Soil Carbon Sequestration: Basis & Basics | Book Publisher International

Global warming caused by the greenhouse gases has resulted in unprecedented climatic changes. Various anthropogenic as well as natural processes serve as sources for emission of carbon dioxide, the most potent greenhouse gas. Soil carbon stocks, a key determinant of soil health is getting depleted at a fast rate, indirectly placing the global food security at stake. Considerable variability in the soil organic carbon stocks exists in above and below ground phytomass, which vary with latitude and climatic regions and with different land use systems. The recalcitrant carbon fraction not only reduces the losses of soil organic carbon but also serve in locking up the carbon by way of soil carbon sequestration thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions and global warming to a considerable extent. Soil carbon sequestration includes a host of technologies that are employed which has the potential to greatly reduce, capture and store carbon produced both by anthropogenic factors and natural means in the soil. Mitigative and adaptive strategies of carbon sequestration are largely based on natural processes, engineering techniques and chemical transformations. A judicious land use and prudential adoption of recommended management practices is the need of the hour. While tillage based agriculture damages the soil, conservation agriculture builds soil quality, protects water quality, increases biodiversity and sequesters carbon. Pyrolytic production of biochar holds much prospect for soil carbon sequestration.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Naveen Leno
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, India.

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Ant Colony Optimization Software Development as a Solid Waste Management System | Chapter 01 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

In this paper a Decision Support System named W8st colSoft is developed by employing dynamic programming and swarm intelligence model encoded in Visual Basic Studio 10.0. Solved solutions from literatures were used to validate the developed decision support system. The results obtained from these validation presented an average error margin of 2.58% when compared with that from literature. Also, in order to present the scalability of the swarm intelligence model employed in the developed decision support system, it was used as a decision tool to analyze the collection of solid waste of the University of Port Harcourt three campuses as a whole, unlike recent publication where it was analyzed Campus-wise. The resultant optimal path from the analysis presented a total distance of 15,682 m saving a total distance of 17.15 m when compared with other route options. Additionally, an Evolutionary Algorithm in Microsoft Excel 2013 was applied to the University of Port Harcourt four campus segments and the results were compared with those of the Proposed model. The percentage error margin between Evolutionary Algorithm and the Proposed model prediction ranges from -0.34 to 11.27. The Proposed model was able to achieve optimum value with minimum number of iterations in all cases and this is an advantage.

Author(s) Details

Oghenefejiri Bovwe
World Bank Africa Centre of Excellence, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

J. C. Agunwamba
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

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Sampling of Cocoa Beans and Quantification of Ochratoxin A: Validation of the Methods | Chapter 10 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

The objectives of this study were compare an alternative method for cocoa beans sampling with the standard method proposed by the European Union (EC 401/2006) and validate a method of Ochratoxin A determination. The alternative method applies to samples of 5 kg of cocoa beans while the standard method applies to samples of 10 kg. quality characteristics and validation parameters were determined according to Ivorian Coffee and Cocoa stock exchange and French (NFV03-110-1998) standards. Concerning quality characteristics, no significant difference at 5% risk was revealed in the values of the three parameters considered when assessing marketability quality requirements (moisture, graining and grades). As regards the validation of OTA determination method, the limits of detections and quantifications were 0.05 µg/kg and 0.20 µg/kg. The coefficients of variation for the tests of repeatability and reproducibility were respectively 0.26% and 5.67%. As for the extraction yield, it was equal to 86%. Furthermore, no significant difference (5% risk) was observed between the concentrations of OTA measured by the standard and alternative methods. Hence, although the alternative method goes with a mass reduction of samples analyzed, it did not alter significantly the results of the marketability as well as the concentrations of OTA.

Author(s) Details

A. Coulibaly
Training and Research Unit of Biological Sciences, Peleforo Gon Coulibaly University, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire.

A. Dembele
Central Laboratory of Agrochemistry and Ecotoxicology, LANADA, 04 BP 612 Abidjan 04, Cote d’Ivoire.

K. Bohoussou
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Science, UFR Biosciences, Université Felix Houphouet-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Cote d’Ivoire.

A. Toure
Department of Environment and Health, Institut Pasteur de Cote d’Ivoire, BP V 34 Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

G. H. Biego
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Science, UFR Biosciences, Université Felix Houphouet-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Cote d’Ivoire.

