A Cost Effective Weather Monitoring Device | Chapter 09 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 7

Getting the latest weather parameters and taking the necessary precautions about the recent climate induced environmental disasters have become a major course of concern in this era of global warming. In this research a cost effective weather monitoring device was constructed using an Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller and some contemporary suitable sensors with a real time data logger and LCD. The constructed weather monitoring system is beneficial in terms of its on-device display, smaller size, cost effective, flexibility and portability as well simplicity in its operation and would be used for some meteorological measurements. The data acquired from this constructed device were in good conformity with those obtained from other sources and would make weather data readily available for small-scale users like farmers, travellers, aircraft workers, researchers, institutions and others for the purpose of measuring, monitoring, analyzing and prognosticating of the climate in other to minimize climate-induced disasters in our environment.

Author(s) Details

K. E. Ukhurebor
Department of Physics, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria.
Department of Physics, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

I. C. Abiodun
Department of Physics, Federal University, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

S. O. Azi
Department of Physics, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

I. Otete
Department of Physics, Federal University, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

L. E. Obogai
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

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Dynamics of Nitrogen under Sub Surface Drip Fertigation System on Banana cv. Rasthali | Chapter 08 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 7

Nitrogen (N) is needed for all growth processes, as it is the major component of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, enzymes and the green pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll converts sunlight energy into plant energy in the form of sugars and carbohydrates. The sub surface drip fertigation is a technique to apply both water and fertilizers through drip irrigation system during the recent years were shown to be very effective in achieving higher water and fertilizer use efficiencies. The nutrient mobility study revealed that fertigation treatments maintained higher concentration of available nitrogen around root zone of banana compared to surface irrigation with soil application of recommended dose of fertilizers where most of the nutrients moved to deeper layer due to leaching fraction of applied fertilizers. In general, subsurface drip fertigation of 100 per cent RDF treatments in combination with liquid biofertilizers maintained higher available NPK in the post-harvest soil compared to surface irrigation with soil application of recommended dose of fertilizers. Further, drip fertigation integrated with liquid biofertilizers created favorable condition for multiplication of beneficial micro-organisms in the rhizosphere region.          

Author(s) Details

Dr. M. Yuvaraj
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Kalavai-Vellore, India.

Prof. Dr. P. P. Mahendran
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, India.

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In vitro Inhibition of Fusarium by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB): Implication of Yam Disease Control for Economic Growth in Nigeria | Chapter 07 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 7

Yam is an important crop in Nigeria, where it is produced both as food and cash crop. Fusarium rots of yam are among the most important postharvest pathogens of yam worldwide, causing a lot of postharvest losses in stored yam tubers. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) lower the pH and create an environment that is unfavorable to pathogens and spoilage organisms. In vitro inhibition of fusarium species by LAB was investigated; mono-culture and multi-cultures were used. The inhibition tests were carried out with pure cultures of LAB and fusarium spp. The pure culture of actively growing Fusarium was inoculated into Potato Dextrose Agar medium aseptically and then incubated at room temperature for 72 h. The diameter of the growing Fusarium was measured, after which less than a loop full of actively growing (18-24 h) LAB isolates were used to inoculate the medium containing the growing Fusarium at a known distance in the same plate. The whole set up was incubated at 300C and inhibition zones on Fusarium by the LAB were observed 24 hourly for 96 h. The tests were carried out for mono-culture and multi-cultures in triplicate. The inhibition zone ranged from 43 to 100% in mono-culture plates and from 40 to 113% in multi-culture plates. The slightly larger inhibition in the multi-culture plate may be due to much pressure on the Fusarium. Hence LAB may be used to control rot caused by Fusarium in in stored yam, which can improve yam tuber storage for better economic growth.                   

Author(s) Details

R. M. Omodamiro
Department of Postharvest Technology Programme, National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria.

P. C. Ojimelukwe
Department of Food Science and Technology, Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

Dr. R. Asiedu
Yam Barn Unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria.

