Potassium Dynamics under Sub Surface Drip Fertigation System on Banana cv. Rasthali | Chapter 06 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

Banana demands very high quantity of potassium for its growth and development. It occupies an important place not only with regard to its content in plant tissues but also for its role in physiological and biochemical functions as many of the experimental results shown that adequate supply of potassium fertilizers not only increased the growth and yield of banana but also improved the quality of fruits, physiology of the plant and induce resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. The soil sampling was done at emitting point (laterals placed at 25 cm depth of soil from surface) and 15 cm horizontally away from the emitting point of the same lateral. Similarly, the soil samples were also collected from 0-25, 25-50 and 50 -75 cm depth of profile (vertical) between the drippers in 24 hours after fertigation at flowering stage of the crop. The soil was air dried, powdered and passed through a 2 mm sieve and stored in clean polythene bags. The available potassium both in horizontal and vertical dimensions were mapped by using Surfer 7 software. The main aim of this study is to known potassium distribution at different depth in sub surface drip fertigation system in banana.

Author(s) Details

M. Yuvaraj

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Kalavai-Vellore, India.

P. P. Mahendran

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, India.

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Heavy Metals in Fruits and Juice of Elstar Apple Variety | Chapter 05 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

The goal of the research was to determine the concentration of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc and iron in the soil of different pH, the degree of contamination in the intensive production of Elstar apples, as well as the impact of soil contamination on the concentration of heavy metals in fruits and apple juice. The stationary research was conducted during 2014-2015 in the fruit nursery Špionica near Srebrenik (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

Along with the standard agro-technology, acidification and calcification of soil were applied, as well as the simulation of soil contamination with heavy metals, on the experimental plot of apple plantations. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil, fruits and apple juice were measured on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Analyst 200) and inductively coupled plasma by optical emission method ICP-OES (Optima 2100 DV) and by standard analytical methods. In tilted layer of soil in the width of the treetop, the heavy metal concentration ranged from 9.60mg/kg for lead, 26.76mg/kg for copper, 34.23 mg/kg zinc and 17852.00 mg/kg for iron. There was no cadmium. After zero soil sample analysis the acidity of sample soil were increased or decreased with ammonium sulfate, i.e. acidification (1.2 kg per apple tree) and with lime, i.e. calcification (3.2 kg per apple tree) and treated with solution of each metal in an amount of 800 mL per tree (10 mL of pure solution mixed with 10 L of distilled water). In soil samples where the acidification were done  average concentration of heavy metals were: lead 12.70 mg/kg, copper 36.97 mg/kg, zinc 61.03 mg/kg and iron 24.00 mg/kg. In soil sample where the calcification were done average concentration of heavy metals were: lead 13.87 mg/kg, copper 38.50 mg/kg, zinc 65.03 mg/kg and iron 26193.00 mg/kg. In Elstar apples grown on demonstration plot, the highest was iron content with an average of 15 mg/kg. The content of zinc ranged from 2.36 to 4.40 mg / kg, with an average copper content of about 0.70 mg / kg while the lead content was 0.41-0.70 mg/kg. In juice, produced from the Elstar apples grown on the basic soil copper content was highest 0.668 mg/kg and that is the highest value recorded from all the values in the juice in general. The concentrations of these heavy metals in the soil before the experiment were below the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for powdery-loamy soil. After acidification, calcification as well as simulation of soil contamination with heavy metals, there was a noticeable increase in the concentration of heavy metals in the soil, but after experiment concentrations of heavy metals in fruits and apple juice were very low, far below MAC. This research has shown that even with heavy metals in the soil there is no risk to consumers health to consume such fruits and products because coefficient of heavy metal transfer from the soil to the fruits is very low, below the limit values.

Author(s) Details

Emir Imširović

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Besim Salkić

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Husejin Keran

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Ensar Salkić

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Ahmed Salkić

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Sead Noćajević

Tehnološki Fakultet Tuzla, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Effects of Lead on Different Seedling Growth Attributes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)| Chapter 04 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and tolerance to lead by the seedling growth of an important country legume crop cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L).

Study Design: The seedlings of cowpea were grown in sand culture at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm of metal ions of lead salt as lead acetate.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental site is located in the Department of Botany at the Karachi University Campus, Pakistan in 2011.

