Influence of an Atypical Value in the Extreme Wave Analysis Using Non-Stationary GEV Models | Chapter 11 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 1

In the present study an extreme value analysis of maximum significant waves recorded at a buoy located in the Pacific Ocean was carried out by including/excluding an atypical extreme wave height.  The analysis was carried out using a non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) model, which incorporates the monthly seasonality of maximum observed values in time increments; the maximum significant wave behavior was parameterized using harmonic functions for the distribution measures. A single buoy was considered for the scope of this paper. In the study differences in the seasonality effect were found due to the exclusion of the atypical value, which is especially significant because it occurred in a season with supposedly low wave heights values.

Author(s) Details

F. Calderón-Vega
Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de Guanajuato, Juárez 77, Zona Centro, P.C. 36000 Guanajuato, Gto. Mexico and Laboratori d’Enginyeria Marítima, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Jordi Girona 1-3, Mòdul D1, Campus Nord, 08034, Barcelona, Spain.

C. Mosso
Laboratori d’Enginyeria Marítima, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Jordi Girona 1-3, Mòdul D1, Campus Nord, 08034, Barcelona, Spain and Centre Internacional d’Investigació dels Recursos Costaners, Jordi Girona 1-3, Mòdul D1, Campus Nord, 08034, Barcelona, Spain.

A. D. García-Soto
Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de Guanajuato, Juárez 77, Zona Centro, P.C. 36000 Guanajuato, Gto. Mexico.

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Maize Pollen Availability is a Critical Factor for DH Wheat Development during Extreme Low Temperature | Chapter 10 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 1

With the rapid increase in world population the production of wheat will play a pivotal role on food security and the global economy. Double haploid (DH) technology is a new boon for rapid development of new homozygous lines, which otherwise is achieved in more than seven years through conventional breeding programmes. Limitation of getting maize pollen during low temperature of winter in northern India is a challenge for pseudo-seeds production during wheat maize hybridization for production of DH lines. Pollen of maize is shortly viable and storage of the same at lower temperature and high relative humidity could increase its viability up to a week at 4°C as proposed by earlier studies. Weather conditions greatly influence pollen shedding phenomenon. Cool, humid temperature delays the pollen shed while hot and dry conditions favors the same. The present study was conducted to determine the efficiency of pollen development during extreme cold under four different conditions viz. open condition (under shade from top), in polyhouse, in tunnel (inside polyhouse with hot air supply) and on the ground soil. The plants in tunnel showed early spike emergence and pollen shedding in comparison to plants in natural environment like in open and on the ground. Chlorophyll content was least in plants in tunnel and highest in the plants sowed on the ground. Stem girth and plant height was also less in plants grown under tunnel. Conclusively, for early availability and regular supply of pollen the maize plants should be grown under tunnel with hot air supply.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Awadhesh Kumar Pal
Department of Biochemistry and Crop Physiology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour-813210, India.

Ms Shahnishan Tabassum
Department of Biochemistry and Crop Physiology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour-813210, India.

Ms Amrita Singh
Department of Biochemistry and Crop Physiology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour-813210, India.

Ms Nishi Kumari
Department of Biochemistry and Crop Physiology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour-813210, India.

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Predictors of Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in the Mobile Communication Industry in Ho Municipality, Ghana | Chapter 09 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 1

Aims: The objective of this research was to find out whether subscribers are satisfied with services of the mobile network providers and identify the predictors of customer satisfaction and loyalty in the mobile communication industry and to develop model that links these satisfaction factors and loyalty for any customer in the industry.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study design.

Place and Duration of Study: Ho Municipality in Volta Region, Ghana, between July 2016 and September 2016.

Methodology: We included sampled subscribers of the five mobile network operators (MTN, Vodafone, Tigo, Airtel and Glo) in the Ho Municipality. A total of 500 subscribers of the five mobile networks in the Municipality were selected for the research. The study employed a purposive sampling technique in selecting the subscribers located in various parts of the Ho Municipality in Volta Region, Ghana.

Results: Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of customer satisfaction and loyalty. Results show that quite a significant proportion of respondents were satisfied with the services provided by the network providers in Ho Municipality. Furthermore, the study revealed that five (5) factors; “X1 (Perceived service quality)”, “X3 (Wide network coverage)”, “X4 (Network quality or Signal strength)”, “X8 (Availability of high-speed internet service)” and “X12 (Perceived price fairness or Call/SMS Rate)” were significant to the prediction of customer satisfaction and loyalty with a predicted satisfaction and loyalty rate of 80.15%.

Conclusion: Mobile network providers should place a focus on delivering the best possible service quality as well as use advanced techniques to improve network quality and increase the network coverage to all areas in order to achieve better customer satisfaction and loyalty. Management of network providers should improve the service quality and make their services more economical so that customers can afford and have better value for money in using the service.

Author(s) Details

Carlos Ankora
Department of Computer Science, Ho Technical University, Ghana.

Francois Mahama
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Ho Technical University, Ghana.

