Boosting Self-sufficiency in Maize Crop Production in Abia State, South-Eastern Nigeria with Internet of Things (IoT)-Climate Messaging: A Model | Chapter 01 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The cultivation of Maize round the year is a great challenge to subsistence and mechanized farmers in Abia State owing to the changes in climatic conditions especially precipitation, relative humidity, and temperature during the two traditional seasons, which affect the growth and yield of the cereal crop. This chapter is the first of a two-part study aimed at evolving an internet-based remote monitoring and messaging system for farmers using a case study, the Umueze-Umuchi communities and other connected areas in Osisioma Ngwa Local Government of Abia State. The essence of this project is to enable farmers to remotely monitor vital climatic conditions that are much likely to affect their Maize farms during the dry season. This work presents succinct information on Maize cultivation in the communities with recourse to topography, relief and drainage, climate, soil and vegetation of the area. Data were collected through observation and interview of selected farmers. The vital atmospheric conditions required for Maize farming such as Temperature, Vapour pressure, and Relative Humidity were noted to vary during the seasons: Rainy and dry seasons respectively. Data from farmers showed that Maize cultivation begins in early march following early rainfall and actively ends around June when the volume of precipitation is at its peak. No Maize cultivation is done during the dry season beginning from early November owing to low precipitation regardless of the presence of the Aba River across these communities. Consequent upon the findings, the authors are led to examining the option of all year-round Maize cultivation aided by an IoT-enabled climate monitoring system in order to boost Maize production in the aforementioned communities. It is submitted that the use of the monitoring device will enable the farmer know when to complement the adverse climatic conditions during the dry season thereby enhancing Maize cultivation round the year.

Author(s) Details

Wilson Nwankwo
Cyberphysical and Soft Computing Unit, Department of Computer Science, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria.

Akinola Samson Olayinka
Department of Physics, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria.

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Morphological Characterization of Okra (Abelmoschus sp. L.) Germplasm in Ghana | Chapter 12 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Twenty five accessions of okra collected in Ghana were evaluated for phenotypic identity, diversity and quality based on morphological characters. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics were measured and scored as specified by the standard international crop descriptor for okra. A dendrogram was generated for morphological data based on the simple matching coefficient, and four cluster groups were observed. The distribution of the accessions into the groups, based on the morphological traits had no unique geographical relationship. The results of the matrix of similarity among the 25 accessions performed by NTsys pc programme placed two accessions in a tie, suggesting that, they were identical. Eight accessions were placed at above 80% similarity, meaning that, the accession pairs were closely related, and three accessions were 50% similar, which means they matched at half the characters measured. Six pairs of accessions measured were somewhat diverse, which can be exploited by plant breeders for further improvement. The genetic affinity between the accessions from different regions and ethnic groups could however be due to the selection and exchange of okra between farmers from different regions and ethnic groups. Distinct morphotypes exist in the Ghanaian okra germplasm, depicted by variation in petal colour, pubescence of the leaf and stem, fruit shape, anthocyanin pigmentation and number of days to 50% flowering.

Author(s) Details

D. Oppong-Sekyere, PhD
Department of Ecological Agriculture, Bolgatanga Polytechnic, P.O.Box 767, Bolgatanga, U/E-R, Ghana.

Prof. R. Akromah
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Dr. E. Y. Nyamah
University of Cape Coast Business School, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Dr. E. Brenya
Western Sydney University, Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment (HIE), Sydney, Australia.

Dr. S. Yeboah
CSIR – Crops Research Institute, Fumesua, Kumasi, Ghana.

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Mapping Irrigated Area Fragments for Crop Water Use Assessment Using Handheld Spectroradiometer | Chapter 11 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

As climatic change and land use are altering the hydrographic regime, most catchments are progressively becoming drier and farmers are shifting from rainfed agriculture to irrigation practices to enable them to carry out income-generating activities throughout the year. The Ghanaian government has recently been promoting irrigation agricultural practices as the population keeps increasing and the demand for food keeps soaring. In order to keep pace with high demand for food coupled with increasing aridity of the subregion, some farmers resort to informal irrigation practices. In this study, hyperspectral reflectance data of the irrigated crops under informal practices were collected to assess their efficiency of water use. Photochemical reflectance index (PRI), soil-specific nitrogen index (SSN), and water band index (WBI) were computed. The PRI and WBI were significantly correlated, while there was no significant correlation between PRI and SSN. The map showing the probability of water stress indicated that informal irrigation practices are not an efficient water management approaches.

