Production of Seedlings of Fast – Growth Tree of Paulownia elongata S. Y. Hu | Chapter 16 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

The major method of propagation of varieties and hybrids of Paulownia elongata is vegetative (asexual) method. Paulownia elongata can be propagated by macropropagation techniques (root cuttings, green cuttings and by micropropagation technique, tissue culture or in vitro. Today the tissue culture method is the most modern biotechnological method. In Bosnia and Herzegovina and regions of former Yugoslawia, more and more Paulownia elongata seedlings are being produced and new plantations of Paulownia elongata areestablished. This paper deals with the methods of propagation and problems in raising Paulownia elongata planting materials. The work aims to produce seedlings of fast-growth Paulownia elongata, Shan Tong hybrid and the possibility of propagation through different methods. Propagation by green cuttings, root cuttings and in vitro propagation was tested. After 15 days, the percentage of rooting for the green cuttings was 100%, and there were no dead plants, the average number of roots was 13.86 pcs per plant and roots were of different lengths. The length of the cuttings had an impact on the growth of plants because the smallest cuttings was of 1.5 cm (4 pcs from 30 plants or 1.33%), whereas cuttings of 5 cm (26 out of 30 plants or 86.6%), showed the best rooting. For in vitro propagation, meristems of mother plants were used for establishing of tissue culture. The plants showed a survival rate of 80-90% . Production of Paulownia elongata seedlings by different methods of vegetative propagation provides a variety of options to producers, depending on what kind of equipment they have. In vitro production is the most expensive but also the fastest method because a large number of seedlings can be produced in a short time. It is recommended that in vitro propagation should be used to build mother plant stock and that in the coming 2-3 years the green cuttings from super-elite planting material are going to be used.

Author(s) Details

Besim Salkić

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Ahmed Salkić

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Husejin Keran

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Sead Noćajević

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Ensar Salkić

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Emir Imširović

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Nutrient Use Efficiency of Two Improved Cultivars of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) under Screen House Conditions in Samoa | Chapter 15 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is a staple crop of many of the South Pacific nations with an ever increasing export demand. In recent years, yields of taro have increased dramatically through breeding and selection. However, selections of improved lines are often entirely based on final yield. There are many physiological pathways by which increased potential yield may be achieved. Factors such as the accumulation of dry matter and nutrient use efficiency, merit investigation. Two improved (blight resistant) taro cultivars were planted and harvested for biomass measurements on a monthly basis for a total of eight months (30-240 days after planting) through destructive sampling. At each harvest, plants were separated into various plant parts and their dry matter accumulation and nutrient content were determined. Comparatively, cultivar Samoa 2 showed significantly higher uptake of N (25%), P (37.5%), K (33%), Mg (36.4%), Mn (22.7%) and Zn (48.3%) than cultivar Samoa 1. Even though maximum levels of total plant uptake of nutrients by the two cultivars did not differ between the cultivars, cultivar Samoa 1 plants absorbed 17% less N, 26% less P and 20% less K than those of cultivar Samoa 2 with the uptake uniformly distributed over the entire life cycle of the crop. Although cultivar Samoa 2 resulted in higher total plant (19.6%) and corm dry matter (10.4%) productions, cultivar Samoa 1 had a higher nutrient use efficiency, (kg of edible dry matter produced per kg of nutrient taken up), for N, P, K, Mg, Mn and Cu over cultivar Samoa 2. However, for Ca, Fe and Zn. Cultivar Samoa 2 had a higher nutrient use efficiency over cultivar Samoa 1. Based on nutrient use efficiency of the cultivars, Samoa 1 is recommended for marginal to rich soils while Samoa 2 for good to rich soils.

Author(s) Details

Sanjay Anand

Faculty of Business and Economics, School of Agriculture and Food Technology, The University of the South Pacific, Alafua Campus, Apia, Samoa.

Danilo Flores Guinto

Ballance Fertilisers, Tauraga, New Zealand.

