A Modified Repetitive Control Strategy for Nonlinear Systems | Chapter 13 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

In this research work, a new attempt is made to implement a Modified Repetitive Control Strategy (MRCS) directly in a Liquid Level System (LLS) and indirectly in a Spherical Tank Level System (STLS). The dynamics of the both level processes are described by the worst case model parameters which are identified by influencing the step test method. In direct approach, MRCS is incorporated in the conventional liquid level control loop of proportional (P) mode. Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Rule (ZNTR) based proportional controller parameter is considered in the loop. A periodic signal of sine wave in inflow to the level system is generated and real time runs of the LLS are carried out for the periodic input tracking with MRCS based P mode control loop. In indirect approach, by utilizing relay feedback technique, the periodic reference signal of MRCS is generated. From the input and output chattering signals of the MRCS, the optimized PI controller parameters are identified using Recursive Least Squares (RLS) fitting technique. Real time results are endowed to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed tuning method. A similar runs are carried out with the non linear systems having conventional PI-mode structure in the both Liquid level and Spherical tank control loops. A comparison in the performance analysis clearly indicates that the incorporation of direct approach of MRCS in the control loop in LLS and indirect approach of MRCS in the control loop in STLS provides a better tracking performance than the conventional PI mode.  

Author(s) Details

M. Vijayakarthick
Department of Instrumentation Engineering, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai, India.

S. Sathishbabu
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, TPGEC, Vellore, India.

P. K. Bhaba
Department of Chemical Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, India.

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Polynomial Approximation on Unbounded Subsets and the Moment Problem | Chapter 12 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

In the first part of this work, one proves a Markov moment problem involving L1– norm on a space Lν1 (R+n) for a regular positive special measure ν.. To this end, polynomial approximation on unbounded subsets and Hahn – Banach principle are applied. One uses approximation by sums of tensor products of positive polynomials in each separate variable. This way, one solves the difficulty created by the fact that there are positive polynomials, which are not writable as sums of squares in several dimensions. Consequently, we can solve the multidimensional moment problem in terms of quadratic mappings. We also discuss Markov moment problems in concrete spaces. These last results represent interpolation problems with two constraints. Here the main ingredients of the proofs are constrained extension theorems for linear operators.

Author(s) Details

Octav Olteanu
Department of Mathematics – Informatics, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania.

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The Hamiltonian Circuits in Double Dihedral Group Q12 and the Symmetry Group D8 | Chapter 11 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

This paper analyzed all the properties of some non-Abelian finite groups with two generators, and contain only Abelian and Hamiltonian subgroups. The two exceptional groups D8 and Q12 of orders 16 and 24 respectively, were examined and are completely determined using GAP. The aim was achieved due to the fact that if a group G contains at least one Hamiltonian subgroup and if all its subgroups are either Abelian or Hamiltonian, then the group itself is Hamiltonian. We finally generate some Hamiltonian circuits in the selected groups and the possible number of circuits in each group.

Author(s) Details

G. N. Shuaibu
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

D. Samaila
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Science Education, Adamawa State University, P.O.Box 25 Mubi, Nigeria.

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Biochemical Characterization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum Isolated from Infected Cotton Plant and It’s in vitro Sensitivity against Some Selected Chemicals | Chapter 10 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Aim: The aim of our study is to isolate, identify and pathogenicity test of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam) causing bacterial blight of cotton and to determine the comparative efficacy of some selected chemicals and antibiotic in controlling Xam in vitro.

Place and Duration of the Study: This study was carried out at the Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January, 2012 to December, 2013.

Methodology: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum was isolated from infected leaves, stems, branches, cotyledons and bolls of cotton. Biochemical characterization and in vitro sensitivity were evaluated as per the standard methods as described in materials and methods.

Results: The bacterium was gram negative, rod shaped and showed positive results in KOH solubility, starch hydrolysis, catalase, citrate utilization, motility indole ureas agar (MIU), gelatin liquefaction test and oxidase test. It produced, slightly raised, blond to bright yellow colour, mucoid colonies on NA medium; circular, flattened or slightly raised, yellow to bright yellow colour, mucoid colonies on YDCA medium and light yellow, mostly circular, slightly flattened on SX medium. In vitro evaluation of selected chemicals revealed that Streptomycin sulphate was highly effective against Xam. In in vitro condition, the highest inhibition zone (35.33, 36.17, 35.17, 33.5 and 32.33 mm after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hrs. respectively) was observed in Streptomycin sulphate @ 0.15% treated plates.

