Relationships between Climate Parameters and Forest Vegetation at and Near Digya National Park, Ghana | Chapter 12 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

This paper evaluates the effect of three climate parameters on forest cover in Ghana and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at Digya National Park derived from Landsat image data. Climate data (temperature, humidity, dewpoint, rainfall) are assembled from statistics provided by Ghana’s Meteorological Agency. The study introduces a weighted averaging method by computing weather information from neighbouring stations.  Also, this research introduces a model of dewpoints, enabling the direct calculation of dewpoints from temperature and humidity data.  The major finding is that while temperature significantly affects forest cover and Park vegetation, dew-points and rainfall do not. The paper suggests where future research may be more fruitful in analyzing the effects of climate on vegetation.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Yaw A. Twumasi
Department of Urban Forestry and Natural Resources, Southern University and A&M College,102C Fisher Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA.

Tommy L. Coleman
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Alabama A&M University, P.O. Box 1208, Normal, AL 35762, USA.

Andrew Manu
Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, 1126A Agronomy Hall, Ames,  IA 50011, USA.

Edmund C. Merem
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 West Capitol Street, Jackson, MS 39201, USA.

Albert Osei
Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Oakwood University, 7000 Adventist Blvd. Huntsville, AL 35896, USA.

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Inventory and Impact of Dominant Fishing Gear and Method in Eleyele Lake Oyo State, Nigeria | Chapter 11 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

Gill nets fishery are potentially selective and therefore use as a sampling gear if mesh sizes are rightly chosen in order to conserve the young and developing fishes. The fishing potential of derelict passive gill net poses irreversible and economic loss on the aquatic ecosystem and fishermen respectively. There by contributing to biological assets loss and capable of causing navigational hazard. Precautionary approach towards Conserving and sustaining renewable aquatic resources is the best for exploitation of the cheapest sources of animal protein in sub-Sahara region. This paper gives inventory of the existing fishing gears and methods commonly in use, impacts of gill net fishery in terms of mesh sizes selectivity, catch per unit effort, fishing profitability index  in Eleyele Lake Ibadan and artificial fish aggregating device potential of derelict gill net in Oyo State resident Waters . A total of 539 fishing gears were encountered in six sampled areas of two strata; gill nets, traps, cast nets, dragnets and long – line (baited and un-baited). Gillnets accounted for 36% in the strata.  Apparently, stratum 1 had 159 and stratum 2 had 33 units of gill net; descriptive statistics showed Wide variation in the total fishing gears and methods observed in the strata and X2 (Chi square) showed significant (P> 0.01) in the numerical strength of gill nets and less significant (P> 0.01) of legal mesh sizes usage. The most caught species was tilapia, 57.7% by number and 33.8% by weight of the total catch and were not sizable with mean weight of 203 g of the total catch. Gill net fishery of Eleyele Lake comprises of legal and illegal mesh sizes of which the later accounted for 48% of 192 and its use accounted for over 58.7% by number and 20% by weight of the entire fish caught. This paper provides effects of catching process of gill net fishery in Eleyele Lake resulted into yields with wider variation across genera and species of fish caught (mean=341.5, S.D=229.2) and fetches its production cost about 12.23 times in a life span. Causes, and management initiatives; Preventive and curative of derelict gear for public awareness and change of attitude on the part of fishermen before concomitant irreversible ecological problem of ghost fishing.

Author(s) Details

Adedokun, Mathew Adewale
Department of Animal Health and Production Technology (Fisheries Unit), The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, P.O. Box 021, Saki, Oyo State Nigeria.

A. O. Ayanboye
Department of Aquaculture and Aquatic Resources Management, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria.

O. B. Adelodun
Department of Fisheries Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, P.M.B. 10, Igboora, Nigeria.

T. A. Kolawole
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, P.M.B. 10, Igboora, Nigeria.

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A Critical Review on Safe Disposal Techniques of Space Debris | Chapter 10 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

As the development and research work in space is greatly increasing now a days, more and more rockets, satellites, and spacecraft are made to sent in space for the various purposes, which work for proposed years and some of those also may fail to work but they are physically present in the orbit as a junk although they are not for any kind of further use and functioning these are called space debris or orbital debris it includes old satellites, spent stages of rockets, damaged parts of spacecraft’s etc. This space debris is increasing very fast in the space and there are chances to get damaged of our working satellites by this debris. So it is compulsory and necessary to track and safe disposal of them to avoid in future accidents and other harmful activities in space. In this paper our focus will be on various safe disposal technologies that may use to dispose space debris.

Author(s) Details

Brijesh Patel
School of Engineering and I.T., MATS University, Raipur, (C.G.), India.