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Germination Response of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth Seed to Different Scarification Treatments in Botswana | Chapter 14 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

Evaluation of different pre-sowing treatments on germination of A. lebbeck seeds was conducted in the laboratory at Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (BUAN) from January to February 2018. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments as follows; mechanical scarification, boiling water, hot water, concentrated sulphuric acid (98.8%) and control (untreated seeds). Sulphuric acid had four different levels of exposure time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes), whereas boiling water had three levels of exposure time (1, 3 and 5 minutes). Each treatment had four replications. Germination percentages (GP), mean germination time (MGT) and germination index (GI) were calculated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant (p<0.01) differences in germination parameters were observed across the treatments. Concentrated sulphuric (60 minutes) had superior absolute numbers than the rest including the control, recording 82% compared to 8% for control. However, no statistical differences were observed across the three main treatments; all sulphuric acid, boiling water (1 minute) and mechanical scarification. The control revealed the longest MGT which was significantly (p<0.01) longer than the rest. As would be expected, pre-sowing treatments which outperformed others in terms of germination percentages recorded, significantly (p<0.01) increased the GI as compared to control. Based on these findings, mechanical scarification, boiling (1 minute) and hot water treatments are recommended as suitable seed pre-sowing treatments for enhancing the germination of A. lebbeck seeds because the methods are cheap and easy to perform. Although concentrated sulphuric acid yielded the best rest results the method is not recommended because of its high cost and the danger it poses to workers.

Author(s) Details

Kemoemetse Maphuthe

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana.

Witness Mojeremane

Department of Range and Forest Resources, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana.

Thembinkosi Mathowa

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana.

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Population Density and Diversity of Trees on Farmlands in Three Districts of the Upper East Region of Ghana: Implications for Food Security and Ecosystem Sustainability | Chapter 13 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

Ghanaian farmers have been practicing farming since time immemorial and trees are a natural component of farmlands. However, the choice of particular tree species and their population on the farms is greatly influenced by the farmers’ preferences and therefore, the utility value placed on particular tree species. This study was conducted to determine the number of trees per unit area of farmland, the diversity of the tree species, and the factors that influence farmers’ decision to leave trees on their farms in three districts of the Upper East region of Ghana. It also seeks to determine any relationship between tree density and the yields of commonly cultivated crops in the study area. The area falls within the Guinea and Sudan savanna zones, characterized by a short unimodal rainfall regime (about 5 months) and a rather long dry season. Twelve communities (4 per district) were randomly selected and farmers were interviewed on their reasons for allowing trees on their farmlands as well as the yields of major crops cultivated. Ten farms in each community were also randomly selected and inventories of trees were conducted, where trees were identified, and enumerated. Farm sizes were also measured. Mean tree population densities on farms were 18.5, 18.4 and 25.9 trees per hectare in the Garu-Tempane, Bawku West and Kassena Nankana West districts respectively. A Shannon Weiner diversity index of 1.563, 1.195 and 1.551 were calculated for Garu-Tempane, Bawku West and Kassena Nankana West districts respectively. Forty-two (42) different tree species belonging to 23 families were encountered in Garu-Tempane district, 28 species from 18 families were encountered in the Bawku West district and 37 species belonging to 21 families in the Kassena Nankana West district. Azadirachta indica, Combretum molle, Diospyros mespiliformis were the commonest on all farms. Factors that influenced farmers’ decision to allow trees on their farms were shade (22%), fuelwood (18%), food (15%), medicine (13%), housing (13%), soil improvement (10%), erosion control (7%), fodder (1%) and others (1%). Crop yields were generally high in the Bawku West district and there was no significant relationship between tree population density and the yields of crops.

Author(s) Details

Stephen Edem Akpalu

Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Bolgatanga, Ghana.

Gloria Kukurije Adeyiga

Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Bolgatanga, Ghana.

Maurice Kwame Amooh

Department of Agroforestry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Dennis Kyereh

Department of Agroforestry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Mercy Marilyn Akpalu

Bolgatanga Polytechnic, Bolgatanga, Ghana.

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Production of Immortelle Seedlings According to the Principles of Organic Production | Chapter 12 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

This paper presents the study of the influence of 3 types of organic fertiliser of industrial origin (Chap liquid, Biofert and Guano) on the most important quality parameters of immortelle seedlings.

The study was performed under protected conditions through 3 repetitions, with 10 plastic pots in each one. In the experiment were included two control: one that was not fertilised and the other one where was applied the organo-mineral fertiliser Sapro elixir.

The largest influence on the increase of the average height of the seedlings had Guano – 32.1 cm and Sapro elixir – 31.5 cm, while the lowest seedlings were measured in the non-fertilized control – 25.5 cm.