Author(s) Details

Dr. S. Sovoe
Environmental Protection Agency, Field Operations Division, Volta Region, P.O. Box HP 513, Ho, Ghana.

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Application of Tracer Method in Determining Groundwater Recharge: A Case Study at Mymensingh Area, Bangladesh | Chapter 10 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Among various water cycle characteristics, groundwater recharge is the leading hydrologic parameter determining groundwater resources availability and sustainability. Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is important for proper development and management of the resource. Groundwater recharge was estimated under field condition at Mymensingh region of Bangladesh using tracer technique as well as water-balance method. Three years average recharge rate was found as 228.7 mm/year under tracer technique; and 141.7 mm under water balance method (which in terms of percent of rainfall, were 11.2% and 7.16%, respectively). The results of the study will be helpful for planning of sustainable groundwater in the area.

Author(s) Details

M. H. Ali
Agricultural Engineering Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.

M. A. Islam
Agricultural Engineering Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.

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Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Coated Sodium Butyrate and/or Synbiotic on Growth Performances, Caecal Fermentation, Intestinal Morphometry and Metabolic Profile of Growing Rabbits | Chapter 09 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aim: The aim of the present experiment was to study the synergistic effects of dietary supplementation with coated slow released sodium butyrate (CM3000®) and a commercial synbiotic (Poultry-Star®) on the productive performance and intestinal morphometry of the growing rabbits.

Study Design: Laboratory experimental design was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the experimental rabbitry of Physiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University, Egypt. The s duration of the study persists for 70 days.

Methodology: Thirty- two apparently healthy male New Zealand rabbits with average body weight of 544 ± 9 g were divided randomly into four dietary treatments at weaning (28th day of age). The control group (C) was fed on standard basal diet with no supplementation. Rabbits in the second group (T1) received the same basal diet supplemented with CM3000® 500 g/ton feed. Animals in the third group (T2) consumed the basal diet containing Poultry-Star® 500 g/ton feed. Rabbits in the fourth group (T3) were fed on the basal diet enriched with mixture of CM3000® and Poultry-Star®, 250 g/ton feed for each. Feed and water were offered ad-libitum for 70 days experimental period. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded biweekly to calculate body weight gain and feed conversion. At the end of the experimental period blood and caecal content samples were collected from all animals. Ce rtain haematological metabolic parameters namely, glucose [1] triglycerides [2], total cholesterol [3] total protein [4], albumen and urea [5]. Caecal content samples were collected at the end of the experimental period post slaughtering for determination of caecal fermentation pattern namely, pH, total short chain fatty acids [6] individual volatile fatty acids [7]and ammonia concentration [8,9]. Duodenal tissue samples were collected for histomorphometry. The results revealed that additives used improved significantly live body weight compared to the control group. Rabbits in T3 group showed the highest body weight gain. In addition, supplementation of the basal diet with a mixture of additives revealed significant increase of feed intake. The blood urea level was reduced significantly in bucks of T1. The rabbits in T3 group recorded the highest level of blood glucose. Caecal pH revealed a significant decrease in T1 and T3. The mixture of additives has positive results on the intestinal morphometry.

Conclusion: Coated butyrate and are capable of improving performance, enhancing intestinal health.

Author(s) Details

Mr. Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo MB ChB FRCS(Ed) FRCSI FGCS Urol. LLM
Department of Urology, North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, M8 5RB, United Kingdom.

