Spatial Distribution, Morphological Descriptors and Seed Biometry of Syagrus oleracea (Mart.) Becc. (Arecaceae): An Important Brazilian Cerrado Palm | Chapter 11 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

The Syagrus oleracea is adapted for dry regions, has used for food, ornamental palm and development of cosmetic. It occurs in impacted areas of Cerrado. The management of the species is important for traditional communities. Morphological descriptors, biometric pyrenes and spatial distribution of individuals are important for the species distinction, conservation, forest management and implantation of breeding programs. Thus, our objectives were to determine and correlate the main morphological characters of the palm tree, to evaluate the biometric of the pyrenes and the spatial distribution of the species. Neighbourhood Density Function (NDF) evaluated the spatial distribution in georeferenced individuals in four populations (Mirabela, Mato Verde, Rio Pardo de Minas and Novorizonte). The Novorizonte population showed an aggregate pattern in the first distance classes. The other populations had a random pattern. We evaluated 13 morphological descriptors in six populations (Mirabela, Mato Verde, Rio Pardo de Minas, Novorizonte, Varzelandia and São João da Ponte). The cluster analysis corroborates the results obtained by the multivariate analysis, which shows a greater distance of the SJP3 and SJP5 samples from the other accessions. The evaluated characteristics of the pyrenes biometry were: longitudinal diameter, equatorial diameter and the mass of the pyrenes. The highest mean longitudinal (22.17 mm) and equatorial diameter (38.89 mm) in addition to the mean mass (9.29 g) were observed in the Novorizonte population. The fruits of S. oleracea present an elongated shape. The study generated important information about the species that is still little studied, and has economic potential for product development.

Author(s) Details

Helbert Fagundes Soares
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Murilo Malveira Brandao
University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil and Department of Biology, University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil.

Vanessa de Andrade Royo
University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil and Department of Biology, University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil.

Guilherme Victor Nippes Pereira
Department of Biology, University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil.

Santos D’Angelo Neto
Department of Biology, University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil.

Elytania Veiga Menezes
University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil and Department of Biology, University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil.

Afranio Farias de Melo Junior
University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil and Department of Biology, University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil.

Dario Alves de Oliveira
University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil and Department of Biology, University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil.

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How to Remove Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues from Vegetables | Chapter 10 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

The effects of household processing on removal of organophosphate residues (malathion, fenitrothion, formothion, parathion, methyl parathion and chlorpyriphos) in tomato, bean, okra, eggplant, cauliflower and capsicum were studied. The processes included washing separately with (water, 0.9% NaCl, 0.1% NaHCO3 and 0.1% acetic acid, 0.001% KMnO4, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.1% malic acid and 0.1% oxalic acid and 2% aqueous solution of raw Spondias pinnata (SP) and boiling. In all of the vegetables, washing with different household chemicals reduced the Organophosphorous residues (OPs) by 20-89% and boiling reduced the residues by 52-100%.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Yogesh Kumar Tyagi, Ph.D
USBAS, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Sector 16 C, Dwarka, Delhi-110078, India.

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Genetic Diversity and Fine-scale Genetic Structure in Syagrus oleracea (Mart.) Becc.: A Survivor Palm Species of the Semiarid | Chapter 09 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