Plants with the largest above ground mass were found in variants with Guano – 17.5 g, Biofert – 16.7 g and Chap liquid – 16.1 g, while the seedlings with the lowest above ground mass were measured in non-fertilized control – 11.7 g. The differences in the above-ground biomass of immortelle seedlings between non-fertilised controls and all studied organic fertilisersM were also statistically justified. The plants with the more significant root biomass were found on variants with the application of Chap liquid – 29.9 g and Biofert – 29 g, while the lowest values for this parameter were determined in non-fertilized control – 17.9 g. All studied variants of fertilisation showed a significant increase in root biomass compared to non-fertilized control.

Author(s) Details

Zoran Jovović

Biotechnical Faculty, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro.

Besim Salkić

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Ana Velimirović

Biotechnical Faculty, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro.

Predrag Vukićević

Biotechnical Faculty, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro.

Ahmed Salkić

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Use of AMMI and GGE Analyses to Identify Stable and Resistant Soyabean (Glycine max L. Merrill) Genotypes Infected with Cucumber mosaic virus | Chapter 11 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

Soyabean is an important source of protein for millions of people in developing countries. However, infection by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes devastating losses. Cultivation of resistant varieties has been identified as the best management strategy in many crops. The present study was, therefore, conducted to identify soyabean genotypes with high stability for growth and seed weight under CMV and disease-free conditions. Thus, eight soyabean genotypes were evaluated as CMV-infected and uninfected, using completely randomised design replicated five times and set up in the screenhouse at the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Minna, (lat.9°40֬ N;long 6°30֬ E at an altitude of 220 m.a.s.l), Nigeria in 2018. Soyabean seedlings were infected with the virus by sap transmission at 10 days after sowing (DAS). Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative (AMMI) analyses of the evaluated parameters for growth and seed weight of the test genotypes showed that environments’ effects -infected and uninfected- were significant (p<0.05). They accounted for 100% Genotype × Environment (G×E) interaction. Disease-free soyabean plants enhanced significantly higher growth and seed weight than the CMV-infected plants. The AMMI and Genotype main effects (G) plus Genotype×Environment (GGE) analyses showed that TGX 1993-4FN was the genotype with the greatest stability for leaf diameter, leaf length, number of leaves per plant, number of days to flowering and seed weight. It is recommended that, the soyabean genotype TGX 1993-4FN, can be exploited for breeding purposes and strategies that will prevent CMV infection in soyabean fields should so be adopted by farmers pending the development of new soyabean varieties incorporated with durable resistant traits for CMV.

Author(s) Details

M. T. Salaudeen

Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

A. A. Akinyemi

Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

A. C. Wada

Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

C. J. Adama

Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

K. E. Ogunsola

Department of Biological Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.

A. N. Muhammad

Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

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Influence of Impulse Pressure Treatment on Changes in Productivity of Buckwheat Plants | Chapter 10 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

Plants are sensitive to different environmental factors. Pressure and mechanical forces are factors of plant growth and development control. We have proposed the method of pre-sowing seed treatment by impulse pressure generated by a shock wave. It is possible to use the shock wave for different precision purposes due to the excellent parameter control that determine the intensity of the influence. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench., cv. Saulyk) plants were treated by impulse pressure.

The aim of this work was to get dependence of germination and yield on the value of IP. The choice of contrasting variants for the assessment would be useful to determine stress strategies of plants after the treatment of IP. IP did not influence the germinability of seeds in the range of 3-11 MPa. Changes in the yield after the treatment of IP 3-8 MPa were not revealed, but it was grown up to 17% after IP 11 MPa. This variant is recommended for agricultural use. IP 17-23 MPa retarded germination, but did not bring about acute seed death; variability of yield denotes the transition state. IP 29-35 MPa induced the death of some of seeds, and seed germinability reduced on 22%-57%, but it would be tempting to get the 2.3-fold increase of yield.

Author(s) Details

Elena E. Nefed’eva

Volgograd State Technical University (VSTU) 28, Lenin Prospect, Volgograd, Russia.

Vladimir I. Lysak

Volgograd State Technical University (VSTU) 28, Lenin Prospect, Volgograd, Russia.

Soumana Datta

Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, India.