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Comparative Evaluation of Some Nutrient Contents and Antifungal Properties of Ground Musa paradisiaca (Plantain) Peels and Leaves | Chapter 06 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 7

Musa paradisiaca (plantain) fruit peels and the plant leaves may have some nutrients and antifungal properties. Thus, the study determined and compared some nutrients (minerals and vitamins) in the ground plantain peels and leaves and the antifungal property of the aqueous and ethanol extracts (at concentration of 100 mg/ml) of the ground plantain peels and leaves, using standard methods. In either sample, vitamin A was not detected. The difference (±5.28 mg/100 g) in the highest of the detected vitamins, vitamin C in the samples, was statistically significant (p<0.05) whereas the difference (±0.01 mg/100 g) in the least detected vitamins, vitamin B2, was not significant (p>0.05). Out of the determined minerals (mg/100 g), the highest concentration was potassium (40.00 ± 0.08) in the plantain leaves followed by phosphorous (36.00 ± 1.65) in the plantain peels while the least was magnesium (1.80 ± 0.05) in the leaves followed by iron (5.60 ± 0.06) in the peels. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of the peels and leaves showed activity (inhibition zone diameter measured in millimeter, mm) against Candida albicans, however, the activity of the ethanol extract of the leaves (15.67±0.58) was higher (p<0.05) than that of the ethanol extract of the peels and the aqueous extract of the peels and leaves. The difference in activity against C. albicans between the samples extracts in terms of either the same or the different extracting solvent was significant (p<0.05) but the overall difference between the samples compared to the extracting solvents (±0.67) was the same hence non-significant (p>0.05). A similar trend was recorded for the activity of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the peels and leaves against P. notatum. Thus, the plantain peels and leaves could be alternative source for vitamin C. The extracts (aqueous and ethanol) had activity against C. albicans and P. notatum hence may be useful in managing such pathogen-induced ailments. Overall negligible difference in activity against either C. albicans or P. notatum in terms of samples and the extracting solvents was suggested and this may be an underlying useful trend for comparing the overall antimicrobial activity of different samples and solvents, hence warrants a follow up.

Author(s) Details

Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu
Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

Wisdom O. Nneji
Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

Chimnonye A. Ukasoanya
Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

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Ultrasonic, Dielectric and thermal investigation of PMMA / Fe2O3 Films | Chapter 05 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 7

Solid polymer metal oxide films containing Poly (methyl-methacrylates) PMMA/Ferric oxide Fe2O3 are synthesized following solution cast technique. Complexation and particle size are determined by XRD and SEM analysis. Ultrasonic and Dielectric characterization have been done by using Ultrasonic Pulse Echo method and LCR meter respectively. The dielectric behavior of PMMA/ Fe2O3 films has been studied as a function of concentration, and at lower frequencies over the range 100 Hz – 25 KHz. A 7:3 PMMA/Fe2O3 film have been found to posses optimal conducting and optical properties. The ultrasonic velocity is also found to be minimum in same film which may be attributed to maximum dissociation with least absorption in polymer matrix. Addition of Fe2O3 thermally stabilizes PMMA matrix.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. R. Bansod
Acoustical Research Lab, PG Department of Physics, RTMNU, Nagpur, 992302440, India.

Dr. O. P. Chimankar
Acoustical Research Lab, PG Department of Physics, RTMNU, Nagpur, 992302440, India.

A. R. Khobragade
Acoustical Research Lab, PG Department of Physics, RTMNU, Nagpur, 992302440, India.

A. Gandhe
Acoustical Research Lab, PG Department of Physics, RTMNU, Nagpur, 992302440, India.

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Influence of Blanching on Some Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Compositions of Bitter Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) | Chapter 04 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 7

Bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) is essentially underutilized probably due to its characteristic bitter taste. The bitter taste may be related to its nutrient and anti-nutrient mix which could be improved by simple processing methods. The study evaluated the influence of blanching on some nutritient and anti-nutrient compositions of bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour obtained after blanching (at 100°C) for varied time. The study was conducted at the Department of Food Technology, School of Industrial and Applied Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Nigeria. The nutrients and anti-nutrients in the blanched and unblanched samples were determined by standard methods. The content in the sample blanched for 18 minutes increased respectively by 1.88% and 1.13% for moisture and carbohydrate, but decreased, by 60.00%, 19.61%, 5.80% and 13.65% for fat, crude fibre, ash and protein relative to control (0 minute). Blanching caused a decrease by 67.43% and 62.26% for alkaloid and tannin in the sample blanched for 18 minutes relative to control. The results were time dependent and significant (p<0.05). Thus, although the significant reduction in tannin and alkaloid may improve taste, the process reduced many important nutrients and may diminish the keeping quality of the resultant flour. Thus, we recommend the processing method when bitter yam flour is required for immediate use and as a low fat-energy source. Since many nutrients and anti-nutrients (medicinal components) could leach into the blanch water, further study on the utilization of the waste water and other processing methods is warranted.