The species Syagrus oleracea is a native palm tree, present in highly impacted environments of the Brazilian semiarid. This species is exploited for use in the manufacture of folk crafts and for human and animal feeding. The objective of this study was to characterize the diversity and genetic structure of individuals from different populations, located in anthropic regions of the Brazilian semiarid region, in the state of Minas Gerais. This information is important for species management and conservation strategies. Thus, we used ISSR molecular markers in 157 individuals in seven populations of S. oleracea. Looking at the results, one can observe that amplifications of 109 locos occurred and that an average of 18, 17 alleles were found on each primer, values that demonstrated that the ISSR technique used was highly efficient. The genetic diversity indexes were observed, showing expected heterozygosity (He) and Shannon index (I) of 0.260 and 0.383, respectively. The number of alleles observed (na) among populations was 1.954 and the effective number of alleles (ne) was 1,606. Individuals of the populations are genetically structured in groups (demes) in a random and aggregate manner. We obtained the amplification of 109 ISSR loci, with a mean of 18.2 alleles per primer. The genetic diversity indexes revealed expected heterozygosity (He) and Shannon index (I) of 0.260 and 0.383, respectively. The number of alleles observed (na) was 1.954 and the effective number of alleles (ne) was 1.606. The value of the indirect gene flow found was 1.546. Evidence of high levels of kinship in populations was found, possibly due to low migration rates and geographical barrier. In addition, we observed signs of overexploitation in the areas, which consequently leads to a low rate of gene flow, occurring inbreeding among the sampled populations of Syagrus oleracea.

Author(s) Details

Luciana Rodrigues de Souza
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Helbert Fagundes Soares
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Sara Luiza Ramos Ribeiro
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Afranio Farias de Melo Junior
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Murilo Malveira Brandao
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Elytania Veiga Menezes
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Vanessa de Andrade Royo
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Dario Alves de Oliveira
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

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Some Issues of Using the Electron-Ion Technology in Food Processing and Agriculture of Russia | Chapter 08 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Intensification of technological processes, based on the latest achievements world of science and technology in industry, is one of the most pressing problems in many sectors of industry – including agricultural process that use the process of dehydration. World technical progress, on one hand, offers possible ways for this problem to be solved – yet on the other it exacerbates the problem, since numerous negative factors become involved. The issue of environmental security equipment and personnel is of particular importance, as well as environmental control in which electric fields are used as a control method.

Author(s) Details

V. M. Ya. Burlev
JSC “MYKER”, Moscow, Russia.

V. D. Kharitonov
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute, Dairy Industry, Moscow, Russia.

N. S. Nikolaev
Moscow State University of Food Industry, Moscow, Russia.

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Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae) Seed Oil: Physical and Chemical Properties, Fatty Acid Profile and Biodiesel Production | Chapter 07 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Magonia pubescens is a tree species originally from the Brazilian Cerrado that bears fruit with winged seeds from which fixed oil can be extracted. This study analyzed the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted from these seeds and the biodiesel produced thereof. Methods from the Adolfo Lutz Institute, American Oil Chemists Society and American Society for Testing and Materials were used. Seven fatty acids (oleic, arachidic, gadoleic, palmitic, palmitoleic, linoleic and stearic acids) were found in the oil. Acidity level (1.119 mg KOH•g-1), iodine value (77.36 cg I2•g-1), saponification value (133.36 mg KOH•g-1), density (0.8796 g•cm-3) and refractive index (1.3348nD) were low when compared to the high peroxide value (26.14 meq•kg-1), viscosity (101.46 mm²•s-¹) and moisture (0.88%) of other oils and fats used for biodiesel production. Biodiesel showed density (0.8484 g•cm-3), viscosity (29.62 mm-2•s-1), acidity level (0.752 mg KOH•g-1) and saponification value (148.89 mg KOH•g-1).

Author(s) Details

Juliana Almeida Rocha
Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil and Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Elytania Veiga Menezes
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Francine Souza Alves Fonseca
Laboratory of Medicinal Plants of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Murilo Malveira Brandao
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Kamylla Teixeira Santos
Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil and Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Dario Alves de Oliveira
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Afranio Farias de Melo Junior
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Vanessa de Andrade Royo
Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil and Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