Violetta A. Pavlova

Volgograd State Technical University (VSTU) 28, Lenin Prospect, Volgograd, Russia.

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Seed Village Scheme: Empowering Livelihood of Farmers | Chapter 09 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

The seed is a fragile living organism which is considered as a miracle of life. Seed is the basic input in agriculture which alone surges the yield by 15-20 percent. The non-availability of quality seeds in oilseeds and pulses is one of the main reasons for the lower production. So quality seed is the need of time. A village, wherein trained group of farmers are involved in production of seeds of various crops and cater to the needs of themselves, fellow farmers of the village and farmers of neighboring villages in appropriate time and at affordable cost is called as seed village. The process of establishment of seed village, history, implementing agencies, training, advantages and causes of seed village programme failure is discussed in this chapter.

Author(s) Details

Anil Kumar Malik

Department of Extension Education, CCS HAU, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

Sunil Kumar

Department of Seed Science and Technology, CCS HAU, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

Suryapal Singh

Department of Seed Science and Technology, CCS HAU, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

Vikas Sheoran

Department of Horticulture, CCS HAU, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

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Paddy Residue Management: A Need of the Hour | Chapter 08 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

India produces about 500 million tonnes (Mt) of crop residues annually. Paddy is the major crop of Punjab and Haryana states of India and is being cultivated in an area of about 300 million ha and 1.35 million ha, respectively. Paddy straw produced is not preferred as animal feed due to high silica content. Burning of paddy straw in field is a major challenge in Punjab and Haryana agriculture today as it contributes to reduced air quality and human respiratory ailments in intensive rice-production areas. Therefore, evaluation and popularization of technologies at farm level need concentrated efforts of researchers through farmers’ participatory approach of technology evaluation and dissemination.

Author(s) Details

Vikas Sheoran

Department of Horticulture, CCS HAU, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

Anil Kumar Malik

Department of Extension Education, CCS HAU, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

Sunil Kumar

Department of Seed Science and Technology, CCS HAU, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

Suryapal Singh

Department of Seed Science and Technology, CCS HAU, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

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Effect of Legume Cover Crop on Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Fruit Weight and Brix | Chapter 07 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

Recent reports show that orange yield and fruit quality is on the decline in Kenya’s coastal lowlands hence need for an efficient and sustainable production system. A field study was conducted in Vitengeni, Ganda and Matuga locations within the coastal lowland of Kenya from May 2012 to April 2015 to evaluate the effect of three legume cover crops on orange fruit weight and brix. The treatments included mucuna (Mucuna pruriens), dolichos (Lablab purpureus), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cover crops and fallow of natural vegetation as the control. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) and each treatment replicated four times within the four blocks. Data collected were orange fruit weight, orange fruit brix, weather, soil texture and composition. The data was subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the procedures of R statistical analysis software version 3.3.2 (R Core team, 2015). Mean separation was done using the least significant difference (LSD) at 5% level of significance. The results from the study showed that mucuna, dolichos and cowpea significantly (P=.05) increased fruit weight and brix. There was interaction effect between treatments and sites. Mucuna increased orange fruit weight by 12.4%, 10.5% and 7.6% for Ganda, Matuga and Vitengeni respectively. Orange fruit weight increased by 8.8%, 7.8% and 7.2% for Ganda, Matuga and Vitengeni respectively due to dolichos and 6.0% for Ganda due to cowpea. Orange fruit brix increased by 5.8%, 5.1% and 4.2% for Vitengeni, Matuga and Ganda respectively due to mucuna. Cowpea increased orange fruit brix by 4.6%, 3.8% and 3.2% for Vitengeni, Matuga and Ganda respectively. Orange fruit brix increased by 3.3% and 3.1% for Vitengeni and Matuga respectively due to dolichos. From the outcome of this study, mucuna is recommended for use in orange tree orchards as it is useful in improving yield and fruit quality.

Author(s) Details

J. M. Mulinge

Department of Crop Sciences, Pwani University, P.O.Box 195-80108, Kilifi, Kenya.

H. M. Saha

Department of Crop Sciences, Pwani University, P.O.Box 195-80108, Kilifi, Kenya.

L. G. Mounde

Department of Crop Sciences, Pwani University, P.O.Box 195-80108, Kilifi, Kenya.

L. A. Wasilwa

Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), P.O.Box 57811-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

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