Concomitant Detection of Biofilm Formation and MBL Production in Meropenem Resistant Isolates of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa | Chapter 06 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 1

The purpose of this study was to detect biofilm formation and to examine the correlation between biofilm and Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 64 P. aeruginosa isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed on them according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The isolates were screened for biofilm production using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The presence of MBL genes were checked by multiplex PCR assay.  Out of all 30 meropenem resistant P. aeruginosa, 2 isolates were found producing all the three genes (i.e. blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSIM) for MBL production and they were found to produce biofilm. Resistant to four antibiotics such as aztreonam (85.7% vs 11.1%, P< 0.000), Cefepime (82.1% vs 2.8%, P<0.000) gentamycin (82.1% vs 27.8%, P< 0.000) and Pipercillin/Tazobactum was also high (28.6% vs 2.8% P< 0.003) was comparatively higher among biofilm producers than non biofilm producers. In biofilm production, both qualitative method and quantitative plate method showed 16 isolates (53.3%) as biofilm producers for MBL genes. Out of these 16, only 9 isolates showed MBL production along with biofilm production having significant association (P<0.004).

The prevalence of MBLs has been increasing worldwide, particularly among P. aeruginosa, leading to severe limitations in the therapeutic options for the management. Presence of MBL genes has a role in inducing biofilm production and significant association in P. aeruginosa isolates. Overall, drug resistance was found to be more in biofilm producing isolates than non biofilm isolates.

Author(s) Details

Shivani Saxena
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, King George Medical University, Lucknow (UP), India.

Gopa Banerjee
Department of Microbiology, King George Medical University, Lucknow (UP), India.

Rajiv Garg
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, King George Medical University, Lucknow (UP), India.

Mastan Singh
Department of Microbiology, King George Medical University, Lucknow (UP), India.

S. K. Verma
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, King George Medical University, Lucknow (UP), India.

R. A. S. Kushwaha
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, King George Medical University, Lucknow (UP), India.

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Evaluation of Toxicity on Mice and Artemicidal Activity of Bauhinia monandra Leaf Lectin (BmoLL) | Chapter 05 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 1

Aims: This work aimed to determine the toxicity of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) to mice and Artemia salina.

Study design: BmoLL was purified from the leaves of B. monandra through affinity chromatography and tested against mice and A. salina in order to evaluate its toxicity.

Methodology: The lectin purification was performed through saline precipitation and chromatography onto a guar gel column. The acute toxicity of BmoLL was evaluated using female mice during 14 days. Toxicity of BmoLL to A. salina larvae was also evaluated.

Results: BmoLL did not induce death or weight loss of mice at 2000 mg/kg b.w.; additionally, the lectin did not affect the survival of A. salina at the assayed concentrations (250–1,000 µg/mL).

Conclusion: BmoLL is an interesting molecule to investigate pharmacological applications due to its low toxicity according to the two models used in this work.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Chrisjacele Santos Ferreira de Araújo
Departamento de Enfermagem, Faculdade dos Palmares – FAP, Palmares, Pernambuco, CEP 55540-000, Brazil.

Dr. Tiago Ferreira da Silva Araújo
Colegiado de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco – UNIVASF, Petrolina, Pernambuco, CEP 56304-917, Brazil.

Dr. Cleideana Bezerra da Silva
Departamento de Bioquímica – CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Dr. Janaina Karin de Lima Campos
Centro Acadêmico do Agreste, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Caruaru, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-901, Brazil.

Dr. Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva
Departamento de Bioquímica – CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Dr. Thiago Henrique Napoleão
Departamento de Bioquímica – CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Dr. Priscilla Barbosa Sales de Albuquerque
Departamento de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco – UPE, Garanhuns, Pernambuco, CEP 55295-110, Brazil..

Prof. Vera L. Menezes Lima
Departamento de Bioquímica – CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Dr. Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho
Departamento de Bioquímica – CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

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Incidence of Air-Borne Mycoflora of Baghsar Fort and its Allied Areas from Samahni Valley District Bhimber Azad Kashmir, Pakistan | Chapter 04 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 1

Fungi are potential profounding cause of aeroallergens which are creating a appalling scenario culminating into various fatal diseases to man, livestock and plant biodiversity such asperglosis, mycosis and as smut and rust, respectively. In the present study, air-borne mycoflora of Baghsar Fort Samahni (BFS) and its allied forest (Azad Kashmir, Pakistan) was spatially and temporally analyzed. Spores were collected from five different sampling sites (S.1 S.2, S.3, S.4, S.5) by air-trapper and grown on two different culture media viz. potato dextrose agar (PDA) and water agar (WA), and isolated by using culture plate technique (CPT). A total of seven different fungal species of six genera namely Aspergillus niger, Alternaria solani, Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp. and Curvularia sp. were isolated and identified. On PDA medium, Cladosporium sp. was found to be the most abundant (21.3%) fungal species followed by A. niger (17.8%), A. solani (15.4%), Alternaria alternata (14.9%), Fusarium sp. (13.3%), Penicillium sp. (9.0%) and Curvularia sp. (8.3%). In other WA medium, Cladosporium sp. was again dominating and most prevalent (23.2%), and other species occurrence was as: A. niger (19.2%), A. solani (18.1%), A. alternata (14.1%), Fusarium sp. (11.3%), Curvularia sp. (8.5%) and Penicillium sp. (5.6%). PDA proved a better medium for capturing and perpetuation of fungi. High incidence of Cladosporium spp. is a major cause of fruit rots and immature seed falling and ultimately leads to economic loss to the area.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Muhammad Ishtiaq (Ph.D.)
Department of Botany, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur 10250, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Tanveer Hussain
Department of Botany, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur 10250, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Mehwish Maqbool
Department of Botany, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur 10250, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Shehzad Azam
Department of Botany, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur 10250, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Amin Shah
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodah, Sargodah, Pakistan.

