A Review on Primary Angiosarcoma of the Prostate Gland: An Update | Chapter 05 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 4

Primary angiosarcoma of the prostate (PASOP) is a very rare tumour which most clinicians have not encountered and may be unaware of. Literature of PASOP was reviewed by obtaining information from various internet data bases including: Google, Google Scholar, Educus and PUB Med. Less than 20 cases of PASOP have been reported. PASOP may present in a male child or adult with lower urinary tract symptoms, dysuria, haematuria, pain and constipation. There may be in some cases a history of prior radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of prostate. Diagnosis is based upon histological examination of prostate biopsy specimens which tend to reveal: Proliferative vascular channels that are lined by atypical multi-layered or atypical solid endothelial cells, variable pleomorphic tumour cells ranging from spindle cells to large/plump cells; nuclei which are large and pleomorphic and which contain clumped chromatin and prominent nucleoli; mitotic figures of which some may look atypical are frequently seen. PASOPs on immunohistochemical staining tend to stain positively for CD34, Factor 8 (Factor VIII), Vimentin. PASOPs on immunohistochemical staining tend to exhibit negative staining for PSA, Keratin and S-100. Surgical resection with surgical margins that are clear of tumor has been shown to be the treatment associated with a chance of long-term survival but a number of reported cases of PASOP at the time of initial diagnosis had presented with metastatic disease or locally advanced disease and curative surgery with clear surgical margins has been impossible. Various adjuvant therapies had been reported but on the whole the prognosis has been poor. There is on the whole no consensus opinion on the best management options for all stages of the disease. PASOP is a rare aggressive disease. Clinicians should report cases of PASOP they encounter and should enter them into a multi-centre trial to find the best treatment option. Perhaps if patients who develop relapse disease who had previously undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer undergo further biopsies of prostate may be new cases of PASOP would be diagnosed in the new biopsy specimens and this could illustrate that PASOPS are not as uncommon as used to be believed.

Author(s) Details

Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo [MB ChB FRCS(Ed) FRCSI FGCS Urol. LLM]
Department of Urology, North Manchester General Hospital, Delaunay’s Road, Manchester, United Kingdom.

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Gender Differences in Dermatoses at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals’ Complex, Ile-Ife | Chapter 04 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 4

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the dermatoses associated with gender in this geographical area.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Dermatology Clinics of OAU Teaching Hospitals’ Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria between October 2009 and September 2012.

Methodology: Recruitment of consecutive patients presenting with skin diseases was done on two days in a week during the study period. Demographic data on age, gender and symptoms were taken, and the diagnosis of presenting skin conditions documented. The results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc). The Odds ratio of dermatological diseases for both genders was obtained using WINPEPI 11.0 with 95% confidence interval and p value of 0.5 signifying a significant relationship between the dermatosis and gender type.

Results: Patients studied were 1013, aged 18-90 years, and 55% females. The male gender was significantly associated with acne keloidalis nuchae, folliculitis/carbunculosis, seborrhoeic eczema, lichen simplex chronicus, and Hansen’s disease. Drug reactions, seborrhoeic keratosis, miliaria rubra, and papular urticaria were, however, the only significant diseases in females.

Conclusion: Certain skin diseases are indeed significantly associated with gender. For some of these diseases, differences in the biophysical profile of the male and female have been found responsible. Other factors such as occupation predisposing to gender predilection will need to be further elucidated.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Olumayowa Abimbola Oninla
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, OAU, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Dr. Samuel Olorunyomi Oninla
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

Dr. Olaide Olutoyin Oke
Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Unit, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta 110222, Nigeria.

Dr. Mufutau Muphy Oripelaye
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, OAU, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Dr. Fatai Olatunde Olarewaju
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, OAU, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Dr. Olufikemi Titilola Fabusuyi
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, OAU, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

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Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Prostate Gland: A Review of the Literature | Chapter 03 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 4

Background: Primary synovial sarcoma of the prostate gland (PSSP) is rare and most clinicians would be unfamiliar with its biological behaviour.

Aim: To review the literature on PSSP.

Methods: Various internet data bases were searched.

