Use of Condom and Knowledge of Own HIV Status among Undergraduates of Ten Tertiary Schools in Ekiti and Ondo States Southwest, Nigeria | Chapter 16 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Bearing a burden of 66.7% of all global cases, HIV infection has become a major health challenge in Africa in general and sub-Sahara Africa in particular. For this reason, the battle to halt HIV/AIDS’ spread in Africa, particularly in Nigeria is being fought on different fronts, carefully considering all factors that can help bring down prevalence rate and curb the spread of the disease. Two of such fronts are advocacies for the consistent and right use of a condom, as well as voluntary testing to know own HIV status. In this study, 100 undergraduates each were sampled consecutively from ten tertiary schools in Ekiti and Ondo States of Nigeria, so as to evaluate the level of use of condom and knowledge of own HIV status among this group of youths and young adults. The study was conducted through the use of self-administered questionnaires among the enrolled undergraduates. The 1000 subjects comprised 421(42.1%) males and 57.1 (57.1%) females, while 8 (0.8%) did not disclose their gender. Five hundred and twenty-one (52.1%) of the subjects fell within the 21-30 age-bracket, 407 (40.7%) were 20years and below, 22 (2.2%) were within the 31-40 age-bracket, while 12(1.2%) were 40years and above. Thirty-eight (3.8%) did not disclose their age-bracket. Two hundred and four (20.4%) of the subjects always used condom, 169 (16.9%) used it occasionally, 139 (13.9%) never used during sexual intercourse, 403(40.3%) indicated that the use of condom wasn’t applicable to them (this group was presumed to be sexually inactive/inert), while 85 (8.5%) didn’t volunteer information about their sexual activity. Findings also revealed that majority, 564(56.4%) of the subjects did not know their HIV status, 51(5.1%) were indifferent about their HIV status, 25 (2.5%) did not disclose if they knew their HIV status or not. However, 360 (36%) knew their HIV status. With more than half of the study population not knowing their HIV status, it is therefore suggested that health policy-makers should scale-up advocacy activities to persuade the general populace in Nigeria to go for voluntary testing.

Author(s) Details

Dr. G. O. Daramola
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Dr. H. A. Edogun
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

A. O. Ojerinde  B.MLS, M.Sc
University Health Centre, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

A. A. Agbaje
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

O. O. Ogunfolakan
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

O. O. Ajala
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

A. Egbebi
College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

E. F. Akerele
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

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Rates and Sources of Soluble Phosphorus on the Behavior of Cowpea Plants Inoculated with Rhizobacteria from Soils of the North Region of Brazil | Chapter 15 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Cowpea can obtain N through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) through symbiosis with rhizobacteria. However, nodulation and BNF are influenced by edaphoclimatic factors that may bring about benefits or damages to the process, and the availability of nutrients is among the main factors that affect BNF and phosphorus (P). Thus, the present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of doses and sources of soluble P on nodulation, accumulation of nutrients, N and P absorption and use efficiency in cowpea plants inoculated with or without rhizobacteria. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology, Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste-RO Campus, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 5 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, corresponding to five P rates (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5), two soluble sources of P2O5 [single superphosphate (SSP) and thermophosphate], absence and presence of inoculation, with four replication. The findings of this study show that inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. promotes increment in the dry matter production and increases N and P absorption efficiency in cowpea plants. The single superphosphate led to higher N and P absorption efficiency, production of shoot dry matter and production of nodules, when compared with thermophosphate. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. associated with SSP fertilization promotes higher P absorption efficiency in cowpea plants. Therefore, increase in P rates promoted increments in P concentrations in cowpea leaves.

Author(s) Details

Érica de Oliveira Araújo
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, BR 435 km 63, CEP 76993-000, Colorado do Oeste -RO, Brazil.

Juliana Guimarães Gerola
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, BR 435 km 63, CEP 76993-000, Colorado do Oeste -RO, Brazil.