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Activity Guided Fractionation with Antimicrobial Evaluation of Pergularia tomentosa L. (Asclepiadacea) Whole Plant | Chapter 03 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 1

This research work aimed to present the activity guided fractionation with antimicrobial evaluation from both crude extract and various fractions obtained from Pergularia tomentosa L. whole plant. The P. tomentosa L. whole plant was extracted with 95% aqueous ethanol; fractionated into acidic, basic, polar and nonpolar fractions. All fractions with the crude extract were screened for both antimicrobial and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) potentialities. For crude extract, all concentrations (1.5, 0.75, 0.35, & 0.168 mg/ml) indicated marginal antibacterial activity with range of 17, 20, 14 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. While, both basic fraction showed highest activity against E. coli and C. albicans at 15 mm & 15 mm; along with acidic and methanolic fraction haven large spectrum against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans at 13, 12, 12 mm. Moreover hexane did not showed antimicrobial activity for both S. aureus and C. albicans except for E. coli which showed activity at 12 mm. The study clearly indicated that basic fraction showed highest antimicrobial activity for selected micro-organisms with lower minimum inhibitory concentration which ranges from 18.75 µg/ml to 150 µg/ml. Followed by wider spectrum of antimicrobial activity for acidic and methanolic fraction against all tested organisms with minimum inhibitory concentration from 75 µg/ml to 150 µg/ml; while 300 µg/ml (MIC) stand for hexane fraction. Thus, P. tomentosa L. particularly, the basic fraction (alkaloid) and, both acidic and neutral fractions will be centered areas for further scientific research findings in isolating an active antimicrobial component therein.

Author(s) Details

Rufai Yakubu
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education Okene, P.M.B. 1026, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Mrs. Fatimah Musa
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education Okene, P.M.B. 1026, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Aminu Lukman
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education Okene, P.M.B. 1026, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Fatima Sheikh
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education Okene, P.M.B. 1026, Kogi State, Nigeria.

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Comparison of Growth and Development of Pleurotus florida against Wastes from Animal Origin | Chapter 02 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 1

Two wastes from animal origin, viz., human hairs and egg shells were evaluated for different manifestations of white oyster mushroom, Pleurotus florida. The mushroom utilized both the substrates for their growth and sporophore formation. The mycelial growth was significantly (P=0.05) faster on egg shell (18 days) as compared to human hair (23 days). The crop of mushroom was harvested in four flushes where human hairs showed higher yield and biological efficiency of mushroom (165 gm, 33%) than egg shells (155 gm, 31%), respectively. In respect of yield parameters such as yield, biological efficiency, number of mushroom fruit bodies and average weight of sporophores, both the substrates were statistically at par to each other. Utilization of human hairs and egg shells by P. florida reveals a new strategy for mycoremediation of these wastes.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Siddhant M.Sc., Ph.D., FAELS, MIAER, FIARA
Department of Botany, Durgesh Nandini Degree College, Faizabad (U.P.), India.

O. P. Ukaogo
Environmental and Analytical Units, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University, Nigeria.

Mr. Mahesh Kumar, M.Sc., B.Ed. FIARA
Department of Zoology, K.S.S.P.G. College, Ayodhya, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Shyam Singh
Department of Mathematics, Durgesh Nandini Degree College, Faizabad (U.P.), India.

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Dental Bio Aerosols – Ignored Occupational Hazard | Chapter 01 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 1

An aerosol is a suspension of solid or liquid particles in air or other gaseous environment. Sources of bacterial aerosols exist within and outside the dental clinic. The generation of bacterial aerosols and splatters appears to be highest during dental procedures. The use of rotary dental and surgical instruments and air-water syringes generates visible infectious spray, that enclose large-particle spatter of water, saliva, microorganisms, blood, and other debris. Several infectious diseases could be transmitted to staff and patients by airborne bacterial and other contaminants in the dental clinic. The vigilant use of barriers along with appropriate immunizations procedures could safe guard the dental fraternity from the ill-effects of the aerosols.

