David Agatsa
Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, P.M.B 102119, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Ameh Linus Owoicho
Center for Food, Technology and Research, Benue State University, P.M.B. 102119, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

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Influence of Storage on Some Physicochemical and Microbial Properties of Concentrates from Two Sudanese Mangos (Mangifera indica) Verities | Chapter 11 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Aims: To produce concentrates at remote areas of production, where fruits are expected to be cheaper and hence compete with imported concentrates.

Study Design: Factorial Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan and Food Research Center, Shambat, Sudan, between September 2009 and May 2010.

Methodology: Two mango (Mangifera indica) varieties Abu Samaka and Baladi were used to produce concentrate and the concentrate was stored at ambient temperature and a refrigerator at 4ºC for 6 months. The concentrates were prepared by using open kettle boiler (100ºC) and they were packed in cans using double seam machine.

Results: The Baladi variety gave higher total soluble solids (TSS) than Abu Samaka. Abu Samaka exhibited an excellent percentage (29.7%) of total sugars during storage and the total titrable acidity of mango concentrate in the two varieties reported a slightly increase. The reducing sugars increased gradually with storage time. The two varieties showed retention of ascorbic acid content during storage. There was no growth of E. coli, yeast and molds in the concentrates of the two varieties tell the end of the storage period (6 months). The concentrates from the two varieties at both temperatures were acceptable by the panelists.

Conclusion: The two varieties showed suitability in processing to give mango concentrate.

Author(s) Details

Ann Osman Kabashi Elsheikh
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Prof Abd Elazeem Ahmed Mohamed Nour
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Prof Abd Elmoneim Osman Elkhalifa
Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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Aqueous 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Utilization on a Non-climacteric Fruit: Cucumber | Chapter 10 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

The present study aimed to evaluate a utilization of aqueous 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on a non-climacteric fruit of cucumber, and to compare with/to gaseous 1-MCP and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) applications. Fruits of cucumbers (Erdemli F1) were either treated with aqueous or gaseous 1-MCP (1 ppm), or left untreated for MAP storage or controls. The cucumbers were afterwards put into PET clamshell containers except for MAP application and stored 23 ± 1°C for 10 days for simulating retail shelf-life conditions. The cucumbers were then tested periodically to record changes in quality as determined by weight loss, firmness, color, gas composition (O2, CO2, and N2), total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, chlorophyll content, and decay during the storage time. Either aqueous or gaseous 1-MCP application had a no significant effect on weight or firmness loss. Illustrated by peel color values measured during the storage period, there were no significant differences among the treatments. Total soluble solids, pH or titratable acidity did not show a significant change or variation among treatments during the storage as well. Cucumbers stored in modified atmosphere packages showed higher chlorophyll a amount than those treated with 1-MCP. The results of the present work indicates that neither aqueous 1-MCP application nor gaseous 1-MCP application is effective for retaining quality loses and consequently for extending shelf life of the cucumbers kept at 23°C.

Author(s) Details

Muharrem Ergun
Department of Horticulture, Bingol University, Bingol, Turkey.

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Consensus Summit: Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Aims: To issue a consensus statement on Lipids and Cardiovascular Health and the impact of their interrelationship in Nigerian Population.

Study Design: Experts from a range of relevant disciplines, deliberated on different aspects of Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population at a Summit.

Place and Duration of Study: The Summit was held in April 2016 at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research.

Methodology: Presentations were made on central themes after which expert participants split into four different groups to consider the questions relevant to different sub themes of the title. Consensus was arrived at, from presentations of groups at plenary.

Conclusion: With the increase in the prevalence of NCDs, especially Cardiovascular Disease in Nigeria, and the documented evidence of deleterious effects of lipids, the expert panel called for an urgent need to advocate for the general public and health professionals to make heart-friendly choices in food consumption.

Author(s) Details

K. K. Akinroye
Nigerian Heart Foundation, Nigeria.

Y. A. Olukosi
Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Nigeria.

T. Atinmo
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

O. Omueti
Nigerian Heart Foundation, Nigeria.

C. F. Babasola
Lead Nutrition Consultant, Xpert Solutions, Nigeria.

O. Idigbe
Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Nigeria.

A. Isah
Department of Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Benin, Nigeria.

C. O. Isokpunwu
Department of Nutrition, Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria.

O. Mobolaji-Lawal
Nigerian Heart Foundation, Nigeria.

A. Nasidi
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Nigeria.

O. J. Odia
Department of Medicine, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

O. B. Ogunmoyela
Post Graduate School, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Nigeria.

O. Okojie
Department of Nutrition, Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria.

B. J. C. Onwubere
Department of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria.

A. Osibogun
Department of Community Health, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

R. Schilpzand
Choices International Foundation, The Netherlands.

O. O. Akinkugbe
Nigerian Heart Foundation, Nigeria.

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Hydro-Fracture Resistance Properties of Hura crepitans Seed Relevant to Handling and Processing | Chapter 08 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