Literature Review: PSSP is extremely rare with less than 10 cases reported; affects both young and older men; its diagnosis may be made incidentally following histological and cytogenetics examinations of prostate biopsy or prostatectomy specimens which show: A specific chromosomal translocation t(X; 18; p11; q11); Uniform spindle and oval cells which have formed interlacing fascicles that mimic fibrosarcoma. The compact fascicles of tumour cells focally alternate with hypo- cellular myxoid tissue which mimic peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Focal pericytomatous pattern of polygonal cells arranged around dilated, thin-walled blood vessels. PSSP tumour cells on immunohistochemical staining, stain positively with: Vimentin (most of the cells), EMA (focal positivity), Bcl-2 (strong positivity), CD99 (strong positivity), E-cadherin (strong positivity), cytokeratin (focal positivity), CD 56 and TLE/TLE1. There is no consensus opinion on treatment of PSSP which is an aggressive tumour with poor outcome. However, an aggressive radical surgical treatment by radical prostatectomy or pelvic exenteration plus or minus adjuvant therapy would appear to be the best treatment option with curative intent to help improve prognosis. Some patients with PSSP may need palliative and supportive treatment through a multi-disciplinary team approach.

Conclusions: PSSP is a rare aggressive tumour with poor prognosis. All cases of PSSP should be entered into a multi-centre trial to ascertain the best treatment option that would improve the prognosis and to further assess its biological behaviour.

Author(s) Details

Mr. Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo MB ChB FRCS(Ed) FRCSI FGCS Urol. LLM
Department of Urology, North Manchester General Hospital, Delaunays Road Manchester, United Kingdom.

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Sarcomatoid Carcinoma (Carcinosarcoma) of the Prostate Gland: A Review of the Literature | Chapter 02 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 4

Background: Adenocarcinomas of the prostate gland are commonly encountered globally but other uncommon variants of carcinoma of the prostate are sporadically encountered including primary sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate (PSCP).

Aims: To review the literature of PSCP.

Methods: Various internet search engines were searched for literature on PSCP.

Literature Review: About 100 cases of PSCP have so far been reported. PSCP may develop de novo or may emanate following hormonal therapy or radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of prostate; PSCP may present with LUTS, haematuria, perineal/back pain. Histology of prostate biopsy tends to show a biphasic tumour which has an adenocarcinoma component as well as a second component which is a clearly recognizable type of sarcoma component which could be angiosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma or rhabdomyosarcoma. With regard to immunohistochemistry, the epithelial component of sarcomatoid carcinoma of prostate stains positively for cytokeratin and PAP and negatively for PSA; the sarcoma component stains negatively for PSA, EMA and keratin. There is no consensus opinion on treatment. TURP has been performed for lower urinary tract obstruction symptoms and urinary retention, radical prostatectomy, pelvic exenteration, and chemotherapy are some of the treatments employed. A number of cases of PSCP had presented at advanced stages of the disease. PCSP is aggressive with poor prognosis; however, early aggressive surgery in some cases had resulted in survival.

Conclusions: A multi-centre trial is required to determine the best treatment option for PSCP. Perhaps patients with progressing prostate cancer following radiotherapy of castrate resistant prostate cancer should have repeat prostate biopsies to determine if they have developed dedifferentiation into PSCP or other variants of prostate cancer and to try cases of PSCP on chemotherapy as a trial.

Author(s) Details

Mr Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo [MB ChB FRCS(Ed) FRCSI FGCS Urol. LLM]
Department of Urology, North Manchester General Hospital, Delaunays Road Manchester, United Kingdom.

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Para-testicular Liposarcoma: An Update of the Literature | Chapter 01 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 4

Less than 200 cases of para-testicular liposarcoma (PTL) have been reported. PTL may present with painless or painful intra-scrotal or inguinoscrotal mass of long duration or recent onset but the most common presentation is a painless mass. Para-testicular liposarcomas does mimic various common intra-scrotal and inguinoscrotal masses, some of which include: inguinal hernia, lipoma, fibroma, fibrosarcoma, leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, various types of testicular tumours and other non-common intra-scrotal lesions. The symptoms tend to be non-specific. PTLs tend to be unilateral but bilateral cases have been reported. Radiology imaging would define the features of the lesion. Fine needle aspiration cytology could establish the diagnosis but the diagnosis tends to be established by pathology examination of the excised specimen of the tumour which would show spindled-tumoral cells with atypical features and mitotic activity and lipoblasts. Immunohistochemistry staining studies of the tumour would exhibit positive staining for MDM2, CDK4, S100 and STAT6. PTL is treated by trans-inguinal radical orchidectomy ensuring complete excision of the tumour with tumour-free excision margin plus adjuvant radiotherapy plus / minus adjuvant chemotherapy for localized disease. For metastatic and advanced lesions, radical trans-inguinal orchidectomy plus radiotherapy plus chemotherapy should be undertaken. New chemotherapy options need to be developed to effectively destroy para-testicular liposarcoma tumour cells. All excised innocuous looking intra-scrotal masses that should be submitted for histopathology examination in order not to misdiagnose PTL as benign lipoma. Generally the prognosis of localized PTL tends to be good following radical orchidectomy with complete excision of tumour.