Noble Kuadey
Department of Computer Science, Ho Technical University, Ghana.

Lily Bensah
Department of Computer Science, Ho Technical University, Ghana.

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Usage of Root Cause and Pareto Analysis to Identify the Causes of Attrition in a Non Banking Financial Organization | Chapter 08 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 1

The paper attempts to identify and diagnose the factors causing employee attrition using Root cause and Pareto analysis in one of India’s leading Non Banking Financial Company. The primary data was collected through the tele-calling method. The reasons for leaving the organization had to be drilled down subsequently from the conversation. On the ending note of the dialog with employees, their suggestions for improvement in the organization were also recorded. The exit interview files of employees who left the organization during the year 2017-2018 were used for secondary data analysis. The entire study population comprised of 300 employees who were customers’ manager and operations manager. Primary data was analyzed using Root Cause Analysis technique for identifying the causes of employee attrition. The Secondary data was analyzed using the statistical tools like Percentage analysis, Correlation analysis and Regression analysis. Suggestions were presented to the organization for improving the retention rate.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Vijaya Mani
SSN School of Management, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr. Vani Haridasan
SSN School of Management, Tamil Nadu, India.

S. J. Jhanani
SSN School of Management, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Competitive Advantage through Service Differentiation: Evidences from Italian Manufacturing Firms | Chapter 07 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 1

The culture and the operational methods of service management have become a formidable competitive weapon even for manufacturing firms. The term “service factory” has been proposed for identifying that particular integration of products and services, achieved by the excellent manufacturing firm, where “service is a multidimensional concept”. The creation of a service factory necessarily implies a radical change in the operational and organizational characteristics of the firm. In order to support manufacturing firms in adopting a service strategy, it is relevant on the one hand to identify the bundle of services which have to be provided for the customers and, on the other hand, to understand the implications for firm management model. As regards the first point, the paper proposes a framework which classifies the services along with two dimensions: time-dimension and target-dimension. The proposed framework is of interest for manufacturing firms because it allows a better recognition of services that are more perceptible for the customers. In the second part of the paper, authors discuss the implications of a service strategy adoption on the management model of manufacturing firms. In order to carry out this analysis, authors propose a model that combines four service dimensions with three decision-making categories (Organization, Methodologies and Technologies). In the end, the proposed framework has been applied in a sample of Italian hot water heater manufacturers and a case study analysis has been carried out.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Roberto Panizzolo
Department of Engineering & Management, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Alberto Maria de Crescenzo
Department of Engineering & Management, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

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Influence of Temperature and CO2 on the Growth and Accumulation Oil of Microalgae | Chapter 06 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 1

Strains of algae belonging to the genera Scenedesmus, Stichococcus, Chlorococcum, Ankistrodesmus, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Coelastrum, and Pediastrum were isolated from water samples collected in Uzbekistan. At optimum temperature (22ºC, 24ºC, 28ºC), all cultures were mesophilic algae. The results show that for these microalgae, 2% carbon dioxide is sufficient for optimal growth and development. The maximum accumulation of lipids (46,6-55,0%) was observed in cell cultures Chlorococcum sp.4, Chlorococcum sp.8, and Chlorococcum sp.37. In oils of Ankistrodesmus angustus, UT-15 detected 7 fatty acids, whereas in Pediastrum sp.1, 16 fatty acids were detected.

Author(s) Details

I. V. Safarov
Institute of Microbiology, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, The Republic of Uzbekistan.

A. K. Abdullaev
Tashkent Scientific Experimental Station of Rice, Grains and Legumes, The Republic of Uzbekistan.

N. A. Khujamshukurov
Tashkent Chemical-Technological Institute, The Republic of Uzbekistan.

Zair S. Shakirov
Institute of Microbiology, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, The Republic of Uzbekistan.

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Combining Ability Analysis for Grain Improvement in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) | Chapter 05 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 1

Eight diverse parents of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) were used in diallel mating design (excluding reciprocal) to generate twenty eight crosses and evaluated against Shekhar as check in randomized block design for nine quantitative traits. General combining ability (GCA) of the parents and specific combining ability (SCA) of crosses were estimated for development of high yielding varieties. Analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes differed genetically from each others for all the nine characters studied. Combining ability analysis revealed that mean square due to GCA and SCA for days to 50% flowering, days to 50% maturity, plant height, number of primary branch, number seeds per capsules, oil percent and grain yield were significant. Genetic component of variances depicted that additive genetic variance were higher than non-additive genetic variance for plant height, number of capsules per plant and oil percent. Whereas, non-additive genetic variance was higher for rest of the characters studied. SLS72 was found to be good general combiner for grain yield and its attributing traits viz. Oil percent, number of capsules per plant, shorter plant height and early flowering. Crosses PKDL71 x LCK7035, NL260 x SLS72, NL260 x Shekhar, RL26018 x Shekhar, LCK7035 x BAU-06-05 and RL26018 x LCK7035 showed higher positive significant SCA effects for grain yield per plant.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ram Balak Prasad Nirala
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, India.