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Evaluation of Buffer Lime Requirement Methods without Hazardous Chemicals for Acid Soils of Assam, India | Chapter 06 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Liming is one of the most important and feasible management practices used to ameliorate soil acidity. The amount of lime required to neutralize the soil acidity is called lime requirement. Generally lime requirement (LR) for acidic soils are determined by buffer pH method because of their ease of implementation, simplicity and rapidity (Wolf el al., 2008). The SMP buffer test is used to determine lime requirement for Assam soils. Though this method is proven to work for Assam soils, it uses p-nitrophenol, which is very hazardous substance. Now-a-days soil-testing laboratories are under increasing pressure to reduce hazardous waste. So goal of this study was to evaluate a buffer as alternatives to the SMP buffer in determining the LR for Jorhat soils. In this study three buffer methods were used, i.e., Shoemaker, McLean and Pratt buffer; Sikora-I buffer and Sikora-II buffer. Further, Sikora-II based on the analysed parameters may be considered as an alternative to present SMP buffer lime requirement method. These findings may overcome the use of hazardous chemicals used for recommending lime rate during Soil Health Card (SHC) preparation as mandated by Govt. of India.

Author(s) Details

Lekhika Borgohain
Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, India.

Danish Tamuly
Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, India.

Nilay Borah
Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, India.

Samiran Dutta
Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, India.

Ramani Kanta Thakuria
Department of Agronomy, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, India.

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Study of Diversity in Some Moroccan Population of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) | Chapter 05 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

To study Moroccan saffron germplasm variability relating to different agro-morphological and phenological traits, 969 saffron corms (accessions) were collected from thirteen different sites located in traditional saffron area of Taliouine-Taznakht. The study confirmed a wide range of phenotypic variability within and between populations. The variance analysis revealed that the mother corm weight (MCW), taken as covariant, has significant effect on all studied traits. The difference within and between origins (Provenances) was highly significant for all traits, which showed highly significant correlation. The flowers number (NF) as well as the number of daughter corms weighing above 7 g per plant (NDC≥7) turned out to be the most determinant parameters of saffron yield. The produced FN per corm varied from 1 to 9 with an average of 2.2 flowers. P1 population recorded a flowering rate of 65.5% with a maximum average of NF (2). Stigmat length (SL), which is an important yield trait, showed wide variation between origins from 32 to 38 mm. The mean stigma dry weight (DSW) varied from 4.2 to 6.2 mg with a maximum of 7.1 mg per flower recorded in P1. The PCA revealed 5 homogeneous main groups inside the studied populations. The first one was monoorganogenic and consisted of P1 population only, a group characterized by high values of MCW, NF, NDC≥7 and DSW. This study confirms as well a noticeable influence of corm origin on saffron yield, explained by the genotypic profile and/or the epigenetic effects of the different origins. These results proved a variability which should be useful to the selection program aiming the improvement of saffron productivity in Morocco.

Author(s) Details

S. Soukrat
Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire, Hassan II, Morocco.

Dr. M. L. Metougui
Mohammed VI Polytechnic University (UM6P), Ben Guerir, Morocco.

F. Gabone
Institut Nationalde Recherche Agronomique, Rabat, Morocco.

Prof. F. Nehvi
University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, India.

S. Abousalim
Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire, Hassan II, Morocco.

Dr. O. Benlahabib
Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire, Hassan II, Morocco.

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Developments in Gari Production | Chapter 04 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 1 on the Sensory Attributes and Proximate Composition of gari made from Manihot esculentum Crantz.

Study Design: Freshly harvested mature cassava was peeled and grated. This was further divided into two equal parts to represent samples (W) and (Wo). Sample (W) was inoculated with pure strain of Lactobacillus plantarum 1, while sample (Wo) was not inoculated. The two samples of dough were poured into different jute bags and allowed for 96 hrs to ferment and dehydrate. The resulting dough was sieved and roasted for 30 minutes.

Methodology: Sensory attributes were evaluated using the Hedonic Rule which involved a panel of seven judges, while proximate composition of gari samples was determined using standard methods. The data obtained were analysed using T-test.

Results: The results from this study showed that the score for the sensory attributes for sample (W) was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to sample (Wo). On the other hand, the proximate analysis showed that moisture content, ash, fat, protein and fibre were significantly higher (P<0.05) in sample (Wo) compared to sample (W).

Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be deduced that using L. plantarum 1 in cassava fermentation improved all sensory attributes evaluated in this study. In addition, the study further revealed that traditional fermentation yielded gari with higher nutritional values.