Methodology: The healthy seeds of Vigna unguiculata L. were surface sterilized with 0.2% solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) for one minute to avoid any fungal contamination. The sand was collected from the construction site of the Karachi University washed 2-3 times with tap water, distilled water and with 5% HCl to remove any types of impurities from the soil. Seedlings were grown in sand culture at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm of metal ions of lead salt as lead acetate. The Hoagland solution was used for the supply of nutrient elements. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. 5 ml of lead concentration were poured weekly and before given concentration of lead, the materials of the tray were drained out to avoid any algal contaminations. The experiment was completely randomized and consists of six treatments replicated six times. After six weeks, the seedlings were harvested and morphological parameters shoot, root, seedling length (cm), number of leaves and leaf area (sq. cm) was noted. The biomass production such as shoot, root, leaf and total seedling dry weight (g) was also observed along with root/shoot, leaf weight, leaf area ratio and specific leaf area. The seedlings of cowpea were dried in an oven at 80°C for 24 hours until the seedlings were completely oven dried. Leaf area, Root/shoot ratio, leaf weight ratio, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio was determined, and a tolerance index was determined. The data obtained were statistically analyzed.

Results: The effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ppm) of lead on seedling growth performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) as compared to control were observed. 100 ppm lead treatment in the form of lead acetate highly affected seedling growth and biomass production of V. unguiculata L. as compared to control Lead treatment at 40 ppm produce significant (P = .05). % reduction in seed germination of  V. unguiculata L. as compared to control. Lead treatment at 20 ppm concentration produced a significant reduction in shoot length as compared to control. Root growth is an important growth variable and found negatively affected by the different concentration of lead treatment. The results also showed that lead treatment in the substrate at the same concentration (20 ppm) produced a significant effect on root and seedling growth of V. unguiculata L. The treatment of lead at 20 ppm produced significant (p<0.05) on the seedling dry weight of V. unguiculata L. as compared to control. 80 ppm concentration of lead treatment was found sufficient to cause significant % reductions in the seedling dry weight of V. unguiculata L. as compared with control. The seedlings of V. unguiculata L. were also tested for percentage of tolerance to lead. The results showed that V. unguiculata L. has a high tolerance to lead at 20 ppm and lowest at 80 ppm of lead. V. unguiculata seedlings showed the highest percentage of tolerance (92.50%) to lead at 20 ppm. The lowest V. unguiculata seedlings were 64.50% at 80 ppm of lead, but better tolerance of V. unguiculata L. seedlings was 73.25% at 60 ppm of lead concentration.

Conclusion: In conclusion, lead was toxic causing significant reduction (P = .05). to the seedling and biomass production of cowpea. Increased in lead concentration decreased the tolerance indices of cowpea seedlings growth.

Author(s) Details

Sahar Mehboob

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

M. Zafar Iqbal

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

Muhammad Shafiq

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

Muhammad Kabir

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sub Campus Bhakkar, Pakistan.

Zia-ur-Rehman Farooqi

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

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Effect of Different Organic Fertilizer Application Rates on Yield and Yield Attributes of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)| Chapter 03 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

A field experiment was conducted at the Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (BUAN) to investigate the effects of organic fertilizer on growth and yield tomato from October 2014 to March 2015. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments being varying levels of organic fertilizer; 0 kg m-2, 5 kg m-2, 7.5 kg m-2 and 10 kg m-2 each replicated three times. The yield attributes measured were plant height, stem thickness, canopy diameter, number of leaves, fruits and fruit weight. Organic fertilizer application rates of 7.5 and 10 kg m−2 revealed significantly (p<0.05) taller plants compared to other treatments. A highly significant difference in plant canopy was observed across the four fertilizer application rates. Higher fertilizer application rate of 10 kg m-2outperformed the rest of the treatments. A highly significant treatment effect was observed on leaf number of plants in the 10 kg m-2 application rate. The same trend was observed for stem thickness with the 10 kg m−2 application rate. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.9655) between number of fruits and fruits weight was revealed. Number of fruits and fruits weight increased with increasing organic fertilizer application rates. The 10 kg m-2 fertilizer application rate outperformed the rates for most measured parameters. Results of the study demonstrate that the use of organic fertilizer would help small-scale vegetable growers to maintain the long-term soil productivity for sustainable tomato cultivation since it is affordable and abundant in Botswana.

Author(s) Details

Witness Mojeremane

Department of Range and Forest Resources, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana

Thembinkosi Mathowa

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana.