Caiqui Raoni Gomes Ferreira
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, BR 435 km 63, CEP 76993-000, Colorado do Oeste -RO, Brazil.

Leandro Cecílio Matte
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, BR 435 km 63, CEP 76993-000, Colorado do Oeste -RO, Brazil.

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Antibiotic Resistant Profiles of Food (Fresh Raw Milk) and Environmental (Abattoir Effluents) Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes from the Six Zones of Nigeria | Chapter 14 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh raw milk and abattoir effluents in the six zones of Nigeria was determined. Antibiotic resistant profile of the isolates was examined using the Bauer- Kirby disc diffusion assay. A total of 626 food and environmental samples were cultured on selective media out of which 54 (8.6%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. Chloramphenicol was the most effective antibiotic against the isolates with the least resistance (3.70%) while nalidixic acid proved to be least effective with resistance of 90.74%. The multiple-antibiotic resistant pattern of the isolates showed nalidixic acid/cloxacillin (35.2%), nalidixic acid/colistin (31.5%) and cloxacillin/colistin/nalidixic acid (29.6%) to be most prominent. The least value was observed in chloramphenicol/nitrofurantin/cotrimoxazole with 5.6%. The modal values of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antibiotics to the isolates range between 4.0 and >16.0 µg/ml. Chloramphenicol, nitrofurantin and gentamycin recorded the highest MIC compared with other antibiotics. This study has demonstrated that a wide and rapidly expanding range of undesirable and, in some cases, multi-resistant determinants is currently present in L. monocytogenes.

Author(s) Details

Dr. L. U. Enurah
National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Prof. O. O. Aboaba
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

S. C. U. Nwachukwu
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

C. I. Nwosuh
National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

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Enzymatic Responses of Vigna radiata Seedlings under Biotic and Abiotic Stress | Chapter 13 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Soil ecology is very fascinating due to its composition in which microbial strains sometime play a marvelous role in presence of several metals. The micronutrient metals are essential part of soil provides help in germination while toxic when exceed to a certain limits. This article aims to evaluate the cumulative effect of isolated bacterial strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri with copper (Cu) as a bioactive element in seed germination of four days old Vigna radiata. The germination of seeds also monitored at varying concentrations of Cu as a micronutrient. An important function of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was observed in the shoots of four days old seedlings of V. radiata, cultivated in a series of experiments in the presence and absence of biotic and abiotic stresses simultaneously and separately. It was observed that germination of the seedlings were inhibited in presence of P. stutzeri separately may be due to the marked decrease in lipid contents. Results showed high LDH activity and high glucose contents as compared to the control ones indicated that high LDH activity was linked with elevated energy demand to overcome the stress for germination of seeds. Unexpectedly, germination of seeds was favored with increasing concentrations of Cu (100 ppm) with P. stutzeri simultaneously, although both biotic and abiotic seemed to be toxic separately. No microbial life at the highest concentration of Cu showed that it was toxic to the bacterial strain, but normal growth of seedlings suggested that dead mass of P. stutzeri was effective for the adsorption of the Cu on their surface due to which Cu mobility was checked recommencing the normal activity of LDH and glucose contents that believed to be at the cost of lipid contents. A suitable mechanism consistent with the finding has been proposed.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. Rafia Azmat
Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, 75270, Karachi, Pakistan.

Aliya Hayat
Department of Microbiology, Jinnah University for Women, 5C Nazimabad, Karachi, 74600, Pakistan.

Prof. Dr. Farha Aziz
Department of Biochemistry, Jinnah University for Women, 5C Nazimabad Karachi, 74600, Pakistan.

Prof. Dr. Masooda Qadri
Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, 75270, Karachi, Pakistan.