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Importance of Foliar Nutrition for Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L.) | Chapter 08 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Generally, the nutrition for the crops may be given as basal, foliar and fertigation methods. But, most of the pulse crop is sensitive to flower dropping, which requires foliar application for flower setting and pod formation. To know the facts the field experiments were conducted to study the influence of different foliar nutrition on pod setting percentage, yield and economics of redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) under irrigated condition at Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paiyur, Tamil Nadu, India in Kharif season of 2016-17. To study the effect of different nutrient sources were applied as foliar application of 2% DAP twice at flowering and 15 days thereafter first spray (T1), Foliar application of TNAU pulse wonder at 5 kg/ha at peak flowering (T2), Foliar application of 0.5% MAP twice at flowering and 15 days thereafter first spray (T3). Foliar application of CCC 200 ppm twice at flowering and 15 days thereafter (T4), and Control (water spray) (T1). It concluded that application of 0.5% mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) at flowering and 15 days after first spray recorded higher grain and stalk yield of 1522 and 6222 kg ha-1 respectively and it was recorded higher gross income of Rs. 91320 , net income of Rs. 50520 and B:C ratio of 2.2. It recorded 25% higher yield over control (water spray) and 12% higher over application of CCC 200 ppm twice at flowering and 15 days after first spray. Overall, we emphasized the importance of foliar spray and its direct nutritive value to increase the crop yield.

Author(s) Details

Dr. C. Sivakumar
Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Vazhavachanur-606 753, Thiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr. Krishnaveni
Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Vazhavachanur-606 753, Thiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Prof. M. Pandiyan
Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Vazhavachanur-606 753, Thiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Heterosis and Combining Ability in Citrullus mucosospermus (Fursa) for Fruit Traits | Chapter 07 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The aim of this study was to identify parents and promising hybrid combinations for the improvement of Citrullus mucosospermus (Fursa). 12 F1 hybrids obtained from a 4×4 full diallel crossing along with their parental lines (Bebu (B), Wlêwlê small seeds 1 (Wss1), Wlêwlê small seeds 2 (Wss2) and Wlêwlê small seeds 3 (Wss3)) were evaluated. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that hybrids having one parent Bebu, expressed significant positive heterosis effect relative to mid-parental values for characters’ fruit weight, fruit diameter and fruit volume. Combined analysis of variances for all investigated traits showed significant (P˂0.001) mean squares of GCA and SCA for all studied traits, indicating the involvement of both additive and non-additive gene actions in the inheritance of these traits. Non-additive gene effects were predominant for all studied traits. Bebu appeared the best general combiner for FMp, FW, FD and FV while, Wss2 and Wss3 were the best general combiner for NF. Therefore, there were suggested for their incorporation into C. mucosospermus breeding programs, in order to accumulate their favorable genes responsible for increasing fruit yield in promising pure lines. Crosses Wss1×Wss2 and Wss2×Wss3 showed significant SCA effects for NF while, crosses B x Wss1, Wss1 x B, B x Wss2, Wss2 x B, B x Wss3 and Wss3 x B presented significant positive values of SCA for FW, FD and FV. Progeny B×Wss2 had recorded a negative value of SCA for FMp. These promising crosses with significant SCA effects could be included in C. mucosospermus breeding programs, which could be advanced further for the isolation of transgressive segregants in order to develop good inbred lines. 

Author(s) Details

Kouakou Fulgence Brou
Laboratoire de Biologie et Amélioration des Productions Végétales, Université Nangui Abrogoua, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire.

Raoul Sylvère Sie
Laboratoire de Biologie et Amélioration des Productions Végétales, Université Nangui Abrogoua, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire.

Koffi Adjoumani
Ecole Normale Supérieure d‟Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Dr. Yao Didier Martial Saraka
Université Peleforo Gon Coulibaly (UPGC), UFR Sciences Biologiques, Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire.

Badie Arnaud Kouago
Laboratoire de Biologie et Amélioration des Productions Végétales, Université Nangui Abrogoua, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire.

Cynthia Deborah Adahi
Laboratoire de Biologie et Amélioration des Productions Végétales, Université Nangui Abrogoua, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Effects of Multi-enzyme Feed Additive “Kemzyme” or/and Sodium Bentonite “as a Feed Binder” on Sexual Activity and Some Fertility Parameters of Rabbit Bucks | Chapter 06 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aims: The present study was conducted to clarify the effect of Kemzyme or Bentonite and their mix as feed additives on the main semen characteristics, testicular enzyme markers, plasma testosterone level and fertility indices of bucks.

