Satisfaction with Waiting Time among Antenatal Women Attending the Antenatal Clinics of South East Nigeria | Chapter 14 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Background: Patient satisfaction is a useful measure to provide a direct indicator of quality in health care. Assessing patient perspectives gives them a voice, which can make public health services more responsive to people’s needs and expectation.

Objective: To evaluate and compare the clients’ satisfaction with waiting time among pregnant women in public and private health facilities in south east Nigeria.

Study Design: A comparative cross sectional study was carried out.

Methodology: Using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire, information on clients’ satisfaction was obtained from 500 women attending antenatal care clinic in south east Nigeria.

Results: The mean ages of the public-teaching hospital respondents was 29.6 ± 4.0 and is slightly higher compared with that of private-mission hospitals respondents which was 29.5±4.6 Satisfaction was higher among the public-teaching hospital respondents (67.4%) than the private-mission hospital respondents (46.4%) and this is statistically significant. However, there is need to improve the waiting time in entirety considering only 59.8% of the whole study reported satisfaction.

Conclusion: There is low satisfaction with waiting time among antenatal mothers utilizing hospital services and dissatisfaction was more in private hospitals when compared to public hospital.

Author(s) Details

Dr. C. C. Ofoegbu
Department of Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Dr. O. F. Emelumadu
Department of Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

C. O. Ifeadike
Department of Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Dr. P. E. N. Onyemachi
Department of Community Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.

F. S. F. Alyazidi
Department of Public Health, College of Health, Al Lith, Saudi Arabia.

A. N. Onyeyili
Department of Nursing Services, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

V. C. Analo
Department of General Medicine, North Cumbria University, NHS Trust, United Kingdom.

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Ergonomics Workstation Assessment of Musculoskeletal Disorders in a Nigerian University | Chapter 13 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

This study examines the experiences of musculoskeletal discomfort among staff and students of the University of Port Harcourt as it relates to their workstations. Questionnaires were designed to extract information from respondents on their experience of musculoskeletal pains and other discomforts. A total of 320 questionnaires were distributed randomly to staff and students across the three campuses of the University of Port Harcourt. One hundred and forty (140) questionnaires were distributed to staff (academic, 60 and non-academic, 90) out of which 115 were retrieved. Similarly, 170 questionnaires were distributed to students out of which 163 were retrieved; altogether 278 out of 320 yielded a 86.9% response rate. The study revealed that there is a strong relationship between the workstation set up and development of musculoskeletal discomfort in classrooms and offices at the University of Port Harcourt. Most staff and students experienced low back and neck pains due to poor ergonomic practices. Furthermore, most of the students respondents spent their reasonable time sitting in class receiving lectures (47%) and studying/reading (18.3%), respectively. While a handful of students (9%) stood for most of the time receiving lectures; due to limited number of seats. A multiple regression analysis on workstation against MSDs (lower backaches, headaches, neck & upper backaches and neck & shoulder aches) yielded a coefficient of variance, R2 of 87%. The sensitivity analysis on the regression model gave the following results: R2 = 29.94, 1.23, 41.7, and 14.12% for workstation against i) lower backaches; ii) headaches; iii) neck & upper backaches; iv) neck & shoulder aches, respectively. The result of Kruskal-Walli’s test of significance on the questionnaire response to simple ergonomic workstation (the cause) and those of musculoskeletal disorder (the effect) showed not significant. This  confirmed the consistency of responses (that is, the samples were from the same distribution). Kendall’s w-statistic for staff and students level of agreement < 50% in all cases. 

Author(s) Details

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, Institute of Petroleum Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Ken K. Umeadi
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, Institute of Petroleum Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Oghenefejiri Bovwe
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, Institute of Petroleum Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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Type 2 Myocardial Infarction- A Case Report | Chapter 12 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Type 2 MI (T2MI) was defined as myocardial infarction other than due to coronary artery disease (CAD), produced by disparity between supply and demand of oxygen .Cases were reported in literature where T2 MI was diagnosed even in presence of 90% block in coronaries, where recent ischemic changes were shown to be not due to the CAD, but to disparity between supply and demand of oxygen. There was considerable overlap with the classical type 1 NSTE MI and T2 MI. Distinguishing between the two was considered challenging. Though T2 MI constituted about 25% of all cases of MI, the centres reporting Type 2 MI ranged between 0-13% only. Type 2 MI, the new heterogeneous group, was officially recognised by the task force on the universal definition of MI in 2007. The scope and criteria were changing since it was defined in 2007. Further, it appeared that -coronary cause of MI was more important than disparity between supply and demand of myocardial oxygen supply. For instance Sepsis, one of the important causes of T2 MI, could cause Type 2 MI by myocardial depression even in presence of normal oxygen perfusion.