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Agnihotra for Welfare of Human Society & Environment-Scientific Evidences: A Review | Chapter 12 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

The rich Indian culture and heritage has provided lasting solutions to many difficulties and even to the problems of the modern world. The custom of yadnya, Agnihotra yadnya, is one such part of the Indian customs. The procedure of the yadnya and the benefits by performing it has been investigated and are still the part of unfathomable science. The following review is a yield of the recent research works that have been dealing with agnihotra yadnya and its benefits. Along with the benefits of Agnihotra yadnya, the present review also discusses the effects of agnihotra ash on growth of plants, and on pathogenic micro-organisms. The use of agnihotra ash as remedial medicine for various diseases is also an aspect of the discussion.

Author(s) Details

Mamta Gokhale
St. Aloysius College (Autonomous), Jabalpur- M.P., India.

Radhika Patel
St. Aloysius College (Autonomous), Jabalpur- M.P., India.

Aman Bharti
St. Aloysius College (Autonomous), Jabalpur- M.P., India.

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Antibacterial Activity of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) on Some Pathogenic Gastrointestinal Bacteria | Chapter 11 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

The emergence of antibiotic resistance as well as the recent undesirable side effect of some of the commercially available antibiotics has led to the screening of plant extract in order to discover new drug that could serve as alternative therapy for the treatment of various infections and diseases. Fresh leaf of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) sample was collected, air-dried at room temperature and blended to powder using electric blender. The extraction was done using reflux extraction method and methanol as solvent. The phytochemical analysis and the antibacterial activity of O. gratissimum were determined to ascertain the different phytochemicals present in the plant extract. The extract was also tested against some selected Gram negative intestinal pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella species, by reconstituting the extract in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) to obtain different concentration (0.2, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 g/ml) and agar well diffusion techniques were used to evaluate the antibacterial susceptibility of the leaf extract. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinone, flavonoid, glycoside, phenol, saponin, steroid and tannins. The result of antibacterial analysis showed that the extract of O. gratissimum has antibacterial activity against E. coli. This could be as a result of the presence of various phytochemicals or the interaction of one or more of the identified metabolites against the test organisms. However, there was no zone of inhibition (antibacterial effect) recorded on Salmonella and Shigella spp. as they were resistant to the extract. The results obtained from this research, suggest that Escherichia coli was susceptible to the leaf extract and the plant could be used as potential source of natural product for the treatment of infection.

Author(s) Details

Agholor Kin
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria.

Lucy M. Yaki
Department of Microbiology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Idris Abubakar
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria.

Lucy F. Olusola
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria.

Rakiya Zubairu
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria

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Role of Medicinal Plants for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh | Chapter 10 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Morbidity and mortality due to diarrheoa was a major problem in many developing countries, including India and Bangladesh, especially amongst children. Many readily available plants in India are used in traditional folklore medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as cholera, diarrhea and dysentery. Medicinal plants are very popular in different traditional systems of medicines due to their diverse pharmacological potentials and lesser side effects in biological systems. Awareness of traditional knowledge and medicinal plants can play a key role in the exploitation and discovery of natural plant resources. Medicinal plants are presently in demand and their acceptance is increasing progressively. Undoubtedly, plants play an important role by providing essential services in ecosystems. Cymbopogon citratus essential oil includes mircene, neral, geranial and other unidentified compounds and is used for fighting colds, dysentery, headaches. The essential oil derived from the Ocimum gratissimum is applied against fever, inflammations of the throat, ears or eyes, stomach pain, diarrhoea and skin diseases.  Anti-motility and anti-secretory activities of Piper nigrum might be due to the presence of carbohydrates and alkaloids. This review paper suggest that traditional medicinal plants can be used for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery.

Author(s) Details

Krishan Kumar
Department of Science, Jayoti Vidyapeeth Women’s University, Jaipur, India.

Anita Kumari
Department of Science, Jayoti Vidyapeeth Women’s University, Jaipur, India.