Ofentse Moseki

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana.

Gabatshele M. Legwaila

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana.

Sifanele Machacha

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana.

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Shelf-life of Tomato as Affected by Ripeness, Temperature and Handling Practices | Chapter 02 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

In most parts of sub-Saharan Africa, tomato is harvested at the pink to red-ripe stage for marketing. At this stage of maturity, the fruits begin to lose their firmness and often very susceptible to mechanical injury.  Attempts to get tomato harvested at the breaker to turning stage of ripeness has not yielded the desired results. In this study, a sequence of anticipated hazards (impact, compression and vibration) encountered in a typical distribution was tested on shelf-life qualities. A vibration test to simulate a truck operating at a highway speed and the ability of shipping units to withstand mechanical forces resulting from stacking were analyzed. Tomato at turning and pink ripeness stages were subjected to a vibration test for 1hr and incubated in ripening chambers set at 15, 20 and 30 ºC. The results showed that temperature exerted the most effect on compositional characteristics, CO2 and ethylene production, color, firmness, weight loss and overall shelf-life. For optimum quality, the fruits should be traded within 2-4, 8-12 and 10-15 days when stored at 30, 20 and 15 ºC respectively, in retail markets.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Issah Sugri

CSIR-Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 46, Bawku, UER-Ghana.

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Physico-chemical Properties and Resistance of Ten Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea) Varieties to Attack by Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the Sudano-sahelian and Sudano-guinean Zones of Cameroon | Chapter 01 | New Perspectives in Agriculture and Crop Science Vol. 1

Aims: This research aimed at selecting indigenous Bambara groundnut varieties with high nutritional value and inherent resistance to insect attack for cultivation in sudano-sahelian (SS) and sudano-guinean (SG) zones of Cameroon.

Study Design: The susceptibility of varieties to insect attack was assessed by adopting the standard evaluation of Dobie index and the experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences (laboratory of Applied Zoology), UIT (laboratory of food chemical engineering) at Ngaoundere (SG zone). The work was also carried-out at Maroua (SS zone), starting from Jun to October 2013 for susceptibility assessment and from March 2014 to April 2015 for physico-chemical characterization of varieties.

Methodology: Ten Bambara groundnut genotypes were infested with bruchids for six days. Comparative data on the mean percentage adult emergence, mean developmental period and susceptibility index (SI) were then collected for analysis. Seeds were also analyzed for physical and chemical properties to study the physico-chemical basis of resistance to bruchid attack and the nutritional value.

Results: Varieties were significantly different regarding their physical properties (F = 13.32 – 92.89; P ˂ 0.001), chemical composition (F = 6.57 – 2936.00; P ˂ 0.001 – 0.01) and susceptibility index (F = 107.02 – 152.59; P ˂ 0.001). Overall, SS zone was most suitable for insect development. Biophysical characteristics were not found important to characterize the susceptibility of varieties to insect attack. Carbohydrates were negatively correlated (r = -0.53) with Bambara groundnut SI under SS conditions, while total polyphenolic compounds were positively correlated (r = 0.52) under SG conditions. Galaji, Black eye and Guerade guerlal consistently demonstrated high tolerance to infestation by C. maculatus and therefore, may be recommended for relatively longer storage.

Conclusion: The physical parameters of the grains did not linearly relate with varietal resistance to C. maculatus. However, it may be inversely or directly correlated with chemical characteristics, depending on the agro-ecological zone. Further analyses of grain biochemical components that may relate to varietal resistance to C. maculatus are required. From the results of the present finding only two (Galaji and Black eye) and three (Guerade guerlal, Galaji and Black eye) varieties were resistant to bruchids attack respectively in SS zone and SG zone, of the ten varieties tested. Seed legumes suffer from heavy damage by cowpea weevil attack during storage in SS than in SG zone of Cameroon (Northern Cameroon). Nevertheless, Galaji and Black eye may be recommended for relatively longer storage to achieve the goal of long term and sustainable pest management strategies in Northern Cameroon in general.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Daniel Kosini

School of Health Sciences, Saint Jérôme Catholic University Institute of Douala, P.O.Box 5949, Douala, Cameroon

Dr. Clément Saidou

Department of Scientific Studies, University Institute of Technology, University of Ngaoundere, P.O.Box 455, Ngaoundere, Cameroon

Professor Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, P.O.Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon

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