Study Design: Twenty- four mature male New Zealand White bucks were equally divided into four groups (6 in each). The first group was the control group (C) the animals were kept untreated and were fed the basal diet without additives. The second group (K) was supplemented with 0.1% “Kemzyme”, a multi-enzyme blend of Kemin Agrifoods Europe, composed of cellulases, amylases, proteases and lipases. The third group (B) the animals were supplemented with 2% sodium bentonite [1] which purchased from (Morgan for chemicals – Egypt) while the fourth group (KB) was supplemented with 0.1% Kemzyme plus 2% sodium bentonite. Doses of supplemented additives were mixed with the basal ration pellets.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the experimental rabbitry of Physiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University. The treatment lasted for 10 weeks to cover a complete spermatogenic cycle.

Methodology: The rabbits were housed individually in commercial cages (55×60×34 cm), equipped with automatic drinkers and j-feeders. Daily lighting regime was 10-12 hours photoperiod /day through both natural and fluorescent lighting. A commercial pelleted diet of 16.7% crude protein, 13.7% crude fiber and 2590 kcal of digestible energy per kg (Atmida Feed Company, Egypt) was offered ad libitum. Clean, fresh water was available all times. The diet subjected to chemical analysis according to [2]. Kemzyme”, a multi-enzyme blend of Kemin Agrifoods Europe, composed of cellulases, amylases, proteases and lipases. Sexual activity of the bucks was evaluated through behavioural testing “mating test”. On the test day, a receptive female was introduced to the male’cage and the following behavioral parameters were recorded according to [3] and [4] during 10 min testing period for each buck: latency to mount, time from introduction of the female until the first mount with pelvic thrusting; mating latency “reaction time”, time from introduction of the female until the first ejaculation; interval between the first and second mating as a measure of libido. The previously mentioned parameters were measured in seconds using a stopwatch. Total number of mounts and ejaculations were also recorded. Each male in the different groups was tested three times, two days after each semen collection .At the beginning of the ninth week of the treatment, Semen collection was done by using a teaser female and artificial vagina that was locally fabricated as described by [5] Semen was collected weekly for three consecutive times and in every collection two successive ejaculations (with a lag of 15 min.) were obtained from each buck between 8:00 to 10:00 h to ensure optimum quality of semen obtained [6,7]. The volume of each ejaculate was recorded (using a graduated collection tube) after removal of the gel mass. A weak eosin solution [8] was used for evaluation of sperm concentration by the improved Neubauer haemocytometer slide (GmbH & Co., Brands twiete 4, 2000 Hamburg 11, Germany). Total sperm output was calculated by multiplying semen ejaculate volume and semen concentration. Assessment of live, dead, and abnormal spermatozoa were performed using an eosin–nigrosin blue staining mixture [9]. The percentages of motile sperm and motility grade were estimated by visual examination under high-power magnification (40×) using an ordinary microscope with heated stage. Motility was scored as follows: 0 = no movement; 1 = twitching, no forward progressive movement (fpm); 2 = slow fpm; 3 = good fpm; and 4 = fast fpm.The two motility parameters were combined to yield; Sperm motility index: SMI = percentage motile X motility grade [10] Total number of motile sperm (TMS) was calculated by multiplying percentage of motile sperm and total sperm outputs.Seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation of semen samples at 860 X g for 20 min, and was stored at −20°C until analysis. The activities of seminal plasma lactate dehydrogenase /LDH [11], Alkaline phosphatase / ALP [12] and Gamma glutamyle transferase /GGT [13] were measured spectrophotometerically by using kinetic mode. Total lipids were also measured in the seminal plasma according to method of [14]. For evaluation of their fertility parameters, bucks of the different groups were bred with 24 receptive nulliparous female rabbits and their parameters were recorded for each group according to [15] kindling rate, total born and total born alive litter also stillborn kits were monitored,Blood samples were collected from the ear vein of all animals in the morning before accesses to feed and water. Heparin was used as anticoagulant.

Plasma was obtained centrifugation of samples at 860×g for 20 min and was stored at -20°C until used for determination of total testosterone [16,17]. Data of the experiment for all variables were subjected to ANOVA as a completely randomized design according to [18]. Means were compared by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 0.05 significant level [19].