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Effect of Petroleum Crude Oil on Mineral Nutrient Elements, Soil Properties and Bacterial Biomass of the Rhizosphere of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link C.K. Schneid.) | Chapter 09 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

This study elevated the effect of petroleum crude oil contaminated soil on the nutrient elements, soil properties and bacterial biomass of the rhizosphere of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link C.K. Schneid). Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increased in jojoba leaves when grown in petroleum oil polluted soil especially at 2% and 3% crude oil. It was noted that, Na, Mg and Ca decreased while K increased in shoots of jojoba. In roots Na and Ca increased however K and Mg decreased with increasing crude oil concentration in the soil. Heavy metals, Cu, Mn, Cd and Pb increased in both shoot and root with increasing crude oil concentration while, Zn decreased comparing with the control. In soil, N and K decreased meanwhile Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn as well as organic matter increased with increasing crude oil concentration. Soil was free from P while, the addition of inorganic fertilizers improved P content. Bacterial account was significantly increased at the end of the experiment at 1% and 2% crude oil especially after addition of inorganic fertilizers. The electric conductivity and MDA of the leaves increased with increasing crude oil concentration. The addition of inorganic fertilizers to crude oil contaminated soil decreased the electric conductivity and MDA comparing with crude oil only. The observed changes in composition of mineral elements in jojoba plants in the present study could be attributed to the cell injury and disruption in the cell membrane, heavy metal accumulation and toxic nature of the petroleum oil. Also this study has demonstrated that soil contamination with crude oil has a highly significant effect of reducing some mineral element composition of Jojoba plants.

Author(s) Details

W. M. Shukry
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science for Girls, Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, El-Gomhoria Street, El-Mansoura, Egypt.

G. H. S. Al-Hawas
Faculty of Science, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

R. M. S. Al-Moaikal
Faculty of Science, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

M. A. El-Bendary
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science for Girls, Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.
Faculty of Science, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

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An Approach to Mathematical Interpretation of Pollution Transport | Chapter 08 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

The pollutant fate and transport in a river or stream is governed by some physical and chemical processes, which can be formally interpreted considering an elementary volume of the water body. Some principal expressions of pollutant concentration are formulated, which will be useful for the development of the mathematical models. Evaluating the pollutant concentration in the water volume assists in finding how the contact of pollutant with water controls its final quality.

Author(s) Details

Atish Sagar
Agricultural Engineering at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Pankaj Malkani
Agricultural Engineering at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Abhinav Dubey
Agricultural Engineering at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Prashant Singh
Agricultural Engineering at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

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Production of Activated Carbon from Agroindustrial Residues and Application in the Treatment of Desalinator Reject | Chapter 07 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

Residues of agroindustrial origin can be used for various purposes, including the production of activated carbon. In order to conduct the experiment, residual biomass of Cocos nucifera-C and grape marc-B were used at the doses corresponding to 100C/0B, 75C/25B, 50C/50B, 25C/75B and 0C/100B. The appropriate operating ranges for the production of activated carbon were identified and an experiment was carried out with a full factorial design, type 32, with three replicates and a control.  The activated carbon produced was in contact with the desalinator reject for 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes, after which the extracts were physico-chemically analyzed. The data were submitted to statistical analysis, using Statistic software, with a percentage reduction in the characteristics evaluated: pH (13.2), electrical conductivity (1), sodium (4.7), potassium (35.6), calcium (3.2), magnesium (zero) and chloride (18.2), indicating the mixture of coconut fiber and grape marc in 50C/50B ratio as being the most promising in the adsorption of the chemical elements of the reject, when in contact for up to an hour.

Author(s) Details

S. S. A. Lima
Development of Environmental Processes, Catholic University of Pernambuco, 50.050-900, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

S. C. de Paiva
Catholic University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

H. T. Figueiredo
Department of Chemical Engineer, Catholic University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

G. M. C. Takaki
Catholic University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

A. S. Messias
Catholic University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

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Self Potential Anomalies and their Minerological Implications, A Case Study of Some Parts of Southern Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria | Chapter 06 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

Self Potential, an electrical geophysical method is chiefly used in mineral prospecting. Vertical and lateral variations in the conductivity of earth materials produce variations in the potential distribution as measured on the surface thereby giving information of the sub-surface. The SP method involves the measurement of the differences in natural ground potential between any two points on the ground surface which ranges from less than a millivolt to over ten volts. This method has some mineralogical implications in that it has been used in massive base metal exploration to detect the presence of massive ore bodies. It has also been extended to groundwater and geothermal investigations, environmental and engineering applications to; map seepage flow associated with dams, in geological mapping and in delineation of shear zones and near-surface faults. This work seeks to x-ray the principles of SP survey with evidence from the survey carried out in some parts of Southern Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Seven locations where SP survey was carried out showed a negative anomaly of -2mV to -600mV and a positive anomaly of 5mV to 277mV distributed within the study area. It was observed that the potential anomalies are due to some conductive minerals like graphite and sulphide ore bodies. The Iso-potential contour map of the study area was made with an interval of 50mV which reveals the mineralogical trend of sulphide and graphite ore bodies.

Author(s) Details

Azunna, Daniel. E.
Department of Physics, Clifford University, Owerrinta, Abia State, Nigeria.

Chukwu, Godwill. U.
Department of Physics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.