Ms Neha Rani
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, India.

Dr. Awadhesh Kumar Pal
Department of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, India.

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Insight to Molecular Mechanism of Pericarp Browning in Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) | Chapter 04 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 1

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is a subtropical fruit crop having high commercial value and consumer acceptance due to its rich juicy aril and attractive bright red pericarp. Anthocyanin, the major pigment present in litchi pericarp reaches its maximum content in fully ripen fruit contributing to its bright red colour. The biosynthesis of anthocyanin occurs via an intricate phenyl propanoid pathway controlled by plethora of structural and regulatory genes. Several genes encoding enzymes responsible for anthocyanin synthesis have been isolated and characterised in different plants. Litchi fruit being highly perishable, exhibit relatively shorter postharvest shelf-life of 2–3 days at ambient conditions which in part can be attributed to the enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation of anthocyanin. In contrast to the comprehensive understanding of molecular basis of anthocyanin synthesis, the studies on its catabolism or degradation are meagre. Polyphenols oxidases and peroxidases are the major enzymes responsible for anthocyanin degradation leading to the problem of pericarp browning. Laccase, an anthocyanin degradation enzyme expresses about thousand fold higher than the polyphenols oxidase in the pericarp with epicatechin as favourable substrate. A detailed study of the anthocyanin degradation pathway in litchi may be helpful in managing the problem of pericarp browning to preserve its bright red colour as well as to enhance the shelf life and marketability of this valuable fruit crop.

Author(s) Details

Khushboo Azam 
Department of Horticulture (F&FT), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210, India.

Hidayatullah Mir
Department of Horticulture (F&FT), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210, India.

Dr. Tushar Ranjan
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210, India.

Dr. Awadhesh Kumar Pal
Department of Biochemistry and Crop Physiology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210, India.

Dr. Ruby Rani
Department of Horticulture (F&FT), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210, India.

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The Analysis of Coal Mining Impacts on West Virginia’s Environment | Chapter 03 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 1

Aims: The paper analyzes the impacts of coal mining activities on West Virginia’s environment using GIS.

Study Design:  Adopted a  mixscale appoach.

Methodology: The aproach is applied to GIS and primary data connected to descriptive statistics by analyzing the impacts of mining with data collected at the state, county and watershed level.

Place and Duration of Study: The coal producing counties of West Virginia May 2010-December 2012.

Results: The study shows changes in coal production, and widespread degradation resulting in land loss and  open space, impacts on mountain ecosystem and water quality decline in the head waters and human casualities.The spatial analysis revealed the dispersion of mining activities onto senstive environments comprising of streams and mountain ecosystems.

Conclusions: The assessment of these trends and the capability of GIS in pinpointing them enhanced our research and understanding of ecosystem vulnerability in the face of recurrent degradation induced by mining. GIS also provided a framework for assessing ecosystem decline. To remedy the problems, the paper offered suggestions ranging from corporate code of ethics to improved data infrastructure and more use of GIS in environmental decision making.

Author(s) Details

Edmund C. Merem
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Yaw A. Twumasi
Department of Urban Forestry and Natural Resources, Southern University and A&M,102 C Fisher Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA.

Joan Wesley
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Emmanuel Nwagboso
Department of Political Science, Jackson State University,1400 Lynch, Jackson MS, 39217, USA.

Siddig Fageir
Department of Criminal Justice and Sociology, Jackson State University,1400 Lynch, Jackson MS, 39217, USA.

Marshand Crisler
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Peter Isokpehi
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Duro Olagbegi
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Mohammed Alsarari
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Coney Romorno
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

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Core Dimensions of Organizational Culture in a Research and Development Organization in Tamil Nadu, India | Chapter 02 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 1

The research paper aims to analyse the core dimensions of Organizational Culture in a R&D institution that is completely dedicated to research in Basic and Allied Sciences. The sole purpose of this research is to capture those dimensions amenable to R&D activities in this organization that will lead to higher R&D performance. The research examines factors like Strategy, Structure, Resources, Risk taking, Job & Role Characteristics, Team Dynamics, Collaboration & Networking, Leadership, Reward System, Safety & Health and Customer Satisfaction in the context of the organization. Research data was collected using a questionnaire from a sample of (n = 110) respondents within the institute. All the variable items for Organisational Culture were measured using a five-point Likert scale. Parametric and Non-Parametric tests were used to analyze the dimensions of culture, relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction of employees and also the influence of demographic factors on organizational culture.The paper also includes recommendations to guide the management of the organization to identify and inculcate cultural values that will enhance R&D activities and to gradually abandon those practices that hinder creativity and innovativeness among the employees.

Author(s) Details

Vijaya Mani
SSN School of Management, Kalavakkam, Tamil Nadum 603110, India.

Ramyaa Shree S.
SSN School of Management, Kalavakkam, Tamil Nadum 603110, India.

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