Author(s) Details

Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu
Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

Daniel C. Nzewi
Department of Food Technology, School of Industrial and Applied Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Nigeria.

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CO2 Capture Using Amine-impregnated Activated Carbon from Jatropha curcas Shell | Chapter 03 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 7

A micro porous activated carbon (JAC) was synthesis from Jatropha curcas shell an agricultural waste by chemical activation using KOH. The JAC was modified with triethanolamine (TEA) to produce (JAC-TEA). The performance of both adsorbents in CO2 capture study was evaluated in a cylindrical glass column equipped with a digital mass balance. The effect of adsorbent dosage (0.5-1.5 g) and temperature (30-60°C) as a function of time was investigated. The results showed that CO2 adsorption capacities of the adsorbents increase on amine loading and adsorbent dosage (bed height), while the adsorption capacity decreases with increase in temperature. Adsorption capacity of JAC and JAC-TEA were 66 and 78 mg/g respectively. Crystallinity, morphological structure and surface functional groups of adsorbents were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transformed  Infra red spectrophotometer respectively, while the surface areas and porosity were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. Both adsorbents had good crystallinity with a well-developed pore structures. The mechanism of CO2 adsorption onto JAC and JAC-TEA is physisorption and that the adsorbent (JAC-TEA) can be used upto 7 cycles. The results of this study have revealed that a cost-effective high quality porous activated carbon can be prepared from a cheap carbonaceous material like Jatropha curcas shell and modified to improve its CO2 adsorption capacity.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mohammed Alhassan
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

Manase Auta
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

Jossey K. Sabo
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

Musa Umaru
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

Abdulsalam S. Kovo
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

Abdullahi Abdulsalam
Maryam Abacha American University, Maradi, Niger Republic.

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Couple Stress Fluid Past a Porous Spheroidal Shell with Solid Core under Stokesian Approximation | Chapter 02 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 7

The present paper deals with the flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid past a porous spheroidal shell which is made up of two confocal prolate spheroids S0 and S1 where S0 is within S1. The spheroid S0 is taken to be a solid and the annular region between S0 and S1 is porous, with the boundary of S1 being pervious. The flow outside S1 is governed by the linearized version of Stokes’ couple stress fluid flow equations and that within the porous region is governed by the classical Darcy’s law. The resulting equations are then solved analytically for the velocity and pressure fields and drag experienced by the body is obtained. The variation of drag with the different parameters like the material and the geometric is studied numerically and the results are presented through graphs.  Stream lines are also plotted to understand the flow pattern.

Author(s) Details

T. K. V. Iyengar
Department of Mathematics, NIT, Warangal, India. (Retd.)

T. S. L. Radhika
Department of Mathematics, BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, India.

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Turkey Magnetite-apatite Deposits Using the Example of the Pinarbaşi (Bulam) Deposit in Adiyaman, Southeastern Turkey | Chapter 01 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 7

The magnetite-apatite ore deposits of Turkey occure along the Southeast Anatolian Trust Belt of Turkey. There are three structural zones, Pütürge Massif and Malatya Metaphorites in the west, Bitlis Massif in the east, which have gained their present position by transportations during thrusts developed in the Miocene tectonics of Southeastern Anatolia. These in greenschist facies of a regional metamorphism metamorphised and formed deposits are Avnik and Ünaldı in Bitlis Massif and Pınarbaşı Malatya Metaphorites. The most common property of the ores deposits is that the ores depend on greenschists and found as lenses of massive, banded and dissiminited of martitized magnetite and fluorapatite.

