Quantum Oscillations of the Landau-Pekar Polaron in the Dielectric Layers and Bipolaron Formations | Chapter 01 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

The conditions are identified under which the electrostatic image forces at an interface dielectrics result in spatial confinement of the large polarons. This paper presents the theoretical study of large polarons state near the interface of two and three insulators. Action of a combination of external magnetic and electric fields and forces of the electrostatic image on polaron quasi two-dimensional nanostructures is analyzed. It is established that at certain ratios of dielectric constants of two dielectrics there is a fixing of polarons at some equilibrium distance from an interface of dielectrics. Polarons are fixed in the plane of the parallel to plane of the interface, forming a quasi two-dimensional nanolayer. The Bogolyubov method of collective coordinate is used to derive equations describing quantum oscillations of the center of inertia of a polaron near its equilibrium position. A long-range resonant interaction of two oscillators resulting in the appearance of effective attraction between polarons is discussed. The dielectric properties of adjacent insulators required for complete compensation of the Coulomb interpolaron repulsion are determined. Derivation is given on the temperature and magnetic field in which the polaron oscillations are not suppressed. The reasons are discussed why in some experiments high-temperature superconductivity of metal-ammonia systems was found, while in other experiments it was not possible to detect superconductivity.

Author(s) Details

Vladimir K. Mukhomorov
Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.

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Study of Sliding Wear Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Red Mud Composite Coatings on Mild Steel | Book Publisher International

The present investigation aims at evaluating the effect of fly ash, carbon and aluminium addition on coating characteristics of pure red mud. Plasma sprayed coatings composed of red mud and a varying percentage of fly ash, carbon and aluminium on mild steel are considered for the study. Plasma spraying technique is used with varying levels of power namely 6, 9, 12 and 15 kW. Plasma spray is one of the most widely used techniques involved in surface modification by improvement of wear resistance, which may affirm the great versatility and its application to a wide spectrum of materials. Investigations of the coatings focused on tribological properties like sliding wear behaviour, wear morphology, wear mechanism and frictional force. Different coating characteristics like surface morphology, hardness, porosity, thickness, deposition efficiency, bond strength and new phase formation are studied. The sustainability of these coatings towards high temperature at air environment up to 1000°C is evaluated by finding their adhesion strength. DSC and TGA techniques are implemented to observe the coating behaviour to heat. The coatings show remarkable resistance towards high temperature by virtue of adhesion strength compensation. It is feasible to use these coatings limiting < 800°C otherwise dislodging of coating from metal. Fly ash with 10, 20 and 50% by weight was mixed with red mud. Carbon and Aluminium powder with 20 weight % each are premixed to red mud separately and plasma sprayed. Sliding wear test are performed using a pin on disc wear test machine. The wear test is performed till the survival of coatings with track diameter of 100 mm and at a sliding speed of 100 rpm (0.523 m/s); applying a normal load of 10 N. The variation of wear rate and frictional force with that of sliding distance and time has been presented. The addition of fly ash with red mud reduces the wear rate by enhancing the coating property. But the optimum percentages of fly ash required for better coating material still impact a question mark for the researchers. Addition of aluminium and carbon further reduces the wear rate. It is observed that for the early stage the wear rate increases slowly and then rises drastically with sliding distance for all coating type and finally becomes stagnant. Operating power level proved to be the remarkable variable for different coating property. The observation signifies the coatings wear resistance (reverse of wear rate) increases until an optimum value at 12 kW, afterwards indicating some other dominating parameters. Significant wear resistance was visible with the addition of fly ash due to an increase in bond strength and dense film at the interface. Wear rate decreases with operating power up to 12 kW, thereafter increases with initiating other dominating parameters. At the end, design of experiment is conducted to analyse the dominating parameters to wear. The present study concludes that, red mud coatings possess acceptable thermal properties. Fly ash, carbon and aluminium are beneficiary reinforcing agent for red mud, and the composite can be coat able with favouring surface properties. These coatings can be operated at high temperature. It is observed that, due to low material cost, these composite coatings can also be employed for suitable trbological applications. Plasma generating power, adversely affect the coating morphology. This work is a portfolio for researcher to discover many other aspects of red mud and its composite coatings. The study may be extended by future investigators to find its distinct application areas.