A case diagnosed initially as NSTEMI, was retrospectively considered the possibility of T2MI. The reasons there of and the intricacies in the diagnosis of T2 MI are discussed in this article.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. S. V. Prasad
Department of Internal Medicine, G.I.T.A.M Dental Collage, Rishikonda, Visakhapatnam, Pin Code – 530045, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Indications for Gynaecological Consultation by Women at a Rural Outreach Centre in North-Central Nigeria | Chapter 11 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Aims: To identify the reasons for consultations, the common clinical diagnosis and disease pattern at a rural gynaecologic outreach clinic.

Study Design: Descriptive Retrospective Study.

Place and Duration of Study: NKST Hospital Mkar-Gboko, Benue state, North-central Nigeria, in seven years (1st April 2005 to 31st July 2012).

Methodology: Information from the case notes of patients who attended the outreach clinic over the study period were retrieved and analysed. Majority of the patients came by self-referral.

Results: Of the 1,733 women that attended the clinic during the study period, 1,605 (92.6%) women made the inclusion criteria and formed the study population. The age range was 15 to 78 years; mean value of 33.6 +/- 9.5 year; 78% of the women were ages 21 – 40 years.  The mean parity was 2.1 +/- 2.7and ranged between 0 to 13 children.  68% of the women were para 0 – 2 whilst 18% had parity of 5 and above.  The women had 73 reasons and 2,390 presenting complaints, 49.6% of them had multiple presenting complaints (average 1.5 complaints per woman). Most common complaints were inability to conceive, lower abdominal pain and leaking of urine and /or faeces amongst 38%, 11% and 10% of the women respectively. There were 63 disease conditions with 1,793 clinical diagnoses. About 12% of the women had multiple clinical diagnoses.  The three leading clinical diagnoses were infertility, genital fistulae and uterine myoma, in 46%, 12% and 10% of the women respectively; followed by sundry other gynaecological disorders (9%) and medical disease conditions (5%) in which hypertension, diabetes mellitus and retroviral diseases were more frequent in that order.  Some women (n = 21; 1%) came for second opinion.

Conclusion: Gynaecological diseases are diverse and common among women in rural central Nigeria. Inability to conceive, lower abdominal pain and incontinence of urine and or faeces were the three main reasons women sought consultation with the gynaecologist at Mkar. Infertility, genital fistulae, uterine myoma, non-communicable medical disorders and retroviral diseases were leading clinical diagnoses. Extending the services of Gynaecologist to the rural areas in the region may reduce the access gap to women’s health and enhance national development.

Author(s) Details

Jonathan Abina Karshima
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.

Victor Chuwang Pam
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.

Terkaa Atim
Department of Surgery, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwalgwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.

Philip Pine Abata
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

Michael Ira Reich
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, North Shore Medical Centre, Salem, MA, USA.

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Promotion of Health in Self-efficacy, to Reduce Tobacco Consumption in Young Adults | Chapter 10 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Aim: The objective was determinate the effect of intervention on the self-efficacy and tobacco intake, to decrease smoking in young adults.

Study Design: Study interventional.

Place and Duration of the Study: Juventino Rosas, Mexican community, between September 2014 and May 2015.

Methodology: Sample of 101 smoking young adults between 20 and 30 years. The experimental group had 50 participants and control group 51, and all signed the inform consent. For data collection were used the “Scale for measuring the level of efficacy for smoking cessation” and “Questionnaire for the classification of consumers of cigarette for young”. The intervention was developed in 12 weekly sessions of 50 minutes each, for 3 months, aimed at increasing the self-efficacy through strategies of education, motivation and handling emotions.

Results: There was an association between interventional group and high self-efficacy (P=.01) and the OR = 2.96, IC95%=1.28 to 6.84. There was an association between consumed cigarettes and intervention group (P= .0001); OR=0.2, IC95% =0.08 to 0.46.     

Conclusion: The interventional group improved significantly the level of self-efficacy and reduced consumption of cigarettes.

Author(s) Details

Alicia Aboytes-Alvarez
Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, Campus Celaya Salvatierra, University of Guanajuato, Celaya, Guanajuato, CP38140, México.

Georgina Olvera-Villanueva
Department of Nursing and Obstetrics, Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, Campus Celaya Salvatierra, University of Guanajuato, Celaya, Guanajuato, CP38140, Mexico.

Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza
Department of Nursing and Obstetrics, Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, Campus Celaya Salvatierra, University of Guanajuato, Celaya, Guanajuato, CP38140, Mexico.

Ma. Lourdes Jordan-Jinez
Department of Nursing and Obstetrics, Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, Campus Celaya Salvatierra, University of Guanajuato, Celaya, Guanajuato, CP38140, Mexico.