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Subsoil Conditions of Parts of Niger Delta Wetland, Nigeria | Chapter 05 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

The subsoil conditions of Gbaran North Bank area, parts of the Nigerian wetland were evaluated using both disturbed and undisturbed soils, which were subjected to various laboratory tests adopting the British Standards methods, with the aim of establishing the subsoil conditions of the area as it affects use of the soils for various kinds of construction. The liquid limit recorded values between 37% and 50%, plastic limit range of 11% – 23% and attendant plasticity indices of 20% – 33%. The soils classified as highly plastic on the basis of their plasticity index and showed expansivity range of low – medium, while the swelling type was critical – non-critical. The soils recorded shear strength values of 39 – 42 KN/m2 with coefficient of consolidation Cv values of 0.4 – 30.5 m2/yr. The soils from the results showed tendencies towards expansion and therefore pose a problem to construction except precautionary measures are taken to ensure safety and durability of structures. Improved waste and flood management on the other hand, will facilitate sustained shear strength properties of the soils thereby enhancing their constructional values.

Author(s) Details

P. K. Wokoma
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

N. E. Ekeocha
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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Assessment of Fluvial Sediments at Serra Azul Stream, Minas Gerais– Brazil | Chapter 04 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

Aims: The goal of this study is to perform the characterization of bottom and in suspension sediments at Serra Azul stream. Chemical, mineralogical and grain size aspects were evaluated, as also the legal issues pertinent to this matter.

Study Design: Hydrosedimentological studies at Juatuba basin.

Place and Duration of Study: Juatuba basin – southeast part of Brazil, between December 2013 and October 2014.

Methodology: The bottom and in suspension sediments of Serra Azul stream were characterized through different techniques: x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence and grain size analysis (using sieves and laser techniques). The environmental legislation was checked in order to see the values of the allowed concentrations of some heavy metals in the waters. Also, the data of a small hydrometric network were treated in order to obtain the natural flows of the water courses.

Results: Two elements found in the sediments in suspension were not found in bottom sediments: Chlorine and Bromine. Gallium, Lead, Barium and Nickel were not found in the bottom sediments samples in 2013, only in 2014. The concentration values of Chrome, Potassium, Sodium and Silicon became smaller in 2014, however for the other elements that were found, these values became bigger. The bottom sediments collected in the study area present values higher than the threshold above which a probable adverse effect on the biota is expected for Chrome and Nickel, in order of importance. When the global values of the dissolved constituents in surface waters were compared to the ones found at Juatuba basin, it was possible to verify that only for Iron and Aluminum the 2014 found values were bigger than the average elemental composition, according to a variety of sources and authors.

Conclusion: The transport of sediments in the studied area showed that some heavy metals are being transported towards the Serra Azul reservoir in concentrations higher than the allowed ones. Due to a long dry season in the study area, this transport is currently minimized, however the next rain station can generate a serious scenario. It is necessary to implement a permanent program in order to collect and analyze these sediments, inclusive in other parts of the basin. It is also necessary to solve the question concerning to the absence of a legislation for several other chemical elements found in the sediments.

Author(s) Details

Vinícius Verna Magalhães Ferreira
CDTN – Development Center of Nuclear Technology, Environmental Service, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG.CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Amanda Lafetá Oliveira
CDTN – Development Center of Nuclear Technology, Environmental Service, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG.CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Raquel Luiza Mageste Fonseca
CDTN – Development Center of Nuclear Technology, Environmental Service, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG.CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Natália Manuele Gomes de Oliveira
CDTN – Development Center of Nuclear Technology, Environmental Service, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG.CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Rodrigo Oscar de Albuquerque
CDTN – Development Center of Nuclear Technology, Environmental Service, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG.CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Carlos Alberto Carvalho Filho
CDTN – Development Center of Nuclear Technology, Environmental Service, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG.CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Lúcia Maria Alencar Labossiere Auler
CDTN – Development Center of Nuclear Technology, Environmental Service, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG.CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

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Trend and Change Analysis of Monthly and Seasonal Temperature Series over North-Eastern Nigeria | Chapter 03 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

Temperature is one of the indicative factors of climate change which is one of the very important issues discussed in the recent two decades. The present research aimed at studying temporal and seasonal variation in temperature over North-eastern Nigeria, during the period 1981–2010. Trends in annual and seasonal temperature series were analyzed using Mann-Kendall test. The analysis revealed that temperature ranged between 20.2 – 31.8°C among all the locations, and over months and years. Temperature was significantly higher (P<0.01) in April compare to all the other months. The trends, both annual and seasonal, showed increasing tendency in temperature during the period 1981-2010. There was significant increase (positive trend) in temperature in all studied locations (less Taraba where trend was negative), indicating Nigeria is experiencing a rise in air surface temperature too. Since most of the Nigerian population is dependent on economic activities that are temperature sensitive, findings here implicate Nigeria is also one of the susceptible to the attendant consequences of global warming. Thus, the models developed in this study could assist the prediction of temperatures over the locations it covered.

Author(s) Details

Engineer (Dr.) M. N. Dammo
Department of Civil Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Nigeria.

B. S. U. Ibn Abubakar
Department of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

A. Y. Sangodoyin
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

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