Author(s) Details

Harekrushna Sutar
Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

Debashis Roy
Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

Subash Chandra Mishra
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India.

Rabiranjan Murmu
Department of Chemical Engineering, Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Sarang, India.

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Measuring the Impact of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction with the Moderating Effect of Demographic Factors among Academic Faculty Members of Public Universities in Sri Lanka | Book Publisher International

The purpose of this study was to assess; the impact of factors affecting job satisfaction and the moderating effect of demographic factors among academic faculty members of public universities in Sri Lanka. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the job satisfaction of university faculty in developed countries; however, a little is known about the job satisfaction of academicians in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. The research method employed was the quantitative method that collected data from academics in fifteen state universities in Sri Lanka by means of a structured questionnaire. A representative sample based on the multi stage stratified random sampling method was auctioned, this involved 500 questionnaires being distributed, with 423 questionnaires identified being usable for further analysis. In terms of findings, the median and mean values of the overall job satisfaction of academic staff members of Sri Lankan state universities were found to be 3.95 and 3.93 (in a 1-5 Likert scale), respectively; in addition, the mean value was also found to be significantly higher than the neural value 3. This means that the academic members are generally satisfied with their jobs in the Sri Lankan context. Further, the multiple regression analysis performed to test the research hypothesis on the relationship between remuneration, work load, work autonomy, working environment and social recognition and overall job satisfaction indicated that the factor “social recognition” was a highly significant positive factor affecting the overall faculty job satisfaction in Sri Lanka. The Andrew F. Hayes (2013) module analysis performed to test the moderating effect, depicted in the results that, the interaction between the constructs variables indicates that the current working status and gender variables does not have a statistically significant moderating effect (p>.05) on the overall job satisfaction of academicians. In terms of differences between and amongst different demographic categories, faculty members at the professor’s levels were more satisfied than other groups. Further, the findings indicate that lecturers had the lowest job satisfaction level. These findings are also expected to have significant policy implications.

Author(s) Details

T. S. M. Amarasena
Department of Decision Sciences, Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

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Antibiotics Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Urinary Tract Infection among Honeymoon Women in Iraq | Chapter 13 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) is an infection caused by the presence and growth of microorganism anywhere in the urinary tract. This study aims at determining the most common microorganism that causes UTI in honeymoon women, detection the most effective antimicrobial agents that causative agents of UTI and select the best antibiotics for treated UTI. One hundred and thirty specimens were collected from women suspected with UTI {honeymoon (95) and other women (35)} in al-Qassim hospital; during the period (January 2012 to 30th September 2012). The bacterial isolates were identified tested for antibiotics sensitivity test6. Honeymoon women were showing higher rate of UTI than other women in (87 from 95) (91.5%) and (19 from 35) (54.3%) respectively. E. coli (46%) and Staphylococcus aureus (42%) were predominant isolate in honeymoon. Regarding Antibiotics sensitivity test, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus showed highly sensitive to Nitrofurantoin (100%), (94.5%) followed by Amikacin (90%), (85%), Gentamicin (88.2%), (75%) and ciprofloxacin (80.7%) (88%) respectively, while Oxacillin were not effective against tested isolates. In summary, Honeymoon women were showing higher rate of UTI than other women. E. coli was isolated more than other bacteria that causing UTI in honeymoon women. Most bacterial isolates was showed highly sensitive to Nitrofurantoin and resistance to Oxacillin.

Author(s) Details

Nada Khazal Kadhim Hindi
Department of Basic and Medical Science, College of Nursing, Babylon University, Babylon Province, Iraq.

Shaimaa Obaid Hasson
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of veterinary –Al-Qasim green University, Babylon Province, Iraq.

Shatha Khazal Kadhim Hindi
Al-Qasim Hospital, Babylon Province, Iraq.