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Knowledge and Awareness of Glaucoma among Population of Western Saudi Arabia, Taif City | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Background: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible visual loss worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, it accounts for blindness in 3% of the population above the age of 40 years. Moreover, Hospital-based observations and studies acknowledge the distribution of various subtypes of glaucoma in the kingdom. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies which designed to assess general population level of awareness regarding glaucoma in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to assess general population knowledge and level of awareness in the western region of Saudi Arabia, Taif city.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a public place in Taif City, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the glaucoma awareness week in 2018.  A total of 409 respondents participated and completed the study questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis, where descriptive data was expressed as numbers and percentages, and the Chi-square (χ2) test was applied to test the relationship between variables. Quantitative data was expressed as mean and standard deviation (Mean ± SD), and Mann-Whitney (U) test was applied to compare medians for groups not normally distributed. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Of the 409 interviewees participated, 62% were females with a mean age of (26 ±13) years, where the majority of males and females participants had a secondary school education (40% and 42% respectively). Most of the male and female respondents have heard of glaucoma before (63.1% and 61.1 respectively). Male participants defined glaucoma as a group of diseases that can damage the eye’s optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness (41.1%), while the majority of females defined glaucoma as a slow drainage of fluid within the eye which causes fluid to build up leading to increased intraocular pressure within the eye (39%). Male participants ranked family members as the primary sources of information about glaucoma (41%) followed by medical campaigns (24.2%), while female respondent’s ranked medical campaigns as the primary source of information (34.1%), followed by family members (33%). Female respondents in this study showed a high level of awareness concerning glaucoma disease compared to male respondents. 

Conclusion: While there is relatively good awareness level among the population in Taif city, further studies in different regions of the country on different population sectors are needed to assess knowledge and awareness level for a better understanding of the population’s age distribution, demographic differences regarding glaucoma awareness.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ashwaq Mohammed Almalki, MD
Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Faisal Ali Alotaibi, MD
Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Ameenah Alkhaldi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Omar Ahmed Asiri, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Nawwafwaiel Aljuaid, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Amalsaleh Alsofyany, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Asim Ali Alzahrani, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Sarah Binbaz, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Amjad Althagafi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Sarah Obaid Dhafar, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Amalturki Altowairqi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Ozoofmatar Alghashmari, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Majed Mansour Aljuaid, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Qasemmuidh Alharthi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Rayan Khalid Almalki, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Hosamtalal Mashrah, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Ruba Qadi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Fatmahmeteb Alnufei, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Mohammed Obied Altwerqi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Mansour Mohammed Altwerqi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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Sickle Cell Disease and Severity of Malaria | Chapter 08 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Background: The relationship between sickle cell disease and malaria remains controversial and the hypothesis that sickle cell disease protects against malaria is widespread.

Methodology: A descriptive and retrospective study over a two-year period (2014-2016) was conducted in pediatric departments A and B of the National Hospital of Niamey (HNN). The objective is to assess the relative risk between sickle cell disease and the severity of malaria.

Results: Nine hundred and seventy four (974) patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum were included in this study. Thirteen point twenty four percent (129/974) of patients had sickle cell disease, of which 93.8% (121/129) had SS form and 6.2% (8/129) SC form. Seventy-nine point eight percent (103/129) of sickle cell patients had severe malaria (RR = 0.9, p = 0.17). Ninety six point one percent (99/103) of patients with severe malaria have SS hemoglobin versus 3.8% (4/103) who have SC hemoglobin  (RR = 0.6, p = 0.05). Eleven point forty three percent (4/35) of sickle cell patients died of malaria (RR = 0.1, p = 0.4). Seventy-five percent (3/4) of the deceased sickle cell have SS hemoglobin versus 25% (1/4) who have SC hemoglobin (RR = 5, p = 0.2).

Conclusion: Heterozygous sickle cell patients have less severe malaria than homozygotes. Malaria is more severe and more lethal in homozygous sickle cell patients. A strategy for the prevention of sickle cell malaria should be developed during periods of high transmission.

Author(s) Details

Maman Daou
Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, l’Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niger.
Hôpital National de Niamey, Niger.

Ibrahim Alkasoume
Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, l’Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niger.

Mahamadou Doutchi
Faculté de Médecine de l’université de Zinder, Niger.

Samaila Boubacar
Hôpital National de Niamey, Niger.

Mansour Maman Anou
Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, l’Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niger.

Mahamane Moustapha lamine
Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire de Niamey, Niger.
Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Sénégal.

Ramatoulaye Hamidou Lazoumar
Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire de Niamey, Niger.

Kamayé Moumouni
Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, l’Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niger.
Hôpital National de Niamey, Niger.

Djibo Yacouba Hamadou
Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, l’Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niger.

Ibrahim Maman Laminou
Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire de Niamey, Niger.

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Effect of a Cognitive-behavioral Program on Adherence to Antihypertensive Therapeutic Regimen in Older Adults: A Quasi-experimental Study | Chapter 07 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Aims: To determine the effect of a cognitive-behavioral program on adherence to the antihypertensive therapeutic regimen of the elderly.