During harvesting, handling and dehulling, agricultural materials including seeds were subjected to several static and dynamic pressures that may affect the quality of the kernel if not properly handled. This work therefore studied the effects of moisture content on some compressive properties of Hura crepitans as a preparation for the design of the seed dehulling machine. Hura crepitans seeds were conditioned to four different moisture contents (9.3, 12.6, 15.6, and 17.8% db). The effect of moisture contents on energy at yield, energy at break, compressive load at yield, compressive load at break, compressive strain at yield and at break and compressive stress at yield and at break were studied using Instron testing machine (Model 3369). The results of the experiment show an increase in load at break from 44.87 to 356.27N; Load at yield from 10.87 to 83.06 N; and decrease in energy at yield from 0.262 to 0.021J; energy at break from 2.292 to 0.258 J; compressive strain at yield from 0.311 to 0.160 mm/mm; compressive stress at break from 2.809 to 0.384 mm, with increase in moisture in the range studied. The effect of moisture content on all the properties studied were significant (p> 0.05). These result showed that the compressive force properties of Hura crepitans is moisture dependent. The data reported in this work will be of great help during the design of Hura crepitans seed harvester, dehuller, cleaning and sorting equipment for the seed.

Author(s) Details

D. O. Idowu
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

T. P. Abegunrin
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

F. A. Buhari
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

O. O. Ajadi
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

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A Through-chain Analysis of Microbiological Food Safety Hazards and Control Measures Associated with Production and Supply of Seed Sprouts for Human Consumption | Chapter 07 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

An outbreak that occurred in Australia in 2005 – 2006 due to consumption of alfalfa sprouts contaminated with Salmonella Oranienburg affected 141 individuals, and cost an estimated $1.19 million to the Australian community. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 linked to consumption of fenugreek sprouts occurred largely in Germany in 2011, and affected approximately 4,000 individuals. Among them, 908 developed haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome, and 50 died of the infection. These examples demonstrate that seed sprouts contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms present an unacceptable food safety risk to consumers.

This paper describes a through-chain risk analysis that informed the development of an Australian food safety standard for the production and processing of seed sprouts. It expands an extended abstract published in 2014 in the European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety by taking into consideration seed sprout associated outbreaks between 1988 and 2018, and risk mitigation measures implemented by Australian State and Territory food safety authorities to reduce food safety risks imposed by seed sprouts.

The purpose of this paper is to inform government agencies and the fresh produce industry involved in managing seed sprout safety of the science behind the risk mitigation measures developed to minimise food safety risk associated with seed sprouts.

Author(s) Details

Hong Jin
Food Standards Australia New Zealand, P.O. Box 5423, Kingston ACT 2604, Australia.

Adele Yates
Food Standards Australia New Zealand, P.O. Box 5423, Kingston ACT 2604, Australia.

Duncan Craig
Food Standards Australia New Zealand, P.O. Box 5423, Kingston ACT 2604, Australia.

Patricia Blenman
Food Standards Australia New Zealand, P.O. Box 5423, Kingston ACT 2604, Australia.

Scott Crerar
Food Standards Australia New Zealand, P.O. Box 5423, Kingston ACT 2604, Australia.

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Microbiological Quality and Sensory Properties of Tarhanas Produced by Addition Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Sourdough as Starter Culture after Different Fermentation Periods | Chapter 06 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate some effects of different starter cultures (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sourdough) and different fermentation times (7, 14 and 21 days) on tarhana.

Place and Duration of Study: Food Engineering Department, Namık Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey, October 2017.

Methodology: Wheat flour, full-fat commercial set-type yoghurt made from cow milk, starter culture (sourdough and dried baker’s yeast as Saccharomyces cerevisiae), fresh red pepper, onion, tomato, dill, parsley, dry mint, table salt and ground black pepper were used as materials. Tarhana doughs prepared using these materials were fermented for 7, 14 and 21 days. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses of tarhana samples were performed using standard methods. Tarhana soups were evaluated by panelists in terms of sensory properties at the end of the 21st day.

Results: pH values of baker’s yeast added samples were lower than the others and their acidity were higher than the others during the fermentation period. Dry matter of samples increased with the prolongation of fermentation time. The dry matter of the sample produced using baker’s yeast was slightly higher than that of the other sample at day 21. Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (mesophilic rod) counts of tarhana samples with sourdough were always higher than the others during the fermentation. Yeast-mould counts of tarhana samples with baker’s yeast decreased slightly during the fermentation period, but were higher than the others. The coliform group bacteria was not detected on the 7th day of fermentation. Samples were left to fermentation for 7 and 14 days were less favoured than those were left to fermentation for 21 days. On the 21st day of fermentation, the sample added dry baker’s yeast was the most favoured sample.

Conclusion: As a result of the sensory analysis, considering the total score, although the difference between them is slight, baker’s yeast added tarhana soups were more favoured than the others. Also, with the prolongation of the fermentation period, in terms of sensory properties, tarhanas were more favoured and microbiologically safer tarhanas were obtained.