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Flooding Incidence and Drainage Network Analysis in Bonny Island, Nigeria | Chapter 09 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

The incidence of occasional flooding of an estate, a tank farm in Bonny Island, Niger Delta was investigated. The study was carried out to identify the remote causes of flooding and in turn proffer a solution. Detail field investigation involved identification of thirty one road side drains of rectangular cross-section; measurement of drains inverts (spot heights) at selected locations yielded estimates of longitudinal slopes (0.000416 – 0.0074 m/m), a case of very mild slopes. The invert profiles of 15 road side drains indicated a case of inconsistent slopes, a mix of positive and negative slopes over short intervals, the observation accounts for siltation and ponding in the drains. The redesigns of the existing drains were actualized via the use of MODRAIN code, based on the principle of best hydraulic section with input data options for rectangular or trapezoidal channels; constant or variable bottom slopes and runoff coefficient(s). A comparison of the existing and newly designed drains with respect to cross-sectional areas confirmed that 80% of the existing drains are oversized, in what is captioned “Bigger existing drains”. Apparently, the issue of occasional flooding of the Estate cannot be all blamed on inadequate drain size but on existing bottom slopes (very mild slopes) of the drains.

Author(s) Details

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Levi O. Uba
Chattel Associates (Nig) Limited, 14 Old Aba Road by Woji Junction, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Charles C. Dike
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Concept Selection in Wastewater Treatment Plant Design Using Analytical Hierarchy Process | Chapter 08 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

In most Engineering designs concept selection is a critical stage of the design process. This study focuses on the concept selection for the design of a proposed wastewater treatment facility for a settlement (Forcados-Yokri) located in Burutu Local Government Area (LGA), Nigeria. Three wastewater treatment concepts (Completely Mixed Activated Sludge (CMAS), Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)) were proposed. Also, based on seventeen sub-criteria which were grouped into four major criteria (Environmental Impact, Social Impact, Operability and Economic/schedule), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied for the selection of the best concept. Among the seventeen sub-criteria were ten boundary conditions generated with respect to the study area and the acceptable effluent discharge standards (FEPA, DPR-EGASPIN & WHO).The parameter weight was done with respect to data from literature and project stakeholders (interested parties involved in the selection process). The total relative score with respect to the ten sub-criteria (which also served as boundary condition) for CMAS, SBR and UASB were correspondingly 9.11, 30.40 and 25.63 respectively. This makes SBR the recommended choice of the three proposed wastewater treatment concepts.

Author(s) Details

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Oghenefejiri Bovwe
World Bank Africa Centre for Excellence, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Levi O. Uba
Chattel Associates Nigeria Limited, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Removal in Spent Synthetic-based Drilling Mud Using Organic Fertilizer | Chapter 07 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

Treatment and disposal of spent (used) drilling mud have become an important environmental challenge in the oil and gas industry. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute the major contaminants in spent drilling mud. In this study, five spent synthetic-based drilling mud samples were collected from five oil fields in the Niger Delta. Samples collected on day 0 were analyzed for TPHs and PAHs. Concentrations higher than the permissible regulatory limits were recorded. The efficacy of urea fertilizer in the remediation of TPH-and PAH-impacted mud was investigated. Six sub-samples and six control sub-samples were tested bi-weekly for 12 weeks with 20 g, 25 g, and 30 g doses of urea fertilizer per 20 L of spent mud for each of the five samples representing each individual oil field (marked A through E). Removal of TPHs and PAHs with urea fertilizer treatment proved to be fast and efficient. In 6 weeks, with a dose of 1.5 g/L, over 98% removal of TPHs was recorded, and more than 94% of PAHs, and in 12 weeks, more than 99.5% removal was recorded for both. The residual levels of TPHs and PAHs met Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR: Nigeria) and US EPA limits for land disposal. Mathematical models with a goodness of fit (R2) of 0.999, were developed to predict the rate of the degradation processes.

Author(s) Details

Felix Obinduka
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Onyewuchi Akaranta
Centre of Excellence, Centre for Oilfield Chemicals Research, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Gideon O. Abu
Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Causes and Strategies for Curbing Market Fire in Nigeria | Chapter 06 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

Classification of causes of market fire in Nigeria is a study aimed at identifying and classifying the causes of market fire in Nigeria from the market users’ perspective. The study considered markets with high commercial activities and they were selected from three major cities, namely Lagos, Port Harcourt and Onitsha. Sixty questions on the causes of market fire were designed and distributed to 1074 shop owner/traders (respondents). The factor analysis method was adopted to streamline the questions into six categories and they were ranked. Results showed that the most common cause of market fire in Nigerian is “general storing” and this category attained a commonality ratio of 0.09284. Other causes of fire in markets included electrical installation which ranked second with a commonality ratio of 0.08071. The third to the sixth in that order are, disposal and knowledge of market locations, market exit points, regulations regarding markets and awareness and fire emergency plan. A design plan for an ideal market is provided taking cognizance of the following: ventilation, fire wall and roofs, building in clusters, electrical wiring in conduits, firefighting tools in place, general storage facilities, and dedicated parking area and that for smoking, etc. It is recommended that Government should institute fire professionals to handle design and operation of markets.