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Usefulness of Commercial Rapid Test Kits as an Effective Diagnostic Tool of Dengue Virus Infection in a Low Resource Setting | Chapter 09 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Rapid immuno-chromatographic tests (ICTs) or diagnostic kits that are commercially available were evaluated for their sensitivity, specificity, cost and turnaround time (TAT) results with Dengue IgM/IgG capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) as the standard test, in blood samples from a cross-section of individuals with clinical features suggestive of dengue fever attending health care facilities in Trinidad and Tobago. Blood samples taken from 100 consented participants were analyzed using the two rapid ICTs (SD Bioline Dengue Duo NS1/IgM/IgG and Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette) and compared with the Dengue IgM/IgG capture ELISAs. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain bio and epidemiological data of the participants. The laboratory evaluation also assessed the TAT to complete the tests as well as the cost for each test method. The laboratory analysis on a given number (n=93) revealed that the SD Bioline was more sensitive (39.9%) than the Panbio (22.1%; p=0.005), and specificities for both were 100%. The SD Bioline includes an extra biomarker test with the same TAT and differs in cost by USD$ 1.14 as opposed to the Panbio. The ELISA has a cost of USD$ 8.07 and despite its longer TAT, it has the advantage of running more samples (1 vs 96) at a given time. While SD Bioline may be the better choice with a higher sensitivity, dengue ELISAs should also be favourably considered as an option for diagnostic purposes. In a resource strapped setting like the laboratories in Trinidad and Tobago, the ELISA should be preferred because its sensitivity and specificity were higher than the Panbio and SD Bioline kits. Besides, more samples were tested giving an effective TAT for amounts of samples completed despite a higher cost.

Author(s) Details

Professor Patrick Eberechi Akpaka, MBBS, DM
Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Unit of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Kadia Kallap, BSc, MSc
Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Unit of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Dr. Chandrashekhar Unakal, PhD
Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Unit of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Dr. Arvind Kurhade, MBBS, MD
Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Unit of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

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Use of Clinical and Laboratory Clue to Diagnose Anaerobic Infections in Limited Resource Setting | Chapter 08 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Increase in life threatening infection despite the use of antimicrobial among patient’s in limited resource areas has made it imperative to investigate bacteria causing infections. However, comprehensive anaerobic bacteriology of clinical specimens is expensive and time consuming procedure. With advance in diagnostic techniques, the role of anaerobic bacteria in the etiology of various infection has become increasingly recognized. While a number of infections or intoxication due to anaerobic bacteria or their toxins arise from exogenous source such as the soil the majority are often endogenous origin arising frequently from the intestinal tract, oral cavity or the female genital tract. This chapter therefore highlight pointers for clinical and laboratory clue of anaerobic infection, additionally practical laboratory procedure to Isolate and identify anaerobes have been explained.

Author(s) Details

Sima E. Rugarabamu
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.

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Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Asymptomatic School Going Children in Kibera Slum, Kenya | Chapter 07 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Pathogenic Escherichia coli are of different types, currently grouped into six groups depending on the virulence gene(s) they possess. This study isolated pathogenic E. coli from 580 stool samples obtained in the month of August, 2016. The samples were obtained from asymptomatic school going children in one of the biggest urban slums in Kenya. Ten primary schools were randomly sampled and 40 to 80 stool samples collected from each school depending on the school population. Both gender and age were considered when sampling. Data obtained was analysed using single factor ANOVA to test association between school location and levels of infection with pathogenic bacteria. A total of 244 (17%) samples had E. coli. Out of these, 38 (6.5%) were shown to have one or a combination of the pathogenic genes, namely: ipaH, virF, st2, daaE, eae, aafII, stx1, bfp, lt and stII and were thus classified into seven groups. Of the pathogenic isolates 35 (21.2%) were multidrug resistant. There was an association between school location and the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, asymptomatic school going children in the slum were found to be infected with multidrug resistant pathogenic E. coli.

Author(s) Details

Dr. N. J. Gitahi
Department of Public Health Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Dr. P. B. Gathura
Department of Public Health Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Professor  M. M. Gicheru
Department of Zoological Sciences, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.

T. W. Githinji
School of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Dr. A. Nordin
Department of Energy and Technology, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.

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