Author(s) Details

Fatma Coskun
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Namık Kemal University, 59030, Suleymanpasa, Tekirdag, Turkey

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Dairy Calcium Intake and Relationship to Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Bone Mineral Content (BMC) and Leptin in Post- Menopausal Women | Chapter 05 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Previous research has demonstrated that dairy calcium along with calorie restriction can contribute to weight loss while maintaining BMC and BMD. This study was a 3-month demonstration of a culturally sensitive program to evaluate the effects of dairy calcium.

Caloric intake was limited to 1400 kcal/d [@ 92% of resting energy expenditure]. A total of 56 female subjects were randomized into two equal groups receiving either low dairy calcium ~800 mg/d or high dairy calcium ~1400 mg/d intake. The age and body mass index (BMI) at baseline for the low calcium group was 54.46±7.39 years, 32.5±6.6 kg/m2 respectively; and the high calcium group was 56.75± 8.90 years, 33.5±5.8 kg/m2 respectively. Differences after 3 months in weight, BMI, leptin, BMD and BMC were analyzed. Correlations were calculated between leptin and BMD (g/cm2) or BMC (g) before and after intervention. After the intervention in the high calcium group there was an average reduction in weight -1.52±2.08 (kg), (P=0.001); BMI: -0.70±0.86 kg/m2, (p<0.001); leptin: -1.18±5.10 ng/ml, (P =0.231) BMC: -0.009±1.41, (p=0.975) and BMD: 0.001±.017, (p=0.684). Despite a greater reduction in leptin levels in the low calcium group, changes in all parameters were not different from changes in the low calcium group with an average reduction in weight of -1.93±3.04 (kg), (p=0.002); BMI: -0.74±1.2 kg/m2, (P=0.002); leptin: -2.58±8.38 ng/ml, (P=0.114), BMC: 0.038±1.38, (P=0.887) and BMD: <0.001±.022, (P=0.912). The decrease in leptin level was not correlated with BMD and BMC in both intervention groups (all P>0.05). We observed a significant treatment effect only for leptin where the low calcium group had a bigger reduction compared to the high calcium group.  There was no significant correlation between the change in leptin, BMC and BMD. After the intervention, there was significant reduction in weight, BMI, and leptin in both intervention groups and a non-significant increase in BMC and BMD. There was no correlation between leptin, BMC and BMD. We should take note that this study had a limited sample size and short follow-up period. Nonetheless, based on these findings, we would suggest, that since postmenopausal women have age related bone loss, in addition to a restricted calorie diet (i.e. 1400 kcal/day), the inclusion of increased ≥ 4 servings of low fat dairy to one’s diet for weight management.

Author(s) Details

Dina H. Fakhrawi
Center for Nutrition, Healthy Lifestyle and Disease Prevention, School of Public Health, Loma Linda

W. Lawrence Beeson
Center for Nutrition, Healthy Lifestyle and Disease Prevention, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, California, USA.
Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, California, USA.

Raeida G. Nakhoul
Center for Nutrition, Healthy Lifestyle and Disease Prevention, School of Public Health, Loma Linda

T. Allan Darnell
School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, California, USA.

Zaida R. Cordero-MacIntyre
Center for Nutrition, Healthy Lifestyle and Disease Prevention, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, California, USA.
Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, California, USA.

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Neurological Impact of Zinc Excess and Zinc Deficiency | Chapter 04 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Zinc is an essential mineral that can cause pathological effects whether in excess or deficiency.  Zinc is a component for over 250 enzymes and is required for cell growth, cell division, and cell function. Zinc is found in muscle and bones, with the prostrate, liver, skin, and kidney having detectable levels of zinc. However, zinc present in excess or deficiency can cause significant pathology in patients that include deleterious effects neurologically. Zinc in excess in vivo can cause focal neuronal pathology, while zinc deficiency can bring about mental lethargy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and reduced nerve conduction. Zinc is assimilated within the body by oral ingestion, dermal exposure, and pulmonary inhalation. Although not generally viewed as a cause of cancer, studies suggest that zinc is associated with progression of prostate malignancy. Toxic levels of zinc have been shown to induce lethargy, neurotoxicity, and gliotoxicity. High levels of zinc causes neuronal death in cortical cell tissue culture. Zinc is known to accumulate following the death of neurons in global ischemia. Therefore, zinc deficiency or excess is of significant clinical concern. Endogenous zinc is known to have important involvement within cytotoxic activity within individual cells. Zinc excess is shown to induce lethargy and focal neuronal reduction. Zinc deficiency has been shown to induce lethargy, neurosensory pathology, neuropsychiatric disorders, and reduction of nerve conduction. Oral ingestion of toxic levels of zinc will produce symptoms of dizziness and lethargy. The inhalation of zinc can bring about shaking, fatigue, and fever. Although zinc acts as a neuromodulator, endogenous zinc can be a potent and rapid neurotoxin. At 300 µM levels, zinc will extensively destroy cortical cells in tissue culture. Neurons exposed to zinc will initiate apoptosis. The activity of zinc in the human body has significant implications for normal health. Zinc in excess or deficit will cause pathological conditions which should be rapidly diagnosed by clinicians.  Further study of the biological activity of zinc is warranted.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ronald Bartzatt
Durham Science Center, University of Nebraska, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68182, USA

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