Study Design: Quasi-experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: It was performed in the House of the Grandfather, nursing homes Juan de Celayeta and Beautiful Sunset San Juan Bosco rest house, all of Tepic, Nayarit, between April 2015 and May 2016.

Methodology: We included 49 elderly people with arterial hypertension, in two groups: interventional and comparison, with written informed consent. Data collection was done with the questionnaire of therapeutic adherence for hypertension; blood pressure was measured with a portable aneroid sphygmomanometer. The cognitive behavioral intervention was performed on the intervention group based on psychoeducation and cognitive restructuring to improve adherence to the therapeutic regimen.

Results: Both groups were similar in their sociodemographic characteristics. For therapeutic adherence, there were statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the comparison group (P <.05). Membership to the intervention group showed a strong effect on non-hypertension, post intervention (P <.05).

Conclusion: The cognitive-behavioral program had a positive effect on adherence to the antihypertensive therapeutic regimen, showing significant changes in the intervention group, and a reduction in the proportion of patients with hypertension.

Author(s) Details

Celia Monserrat Bernal-Razon
Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, University of Guanajuato, Campus Celaya-Salvatierra, Mexico.

Ma. Lourdes Jordan-Jinez
Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, Department of Nursing and Obstetrics, University of Guanajuato, Campus Celaya-Salvatierra, Mexico.

Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza
School of Medicine, University of Celaya, Mexico.

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Relationship of Apolipoprotein B-100 and Lipid Profile Parameters among Diabetic Patients in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria | Chapter 06 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Diabetic dyslipidaemia is the bane of most complications seen in diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study is to determine the levels of apolipoprotein B-100 among diabetic adults and non-diabetic control; and its relationship with the traditional lipid profile parameters.

A total of 58 subjects including 30 diabetic patients and 28 non-diabetic controls selected from diabetic clinic and immunization centres respectively. Subjects were randomly selected, examined clinically and have their anthropometric parameters measured. Lipid profile was assayed using standard enzymatic spectrophotometric methods while serum apolipoprotein B-100 was measured using sandwich immunoassay technique. Data were expressed in means and standard deviations. Differences in means between the two groups were assessed using Student T-test and relationships tested using Pearson’s correlation study. Mean ages of diabetic and non-diabetic groups were 57.7±7.4 and 49.3± 17.9 years respectively (p>0.05). Statistical differences exist in the age, weight, BMI, and blood pressure between the two study groups. Serum apolipoprotein B-100 in the diabetic and non-diabetic controls were 84.9±58.8 and 67.6±44.3 mg/dl respectively (p<0.05). A weak positive correlation exists between serum apolipoprotein B-100 and haemoglobin A1c (r=0.420; p=0.021) while a strong positive correlation exists between apolipoprotein B-100 and LDL-cholesterol (r=0.702, p=0.001); apolipoprotein B-100 and non-HDL-cholesterol (r=0.690; p=0.001) and apolipoprotein B-100 and total cholesterol (r=0.688; p=0.001).  Elevated apolipoprotein B-100 is a biochemical feature in poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. There is a positive relationship between apolipoprotein B-100 and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and nonHDL-cholesterol. We advise the adoption of apolipoprotein B-100 as a routine test in the evaluation of diabetic dyslipidaemia among the diabetic patients.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Tomisin Matthew Adaja
Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Medical Sciences, Laje Campus, Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Dr. Matilda Adesuwa O. Ojo
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Medical Sciences, Laje Campus, Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Dr. Clarisee Noel Ayina Ayina
University of Douala, Department of Biology of Animal Organisms, Douala, Cameroon.

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Water and Waterborne Diseases: A Review | Chapter 05 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Despite numerous efforts by government at various levels and other agencies interested in water and its safety, waterborne diseases are still a major public health and environmental concern. The huge investment towards water research, although worth the spending, has not yielded the much expected result as waterborne diseases continue to plague developing countries with Africa and Asia having the worse hit. The unavailability of pipe-borne water and the dependence of rural dwellers on surface waters which are often contaminated with faecal materials are undoubtedly the major causes of the rising prevalence of waterborne diseases. Water availability and poor hygienic practices amongst these rural dwellers are also of paramount concern as they play significant roles in the spread of water-washed diseases. Also, poor environmental practice which encourages the breeding of insects and other forms of vectors within residential areas contribute to the increasing prevalence of waterborne diseases. This review focuses on waterborne diseases, its classification and the various methods employed in the bacteriological analysis of water.

Author(s) Details

Nwabor Ozioma Forstinus
Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Dr. Nnamonu Emmanuel Ikechukwu
Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Martins Paul Emenike
Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Ani Ogonna Christiana
Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

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