Results: The current result indicated that;significant sexual performance and  higher libido of rabbit bucks supplemented with 0.1% “Kemzyme”, a multi-enzyme blend of Kemin Agrifoods.

Conclusions: Kemzyme supplementation in bucks was associated with improved sexual activity indices, improved semen parameters and steroidogensis. Its application as fertility enhancer should not be neglected. Bentonite, although it was claimed to have a growth promoting effect, its influence on animal sexuality and fertility was unsatisfactory. Practically, it could be considered that (K) supplementation is a good reproductive promotant tool in the field of rabbit production.

Author(s) Details

Sohair Y. Saleh
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Kamal A. Attia
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Prof. Dr. Manal A. Fouad
Department of Hygiene and Veterinary Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Maaly M. Nassar
European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Welcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, UK.

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Protective Role of Some Feed Additives against Dizocelpine Induced Oxidative Stress in Testes of Rabbit Bucks | Chapter 05 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aims: As optimization of farm animals reproductive performance is a main objective, the present study was, undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of vitamin C, vitamin E and olive pomace against dizocilpine (MK-801) induced oxidative stress and its resultant alterations on antioxidant status, spermiogram, hormonal, enzyme markers and histomorphology of testes of rabbit bucks during first and second month of the experiment.

Study Design: Laboratory experimental design was performed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the experimental rabbitry of Physiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University during the period from January to May 2014 in accordance with the Chinese guidelines for animal welfare and approved by the animal welfare committee of Animal Science College, Zhejiang University.

Methodology: Thirty- six male New Zealand White rabbits of about 5-months age and average body weight of 2500 g were randomly selected, used for the experimental work one month later. During this month, the rabbits were gradually adapted to natural mating. The experiment lasted for 2 months (length of spermatogenic cycle in rabbit), bucks were housed individually in commercial cages (55×60×34 cm), equipped with automatic drinkers and j-feeders. Clean and fresh water was available all time. The whole rabbitry was well ventilated through both natural windows and electric fans and illuminated to 14:10 light dark cycle through natural and fluorescent lighting. The rabbitry average ambient temperature and relative humidity ranged from 20 to 30ºC and 70 -80%, respectively during summer resting period. Basal and experimental diets were formulated to cover the nutrient requirements of rabbits as recommended in [1]. Diets were subjected to chemical analysis according to [2]. Offered for all animals ad libitum Table 1. The bucks were equally and randomly divided into six groups (6 in each) namely control which injected with 1.0 ml sterile saline intraperitoneal (i.p.), second group injected by dizocilpine (MK-801 purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, Egypt), at dose 0.1 mg/kg. The dose of MK-801 was dissolved in 1.0 ml sterile saline and was injected daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) for 5 consecutive days, third group was injected by dizocilpine and supplemented with “vitamin C” (1 g/L of drinking water), while the forth group was injected by dizocilpine and supplemented with “vitamin E” in drinking water (50 ml/100 L)( the international units of vitamin E contained in 50 ml be mentioned) and those of the fifth group was supplemented with “vitamin C” plus “vitamin E”. All five groups were fed the basal diets, while the sixth group was injected by dizocilpine and supplemented with the experimental diet that contained olive pomace (10%).

1) Samples collection: Semen was collected using artificial vagina [3]. Semen collection was done by using a teaser female and artificial vagina (containing water at 50ºC) that was locally fabricated as described by Herbert and Adejumo [4]. The ejaculate volumes were recorded (using a graduated collection tube) after removal of the gel mass; Semen pH was determined using pH paper 1-14; Mass motility (MM) was determined by placing a drop of semen on a clean, dry, warm slide and examining microscopically using thermostatically controlled hot stage adjusted at 38-40ºC. Mass activity of spermatozoa was scored (0-5) according to the intensity of the moving whirls [5] as follows: 0 = no current, 1 = few slow current, 2 = many moderate waves, 3 = many sweeping waves, 4 = numerous vigorous waves, 5 = numerous rapid and vigorous waves. Individual motility was assessed in semen sample diluted with 2.9% sodium citrate dehydrate solution, spread almost evenly under a glass cover slide and examined microscopically using adjusted hot stage at 38-40ºC. Individual sperm motility percent was determined on a subjective scale of 0-100% to the nearest 5% after viewing several microscopic fields. Sperm-cell concentration per ml was measured by counting the number of spermatozoa present on both sides of an improved Neubauer hemocytometer slide (GmbH & Co., Brands twiete 4, 2000 Hamburg 11, Germany).