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Assessment of Dental Pulp Stem Cell (DPSC) Biomarkers Following Induction with Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 (BMP-2) | Chapter 12 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Introduction: Tissue regeneration and biomedical engineering are the goals of modern research that have made tremendous strides in recent years. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been demonstrated to exhibit functional multipotency, differentiating into neurons, adipocytes, and other cell types. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the ability of bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) to induce proliferation and differentiation of DPSC isolates into mineral forming bone cell precursor lineages.

Study Design: This was a prospective study with the non-randomised experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas – School of Dental Medicine between May 2017 and August 2018.

Methodology: Eight previously isolated dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) isolates were grown in culture and treated with bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) to evaluate any effects on growth, viability or biomarker expression.

Results: BMP-2 induced significant changes in cellular growth among a subset of DPSC with slow doubling times (sDT), which corresponded with similar increases in cellular viability.  Also, BMP-2 was sufficient to induce mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other differentiation markers among the sDT isolates – although no significant changes were observed among the DPSC isolates with rapid or intermediate DTs (rDT, iDT).

Conclusions: This study may be the first to demonstrate not only the differential responsiveness of DPSC isolates to BMP-2, but also to identify the MSC biomarkers that may affect initial DPSC responsiveness to this stimulus. Although many studies have evaluated the role of the biomarkers NANOG, Sox-2 and Oct-4 in DPSC isolate, no other study of DPSC multipotency has evaluated the role of Nestin – which may be one of the key factors that potentiate or limits the responsiveness to BMP-2 and osteogenic potential among DPSCs.

Author(s) Details

Joseph Cinelli
Department of Advanced Education in Orthodontics, University of Nevada, Las Vegas–School of Dental Medicine, USA.

Erica Nguyen
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA.

Karl Kingsley, PhD, MPH
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas–School of Dental Medicine, USA.

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Effect of Lead (Pb) on in vitro Shoots Essential Oil Constituents of Jatropha curcas L. | Chapter 11 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Essential oil chemical constituents of Jatropha curcas were analyzed for the effect of lead (Pb) on in vitro shoots. A total of 36 and 30 compounds obtained from in vitro and Pb treated shoots. The four compounds were α-copaene, β-bourbonene, T-muurolol and lauric acid increased parentage in Pb treated in vitro shoots. Lead treated in vitro shoots resulted in production of 21 new compounds and increased percentage of fatty acid, alkanes and aldehyde. 

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ravi Mahalakshmi
Plant Tissue Culture and Bioprospecting Laboratory, M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Road, Institutional Area, Taramani, Chennai- 600113, India and Meta Procambial Biotech Private Limited, P. Thanneer Pandal Palayam, Peria Semour P.O, Erode- 638 004, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr. Palanisami Eganathan
Plant Tissue Culture and Bioprospecting Laboratory, M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Road, Institutional Area, Taramani, Chennai- 600113, India and Meta Procambial Biotech Private Limited, P. Thanneer Pandal Palayam, Peria Semour P.O, Erode- 638 004, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr. Ajay Kumar Parida
Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory, M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Road, Institutional Area, Taramani, Chennai- 600113, India and Institute of Life Sciences (ILS), NALCO Square, Bhubaneswar- 751023, Odisha, India.

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Control of Huanglongbing (HLB) Disease with Reference to Its Occurrence in Citrus Industry in the World | Chapter 10 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is one of the most severe diseases of citrus plantation all over the world. HLB has destroyed an estimated 60 million citrus trees in Africa and Asia and more than 40 countries were infected by HLB in Africa, Asia and USA, The HLB pathogens are highly fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacteria in the genus Candidatus liberibacter. The isolate from South Africa, Candidatus liberibacter africanus is considered heat-sensitive and only found in Africa regions. The isolate from Asia, Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus is the most severe strain and widespread. This strain is heat-tolerant and can show the disease symptoms in humid, cool and hot temperature (up to 35°C). The isolate from America has been named Candidatus liberibacter americanus and it was detected in Brazil and Florida. Current disease management strategies focus on vector control to avoid infection within the farm or management of infected trees to eliminate source of inoculum. For the Malaysia case, integrated pest management (IPM) is highly recommended to be adopted to control the disease. The successes of individual or combined approaches depend upon on the infestation level, knowledge and regulation. Basically, in the regions where disease incidence is low, the most common practices are removal of symptomatic trees, intensive monitoring, pesticides application and biological control of the vectors. Preventive and curative measures of infected trees includes enhanced nutrition and plant hormone application by foliar sprays, regulating soil pH, precision irrigation based on the needs of HLB-affected trees. In reality, effective disease control of HLB is still difficult, especially in the area where the disease is widespread, vectors are well established and the hosts are susceptible. In this article, possible HLB disease management approaches are discussed.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Hajivand Shokrollah
Horticultural Science Research Institute (HSRI), Mahdasht Road, Hemmat St. Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran.