Author(s) Details

Nnamdi Ilodiuba
Centre for Occupational Safety, Health and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Centre for Occupational Safety, Health and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

John Ugbebor
Centre for Occupational Safety, Health and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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Agglomerative Hierarchy Clustering for Evaluation of Workplace Safety Culture Implementation and Practice | Chapter 05 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

This study assessed safety culture and practices in selected companies from the oil and gas, construction, transportation and logistics companies operating in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The questionnaire design utilized 15 safety cultural parameters and practices peculiar to 11 companies formed the basis of questionnaire distributed to 663 respondents in the study area. Purposive sampling was employed in the choice of companies sampled while random sampling technique was applied with respect to questionnaires distribution within the selected companies. XLSTAT 2016 statistical computer package was applied as aid for data analysis which includes Shapiro-wilks test of normality as an aid for the choice of analysis of variance option, the Friedman’s test to determine the variance among the various sampled groups which also includes a post-hoc test (Nemenyi’s Procedure) and Agglomerative Hierarchy Clustering (AHC) for clustering of workplace safety culture practices within the sampled groups. The output from the analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between the safety cultural practices of the three sampled industrial sectors with the alpha = 0.5 being lower than computed p-value (< 0.0001). Further analysis by AHC resulted in 4, 3 and 3 clusters of workplace safety cultural practices for oil and gas, construction and transportation and logistics sectors, respectively. The cultural practice were supervisors are authorized to stop unsafe work was identified as common between the construction and oil and gas sector while the practice of periodic hazards hunts and inspections by staff and management was identified as common among the construction and transportation and logistics industrial sector.

Author(s) Details

George I. Akalonu
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ejikeme Ugwoha
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Three Dimensional Velocity Distribution Modelling of Nun River in Nigeria | Chapter 04 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

In this study, hydrodynamics and sediment concentration equations of partial differential in 3-dimensions were solved using finite difference methods, the Crank Nicolson procedure to predict both sediment concentration and velocity profile of Nun River. The computer software (EKU2.8) which is a modification of the Navier Stoke’s equations was employed for discretization of Nun River stretch of 2,000 m into 2,245 rectangular meshes and simulation of the river’s flow velocity distribution. The code was validated by using the field water current measurements obtained from a selected stretch of the river. Average predicted velocities of 0.85 m/s, 1.542 m/s and 0m/s compared favorably with 0.8m/s, 1.475 m/s and 0.09m/s obtained from field measurement for upstream, midstream and downstream boundaries. The predicted results have approximate correlation coefficients of 0.96 for velocity distribution using Pearson product-moment method. The model proved very useful in predicting the velocity distribution of Nun River; higher versus lower velocities at inner and outer bends, with resultant effect of erosion and sediment deposition accordingly. The result of this study may be considered an important contribution to the improvement of sediment and erosion risk management.

Author(s) Details

Desmond U. Nwoko
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Charles C. Dike
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Setting Regulatory Limits for Sulphur Content in Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) for Degraded Vehicles | Chapter 03 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

The need for a cleaner environment free from unhealthy levels of Sulphur IV oxide (SO2) has prompted this study of setting regulatory limits of sulphur content in Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) especially that used in Nigeria. This study has used secondary and primary data to show the extent of damage to the environment, caused by high sulphur content in the PMS we use especially with degraded vehicles. The method adopted for this studyinvolved field monitoring at three number locations (Choba junction, Rumuokoro junction and Alakahia off the East-west road), to obtain meteorological parameters via installed weather stations, traffic count through positioned Close Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras and sampled vehicular exhaust emission of SO2 from randomly selected vehicles. Results showed that vehicles using PMS distributed in Nigeria emits as high as 210.6 mg/m3 and as low as 0.0 mg/m3 SO2 from their exhausts. For the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and the Ministry of Environment (MENv) to achieve its environmental limit of 0.15 mg/m3 ambient level of SO2, they need to reduce the sulphur content limit in PMS supplied to Nigeria to 0.01% weight or restrict the movement of vehicles that emit more than 30.6mg/m3 SO2(degraded vehicles) from their exhausts.

Author(s) Details

Terry Henshaw
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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