Author(s) Details

O. Oda
Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Caleb University, Imota, Lagos, Nigeria.

O. Ewa
Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

M. R. Karimah
Department of Biological Sciences, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria.

Victoria Ayuba
National Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA), Abuja, Nigeria.

U. I. Ude
Department of Microbiology, Gregory University, Uturu, Nigeria.

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Physico-chemical Characterization and Fatty Acid Profile of the Acrocomia emensis (Arecaceae) Seed Oil | Chapter 03 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

In Brazil there are several oleaginous plants, with the potential to supply oil as raw material for various types of industries (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, energy, among others), among them we have the Acrocomia emensis (Arecaceae) known as Tucum rasteiro. The objective of this work was to realize: extraction of the oil of the almonds using two types of cold mechanical press (walrus type and manual hydraulic type of 15 tons), physical-chemical analyzes (acidity index, peroxides, refraction, moisture and volatile material, ash, viscosity and density  at 25ºC) and fatty acid profile of the oil extracted from almonds of A. emensis from three localities in the northern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil (Bonito de Minas, Brasília de Minas and Montes Claros). The values of the physical-chemical indexes varied among the samples from the different locations. Extraction using walrus type press provided higher yield. The fatty acids of the oils of the three origins were: Caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic.

Author(s) Details

Deborah Santos Neiva
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Juliana Almeida Rocha
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Afranio Farias de Melo Junior
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Dario Alves de Oliveira
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Murilo Malveira Brandao
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Vany Perpetua Ferraz
Laboratory of Chromatograph of Institute of Exact Sciences, Chemistry department, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Vanessa de Andrade Royo
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

Elytania Veiga Menezes
Laboratory Bioprospecting and Genetic Resources and Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauriceia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

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Effect of the Nitrification Inhibitor 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole Phosphate on the Deep Placement of Nitrogen Fertilizers for Soybean Cultivation | Chapter 02 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

The deep placement of urea fertilizer (DMU) containing 1% (W/W) of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4- dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on soybean growth and seed yield was as effective as those of the coated urea (CU) and lime nitrogen (LN) in a field research. The average seed yields were high in LN (464 g•m−2) and DMU (461 g•m−2) and relatively low in CU (405 g•m−2), U (396 g•m−2), and Cont (373 g•m−2) treatments. The accumulations of dry matter and nitrogen in soybean shoots were higher in the plants with deep placement of CU, LN and DMU than U and Cont. The daily nitrogen fixation activity and daily nitrogen absorption rate were calculated based on the relative ureide method. Both nitrogen fixation activity and nitrogen absorption rate were higher in DMU, CU, and LN compared with control treatment, suggesting that the deep placement of DMU did not repress nitrogen fixation. Soil incubation test was performed using the same field soil with DMU, U, LN, and urea with DMPP 1%, 2%, and 4%. DMU inhibits nitrification similar to the pattern of LN until 8 weeks. The increasing DMPP concentration did not markedly increase the nitrification inhibition. From these results, it was concluded that urea fertilizer with 1% DMPP is efficient for deep placement of N fertilizer for soybean cultivation due to its lower price compared with CU and LN.

Author(s) Details

Takuji Ohyama
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan and Faculty of Applied Biosciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan.

Soshi Hatano
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.

Yoichi Fujita
Niigata Agricultural Research Institute, Crop Research Center, Niigata 940-0826, Japan.

Yoshifumi Nagumo
Niigata Agricultural Research Institute, Crop Research Center, Niigata 940-0826, Japan.

Norikuni Ohtake
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.

Kuni Sueyoshi
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.

Yoshihiko Takahashi
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.

Takashi Sato
Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita 015-0055, Japan.

Sayuri Tanabata
College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Ibaraki 300-0332, Japan.

Kyoko Higuchi
Faculty of Applied Biosciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan.

Akihiro Saito
Faculty of Applied Biosciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan.

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