In the area of the Pınarbaşi deposit listed here as an example crop out the Precambrian (Pütürge Metamorphites), the Eocene (Maden Complex), the Permo-Carboniferous (Malatya Metamorphites), the Tertiary, the Quaternary conglomerates and the alluvial formations. The Malatya Metamorphites are in an area thrust over the Maden Complex. From bottom to top, the area includes chlorite schists, calc schists and recrystallized limestone. Abundant rock-forming minerals in the area include chlorite, mica, quartz and calcite. The existing mineral facies indicate that ore deposits in the area metamorphosed as at least one regional barrow type in the green schist facies under 400°C temperature and 0.4 MPa pressure, and they depend on contact and retrograde metamorphism. As a result of this process, the area’s ore deposits are highly folded and faulted. The ores consist of magnetite, hematite (specularite) and goethite. The important gangue minerals are fluorapatite, quartz, chlorite and micas. Rarely observed allanite, monazite, xenotime and zirconia. Geologic and geochemistry data indicate that educts of the recent metamorphosed rocks’ chlorite schist were pelitic sediments.

The trace and rar earth elements analysis indicat that a harmonious relation determined between Fe and P2O5 in all ore deposits. The most enriched elenents in relation to Clarke values are P (8-17 times), Fe (5-10 times) and V (3-6 times). The rocks, ores and minerals of the deposit are relatively poor in trace and rare earth elements. Magnetites contain approximately 900 ppm V, 300-700 ppm Mn, 60-180 ppm Cr and 40-150 ppm Ni.The total concentration of rare earths varies between 200-500 ppm. However, rare earth elements concentration of apatites varies between 3000-4000 ppm. Their normalized distributions according to chondrites are characterized by good separation and a marked Eu negative anomaly.

Levels of the 18O isotope showed that the formation temperature varied between 282-372 ºC. This temperature corresponds to the beginning of the green schist facies temperature of the regional metamorphism. Hydrogen isotope analysis reflects the sedimentary rock’s value and supports the geochemistry diagnosis. The radiometric age determination indicated two different age values, 66 and 48 Ma. The older age of 66 Ma explains the metamorphosis that evolved during the ophiolite development. The younger age of 48 Ma is interpreted as a second metamorphism, retrograde metamorphism or tectonic movement age.

Pınarbaşı deposit is defined as a Kiruna type sedimentary deposit. Total reserves amount to 66 Mt with 35.07wt % Fe and 1.57wt % P2O5 content. The operation of the ore is currently in planning.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr.-Ing., Hüseyin Çelebi
Mersin University, Department of Geology, 33343 Mersin, Turkey.

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Traditional Chinese Medicine and Skin Diseases Ear Acupuncture Therapy for Psoriasis | Chapter 15 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 3

Psoriasis is an inflammatory chronic disease affecting both genders, approximately 2-3% of the world population. Although there are different clinical forms of psoriasis, the most common type is Psoriasis vulgaris. It presents skin patches typically red, itchy and scaly with different levels of severity and extension, established clinically by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Because of these facts, there are many types of interventions focused on your treatment, looking for effectiveness and safety. The immunomodulatory effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (MTC) technics has been proven experimentally in the control of inflammation and analgesia, however there are few studies that evaluate the auriculotherapy as treatment in autoimmune diseases and its pathological processes. Six patients with different degrees of PASI were treated with auriculotherapy using the points: Shemen, Kidney, Sympathetic Nervous System, Occipital, Adrenal, Allergy, Anxiety, Local Point, Hives and Tension for fourteen weeks or until symptoms disappeared. These cases showed that ear acupuncture therapy can be effective in the treatment of psoriasis at different stages. While the patients in the early stage of symptoms, even if was relapse, respond quickly to treatment, it was observed the clinical response of a patient with severe erythematous psoriasis (PASI 25.8), resistant to other treatments, significantly regressed after 14 weeks (2.4 PASI). The results indicate the importance of the development of a case-control design, to confirm the indication of this kind of therapy to Psoriasis vulgaris.

Author(s) Details

Maria Lucia S. G. Jorge
Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), IBRATE – Faculty of Technology, Brazil.

Sandra Silvério-Lopes
Acupuncture Research Center, IBRATE – Faculty of Technology, Brazil.

Lirane Carneiro-Suliano
Department of Odontology, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), IBRATE- Faculty of Technology, Brazil.

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