Author(s) Details

S. Meenakshi
Department of Prosthodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS University, India.

H. S. Sreeshyla
Department of Oral Pathology, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS University, India.

N. Raghunath
Department of Orthodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS University, India.

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Male Genital Self-mutilation: Looked through the Prisms of the Sociocultural Insights and Repercussions | Chapter 16 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 2

Complete genital self-mutilation (GSM), mostly a non-suicidal behavior, is a rare occurrence among patients with psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. This case report is on a patient who, in the shadow of severe bizarre psychotic manifestations with overwhelming socio-cultural contents, completely self-mutilated his external genitals with a sharp blade. Emergency surgical and psychiatric management improved his condition over 4 weeks. In the light of this case, the psychodynamic, biological and socio-cultural meanings and etiologies of GSM are explained and discussed with relevant international literature on male genital self-mutilation.

Author(s) Details

Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, MD, PhD
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, 11662, Saudi Arabia.

Abdulhameed Abdullah Alhabeeb MD
National Center for Promotion of Mental Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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Traditional Cautery: A Narrative Review on Modern Cauteries through Old Window | Chapter 15 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 2

Background: Traditional cautery is a well-known healing practice used in many diseases in diverse cultures of the world since ancient times. Traditional healers, practitioners and professionals continuously improved several structural and procedural perspectives of this practice over centuries. However, numerous modern cauteries and related devices used in modern surgery began to be developed by Bovie and Harvey in late 19th century.

Objective: This critical review describes briefly modern cauteries (new lights) used in modern surgery that work on the same principles of traditional cautery (old window).

Methods: E-searches of relevant data (2000-2019) published in PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and OvidSP databases were made using the Boolean operators and keywords. Finally, 91 articles were retained for this narrative review.

Results: Several important components of traditional cautery were progressively developed and improved by traditional healers and professionals and this developmental process continued in modern surgery since 1988. Heating of traditional cautery by fire was replaced by electric current in innumerable modern cautery devices that generate variable energy power density for effectively destroying diseased tissue together with other related functions with minor adverse effects and complications.

Conclusion: Although electrocautery and electrosurgery units with wider applications in medical and other sciences use electric current in different ways to produce energy for cutting and removing the intended unwanted tissue in modern surgical settings around the world, traditional cautery mother of modern cauteries is still used by healers mainly in the eastern world. Both are associated with adverse effects and complications, and this perspective is calling for future research to rectify the associated technical snags in modern surgery.

Author(s) Details

Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, MD, PhD
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Hamoud A. Alsubaie
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Gazzaffi I. M. Ali
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Saud M. Alsanad
College of Medicine, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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Cardiac Metastases from Hepatocelluar Carcinoma-Can It be Identified Early? | Chapter 14 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 2

A number of diseases may cause right a trial mass. Primary cardiac tumors range from0.002 to 0.25%. Intra cardiac manifestation and pulmonary embolism of hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare finding and uncommon even at autopsy. Here we describe the case of a 32-year-old Asian man who was referred for shortness of breath lasting for a month, along with unproductive cough. He was a manual laborer with a history of diabetes, alcoholism, and smoking. Clinically he was diagnosed as having pulmonaryembolism. Echocardiogram showed a mass in the right atrium. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that he had a large mass in the right atrium extending down into the inferior vena cava. Further evaluation showed that he had chronic liver disease with portal hypertension and was hepatitis B surface antigen-positive, indicating hepatitis B infection. He underwent excision of the mass, and the pathological report showed metastasis of HCC with multiple vascular emboli in the lungs. As this is the second reported case of this kind in the literature, we highlight the need of screening at least6-monthly all patients with chronic liver disease, hepatitis B and C virus infection for the early detection of HCC.

Author(s) Details

C. Rajasekharan
Government Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, India.

R. Parvathy
Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India.

D. S. Anand Raja
Government Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, India.

R. Gayathry
Government Medical College Ernakulam, India.

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An Unusual Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature | Chapter 13 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 2

A case of a 48-year-old female, who presented with refractory haemetemesis. Her oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy showed only a healing ulcer but profuse bleeding was seen from duodenum. In spite of a negativeoesophago-gastroduodenoscopy she was bleeding profusely with hemodynamic decompensation. Doppler coeliac trunk showed a supra pancreaticcystic lesion with yin-yang pattern of blood flow confirming a pseudo aneurysm involving the superior and inferior pancreatioduodenal arterial arcade using digital subtraction angiography. The conversion of a pancreatic pseudo cyst into a pseudo aneurysm is potential lethal complication because, when rupture occurs, mortality rises up to 40%. She was diagnosed to have pancreatic pseudocyst, psedoaneurysm and haemosuccus pancreaticus with wirsungorrhagia and was offered arterial embolization following which she improved. Patients with chronic calcificpancratitis (CCP) could remain silent and can present with normal amylase and lipase. Complications such as pseudo cysts orpseudoaneurysms can be asymptomatic. The pancreas should be considered a possible site of hemorrhage in CCP in cases of refractory upper gasrtrointestinal haemorrhage. We highlight the importance of looking for causes other than bleeding duodenal/gastric ulcer/oesophageal varices in case of a refractoryhametemeis giving the patient option of a nonsurgical modality of treatment and it’s reducedrisks. The effectiveness of embolisation for bleeding psuedoaneurysms is emphasized.

Author(s) Details

C. Rajasekharan
Government Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, India.

D. S. Anand Raja
Government Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, India.

M. P. Archana
Government Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, India.

R. Parvathy
Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India.

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