Total sperm output was calculated by multiplying semen ejaculate volume and semen concentration. Assessment of live, dead, and abnormal spermatozoa was performed using an eosin–nigrosin blue staining mixture [6].

2) Samples analysis: Two bucks from each group one and two months later from beginning of experiment were slaughtered for obtaining the testes. The testes of each buck were dissected and weighed; one testis was kept in liquid nitrogen for testicular enzyme markers, antioxidant parameters and hormonal assay, while the other testis was fixed in 10% formol saline for histomorphology.

The antioxidant parameters and activities of selected testicular enzyme markers (alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase) besides Sertoli cell index (gamma glutamyl transferase) were estimated in testes using testicular homogenate which was prepared according to the method adopted by Hodgen and Sherins [7]; Wherein testicular tissue was homogenized in 0.015 M disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4), 0.15 M sodium chloride (Nacl), pH 7.8 at 4ºC. All assays were performed within 48 hours after homogenization.

Superoxide dismutase activity [8] glutathione peroxidase activity [9] glutathione-S-transferase [10], total antioxidant capacity [11] and lipid peroxidation expressed in Malondialdehyde [12] were performed using kits purchased from Biodiagnostic Company, Dokki, Egypt.

3) Hormonal assay: Radioimmunoassay was used for quantitative determination of testosterone and17beta-estradiol hormones in testes homogenate.

Determination of testicular testosterone was performed according to the method of [13] using kits purchased from “TESTO-RIA-CT” Belgium.Determination of testicular 17beta- estradiol was performed according to the method of [14] using kits purchased from “IMMUNOTECH”.

2.3.3 The Testicular Enzymes. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) [15] gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) [16] and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [17] using kit purchased from Spectrum Diagnostics.

4) Histomorphological studies: For qualitative analysis of testicular histology, the testes samples were fixed for 2 days at 10% formal-saline and dehydrated by passing successfully in different mixtures of ethyl alcohol-water, cleaned with xylene and embedded in paraffin. Sections of tissue (5-6 μm thickness) were prepared by using microtome and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and in neutral deparafinated xylene (DPX) medium for microscopic observations.

5) Statistical analysis: Data are presented as means ±S.E. and analyzed by one-way ANOVA using Costate computer program Costat version 6.400 (copyright© 1998-2008 CoHort software) according to the method of [18]. Groups were compared using the calculated least significant difference test (LSD) at the at P value ≤ 0.05.

Results: The first month revealed (1) significant decrease in spermiogram, antioxidative parameters, testicular estradiol, testosterone, enzyme markers and clear pathological changes in testes of dizocilpine group; (2) Significant improvement in the measured parameters of groups subjected to dizocilpine and supplemented with “vitamin E”, “vitamin C” and olive pomace; (3) significant increase of all measured parameters in the “vitamin C” plus “vitamin E” supplemented group. On the other hand, results at second month showed no difference between all groups in these parameters.

Conclusion: It was obvious that the supplementation with vitamin C or/and vitamin E and olive pomace to male rabbits exposed to oxidative stress was associated with improved spermiogram, anti-oxidative parameters, hormonal and testicular enzymatic activities.

Author(s) Details

Sohair Y. Saleh
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Francois A. R. Sawiress
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Mohamed A. Tony
Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Amin M. Hassanin
Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Meonofya, Egypt.

M. A. Khattab
Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

M. R. Bakeer
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

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Soil Reactions, Plant Nutrients and Crop Relationship | Chapter 04 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

This paper centers on the relationship between soil reaction and plant nutrients as they affect crop production. Soil pH affects nearly all physico-chemical and biological activities in the soil. A farmer whose ultimate aim is to minimize input in order to maximize output is expected to have an in-depth knowledge of soil pH especially in tropical region where soil acidity is one of the predominant factors in crop production.

Author(s) Details

Ayeni, Leye Samuel
Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Nigeria.

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