Conclusions: Streptomycin sulphate showed higher effectivity against X. axonopodis pv. malvacearum compared with selected fungicides.

Author(s) Details

Salma Sarker
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. N. Sultana
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. F. M. Aminuzzaman
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.

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Analysis of Wire Rope 33X6X19S Behavior Using Modeling 3D (CAD) with Numerical Simulation | Chapter 09 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

This paper analyzes the behavior of the steel wire rope “33x6x19s” using numerical simulation through CAD (3D modeling) and CAE (Finite Element) tools. The study focuses on the deformation of the wire, specifically the elongation and normal stress and shear stress inside the wire rope where it is not possible to visually check.

The paper will first discuss how the mathematical model of the complete wire rope is established. The wire rope has a complex geometric helix shape, as some wires may be straight, simple or double helix. Due to this complex shape, it was necessary to utilize the tool PTC Creo Parametric™ (Pro/ENGINER).

For the analysis of traction and friction effects in the cables core, the FEM Abaqus/CAE™ software was used.

By comparing the results from the analytical equation of wire rope elongation with the results from numerical simulation, excellent results were obtained. These results demonstrate that the modeling and simulation performed are reliable.

Author(s) Details

César A. Chagoyen Méndez
Dpto. de Ing. Mecánica, Facultad de Ing. Mecánica e Industrial, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, UCLV, Carretera a Camajuaní, Km 5½, CP 50100, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba.

Antonio Illana Martos
Dpto. Ing, Industrial e Ing, Civil, Universidad de Cádiz, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Algeciras, Algeciras, Spain.

Manoli Vilchez Vilchez
Dpto. de Mantenimiento, Total Terminal International Algeciras S.A.U. (TTI Algeciras), Hanjin Shipping, Algeciras, Spain.

Constantina Álvarez Peña
Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques. Dpto. Ing. Eléctrica, – Bloque 3.1.10 – (33204), Gijón – Asturias, Spain.

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Forensic Investigation of Bioterror Attack from Crime Scene to Court: A Review | Chapter 08 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

The detrimental effect of crimes cost our society valuable resources including loss of lives in extreme cases. Unfortunately, the rate and manner in which crimes are committed now is becoming more sophisticated especially with the use of biological agents. Bioterrorism have potentials to cause havoc to humanity just like other sources such as nuclear weapons. One of such cases is the recent anthrax attack in USA 2001; a bioterror attack that had lead to the development of a new field of microbial forensics. In addition, they have forensic profiles that can aid in their identification. However, cases involving them rarely appeared in court. Deliberate release of microbes or their toxins to harm or kill an individual in a community, deliberate transmission from infected person to another and /or through food as well as medical negligence have been identified as ways in which bio crimes are committed. Morphological characteristics, genomic and bioinformatics are the possible ways of identifying biological threats involved in a crime. Collaboration among forensic scientists, public health workers and law enforcement agencies is said to be crucial in investigating biological attack. Controlling the crime scene, maintaining chain of custody, validating methods, proficiency testing and defendable interpretation of results will need to be performed to very high standards to ensure admissibility of results in court. More research, training and development of module(s) in this area to be taught as part of the requirement for the award of degrees in forensic science are suggested.

Author(s) Details

D. P. Ashefo
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, P.M.B 109 Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

H. Tanimu
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, P.M.B 109 Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

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Bioremediation of Oil-contaminated Soils of South Kazakhstan | Chapter 07 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

In a weakly or moderately polluted with oil (0.3-1.0%) the total number of soil microorganisms, including hydrocarbon-oxidizing, you can improve cultural practices (tillage, irrigation, fertilization) without making out of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms (HOM). In the arid zone is more expedient to begin bioremediation of oil-contaminated areas of work for the fall, to use autumn and spring soil moisture for mineralization activity of microorganisms.

Author(s) Details

Akmaral Issayeva
M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent, Kazakhstan.

Aigul Uspabayeva
M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent, Kazakhstan.

Valikhan Bishimbayev
M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent, Kazakhstan.

Erzhan Issayev
M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent, Kazakhstan.