Khairulmazmi Ahmad
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Institute of Plantation Studies (IKP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Kamaruzaman Sijam
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

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Antidiabetic and Antiinflammatory Activity of Methanol and Aqueous Extracts of Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. | Chapter 09 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

The present study is aimed to investigate the antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activity of crude extracts (methanol and aqueous) of leaves of Pergularia daemia. The acute oral toxicity showed that the crude extracts of P. daemia leaf were safe until 2000 mg/kg body weight and no macroscopical organ abnormalities were observed in acute oral models. The results suggested methanol extract of leaves may contribute to the reduction of blood glucose levels and can be useful in the management of diabetes. The crude extracts were also assessed for its antiinflammatory activity by in-vitro methods. Out of the two extracts tested, the methanol extract exhibited significant activity. P. daemia extracts exhibited antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activities which may be attributed by the presence of active phytoconstituents.

Author(s) Details

A. Doss, Ph.D.
PG & Research Department of Botany, V. O. Chidambaram College, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India.

P. S. Tresina, Ph.D.
PG & Research Department of Botany, V. O. Chidambaram College, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India.

V. R. Mohan, Ph.D.
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technology, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumarakovil, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Biopreservation of a Cameroonian Indigenous Fermented Milk (Pendidam) Using Biosurfactants | Chapter 08 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Natural compounds with bio-preservative properties are gaining attention of researchers worldwide. It is the case of biosurfactants known as surface active compounds produced by microorganisms which deserved antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was aimed to improve the shelf life of a Cameroonian indigenous fermented milk “pendidam” using biosurfactants derived from that food matrix. Biosurfactants was extracted from pendidam, purified, characterized preliminarly and its in vitro antimicrobial activity against microorganisms isolated from pendidam was assessed. Then, the biosurfactants was applied in pendidam and the microbiological quality of pendidam was followed up during 4 days of preservation at room temperature. The results obtained show that the crude extract of biosurfactants exhibit emulsifying and surface activities which remained stable after heat treatment at 100°C for 15 min, NaCl concentration of 20% and pH values ranging from 2 to 12. Furthermore, the biosurfactants was microbicidal against Candida spp. and E. coli at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. Solution of Biosurfactants (50 mg/mL) introduced into pendidam at a ratio of 10% (v/v), reduced significantly (p<0.05) the proliferation of the total aerobic mesophilic flora, E. coli and Candida spp. during 4 days of preservation at room temperature while no adverse effects were noticed on the growth of lactic acid bacteria. The present study highlights the bio-preservative potential of biosurfactants and suggests its use in food industry as food preservatives.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mbawala Augustin, Associate Professor
Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, P.O.Box 455, Ngaoundere, Cameroon.

Dr. Pahane Mbiada Majesté, Ph.D
Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, P.O.Box 455, Ngaoundere, Cameroon.

Dr. Mouafo Tene Hippolyte, Ph.D
Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, P.O.Box 455, Ngaoundere, Cameroon.
Centre for Food and Nutrition Research, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies, P.O.Box 6163, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Dr. Tatsadjieu Ngoune Léopold, Professor
Department of Food Engineering and Quality Control, University Institute of Technology, University of Ngaoundere, P.O.Box 455, Ngaoundere, Cameroon.

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