Aigul Sattarova
M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent, Kazakhstan.

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Conventional Wood Composites and Their Contemporary Applications | Chapter 06 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Due to the growing economical and environmental concern, wood-based materials have become a common substitute for the forest products industry. However, these natural sources are preferred to cost efficient and to increase mechanical performances. In this regards,  these materials offer great promise and many challenges as replacement for wood in construction and furniture industry. In a synthetic resin bonded matrices, wood is incorporated as an aggregate in the matrix (as fibres, sawdust, shavings or particles) and adhesive acts as a binder. These are employed due to their ease of production, and the enhanced strength, leading to applications for sustainable purposes in many applications. Fiber boards for example, offers desirable mechanical attributes for replacement of wood in many places. The weathering effects of wood-based composites represent the major obstacle against development of materials for outdoor conditions. But, thanks to new adhesive technologies involving bonding reactions were successfully employed to produce board products incorporating outdoors. Comprehensive mechanical, durability and physical tests confirmed the high potential of wood-based panel products as a versatile building product capable of meeting the requirements in demanding applications. The vast of literature on wood-based composites has already been reviewed and pointed by a number of researchers. Many valuable fundamental informations have already established. Some of the important issues for common wood-based composites has sumamarized in this study.

Author(s) Details

Professor Halil Turgut Sahin
Department of Forest Products Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Isparta University of Applied Sciences, 32260, Isparta, Turkey.

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The Biosorption Features of Cr (VI) Ions by Dried Biomass of a Facultative Anaerobic Bacillus cereus Strain Pf-1 | Chapter 05 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Many studies were undertaken on the biosorption potential of different kinds of biomaterials. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the biosorption mechanism of Cr (VI) using dried cells. In our study, the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution was investigated in a batch system by the dried biomass of Bacillus cereus Pf-1 isolated from activated sludge samples. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were undertaken at various initial metal concentration, pH, and biosorbent dosage. Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the biomass. Biosorption process was found to be pH dependent. The optimum pH was found to be 2.0. The Langmuir and Freundlich were considered to identify the isotherm that could better describe the equilibrium adsorption of Cr (VI) onto the biomass. Langmuir and Freundlich models fitted our experimental data. The suitability of the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models for the biosorption of Cr (VI) onto Bacillus cereus was also performed. The mechanism for the adsorption was studied by fitting the kinetic data with the Boyd plot and intra-particle diffusion model. External mass transfer was found to be the rate-determining step. Based on the ionic nature of the metal, the intra-particle diffusion and extent of film diffusion varied.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Paul Fabrice Nguema
Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Science, School of Wood, Water and Natural Resources, University of Dschang, P.O.Box 786, Ebolowa, Cameroon.

Professor Zejiao Luo 
State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo lu, Wuhan 430074, China.

Zachari Mohamadou Mounir
Departement Hygiene Securite Environnement, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Universite de Zinder, Bp 656, Zinder, Niger.

Dr. Lian Jing Jing
State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo lu, Wuhan 430074, China.

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The Importance of Undergraduate Coursework in Student Success at South Carolina Medical Institutions | Chapter 04 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

The importance of undergraduate coursework in determining medical school student readiness reaches far beyond preparation to take the standardized Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT®). Since medical schools employ a rigorous and fast-paced learning system to instruct prospective medical students on (A) didactic information in the basic sciences and (B) the critical methodology of clinical practice, it is essential for applicants to be well -equipped for the challenge that this type of scholarship requires. A research study investigated current medical students enrolled at the four medical schools in the State of South Carolina: The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), University of South Carolina College of Medicine Columbia (USCSOM-Columbia), University of South Carolina College of Medicine Greenville (USCSOM-Greenville) and Edward Via College of Medicine Spartanburg (VCOM-Spartanburg). Questionnaires were distributed in the form of Google surveys to all medical institutions in order to distribute them to all students enrolled (M1-M4). The results were received, compiled, and analyzed. The data demonstrated striking similarities in the responses received from medical students representing all four professional schools regarding their evaluation how well they were prepared as undergraduates. The significance of these results is discussed.

Author(s) Details

Halford G. Warlick IV.
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA.

Gabriel N. Desouza
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA.

Megan L. Wander
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA.

Vincent S. Gallicchio
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA.

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