Author(s) Details

Mr. Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo MB ChB FRCS(Ed) FRCSI FGCS Urol. LLM
Department of Urology, North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, M8 5RB, United Kingdom.

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Review of Edible Plants in Dumpsites: Risks of Heavy Metals Toxicity and Implications for Public Health | Chapter 13 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Studies of dumpsites have revealed that the surrounding soils and water are contaminated with high threshold of heavy metals through anthropogenic inputs. In this review, the uptake and toxicity risks of these heavy metals by habitual edible plants at levels above threshold limit and the implications for public health have been discussed. Edible plants are plants with nutritional and medicinal potentials which can salvage numerous human and animal needs when taken. Edible plants like most other underutilized plants in dumpsites have developed mechanisms which enable them to not only survive but accumulate high level of toxic heavy metals due to high level of environmental metal load in the dumpsites. This ultimately could lead to high human and animal exposure to these toxic elements through food-chain/food-web or direct ingestion of soils. The toxic effects caused by excess concentrations of these heavy metals in living organisms vary considerably and present numerous clinical situations ranging from neurological disorder, cellular damage among others and death in extreme cases. This review suggest the urgent need for policy makers to regulate the use of dumpsites for arable farming and the dependence on edible plants in dumpsites to avert heavy metal poisoning in populations.

Author(s) Details

Nwogo Ajuka Obasi
Environmental Biochemistry, Health and Toxicology Research Unit, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.

Mrs. Stella Eberechukwu Obasi
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Nigeria.

Getrude Obianuju Aloh
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Sunday Oge Elom
Environmental Biochemistry, Health and Toxicology Research Unit, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.

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Stimulation of Mutation by Gamma Irradiation in Mulberry (Morus) Genotype S54 | Chapter 12 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Abundant mulberry genotypes are accessible in nature, they are deficient in one or the other important economic trait required for silkworm Bombyx mori L. as mulberry leaf is the sole food. In the present experiment, as S54 mulberry genotype leaves are very much suited for rearing young age (Chawki) silkworms, an effort has been made to induce phytomorphological variability in S54 mulberry genotype using gamma rays. RBD Method with three replications / treatment was followed. Experiment was performed in Mulberry garden, Department of Sericulture, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore University and Mist chamber, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Gamma ray (1kR-10Kr) was used to induce variability in juvenile twigs of mulberry for various agro-botanical characters viz., sprouting, rooting, internodal distance, leaf area, plant height etc. and leaves were exposed to biochemical analysis. Mulberry genotype S54 showed linear decrease in growth parameters with the increased gamma ray dosage and plants exhibited variability with increased rooting (81.33%), plant height (147.86 cm) and leaf area (146.22 cm2) when compared to control in M1 generation at 7kR. Mutants displaying encouraging characters were grown for M2 generation which exhibited marked enhancement in growth and yield parameters. Biochemical constituents in S54 mutant leaves recorded at 7kR revealed increased proteins, carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and b. Mulberry cuttings irradiated with gamma ray (7kR) exhibited favorable characters in rooting, plant height and leaf area over the control in M1 generation and mutants were grown for M2 generation and marked improvement in growth, yield and bio-chemical parameters were witnessed.

Author(s) Details

Dr. H. L. Ramesh
Department of Sericulture, V. V. Pura College of Science, K. R. Road, Bangalore-560004, Karnataka, India.

Dr. V. N. Yogananda Murthy
Department of Biotechnology, Azyme Biosciences Private Limited, Jayanagar, Bengaluru-560069, Karnataka, India.

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Importance of Crop Wild Relatives and Landraces Genetic Resources in Plant Breeding Programmes and Their Conservation | Chapter 11 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Plant genetic resources are the biological basis of global food security. Agricultural diversity and genetic resources should be used more effectively to sustain the current level of food production and to solve future problems. The importance of plant genetic resources in the improvement of varieties with new features is indisputably known. The most effective use of plant genetic resources is undoubtedly in plant breeding and improvement of new varieties. In other words, it is used as a genitor. Since the cultivars are often inadequate in many genes, especially biotic and abiotic stress factors (diseases, pests, cold, drought, etc.) breeders constantly search for new sources of genetic materials. This review is based on reports in the landraces (primitive) varieties and crop wild relatives to explain the importance of genetic resources in plant breeding of reviewing scientific literature to pass.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Berk Benlioğlu
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Prof. M. Sait Adak
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

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Soil Erosion Magnitude of Upland Farming Practices in Bataan | Chapter 10 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

There were factors affecting erosion such as climate, soil type, vegetation and topography. Upland areas were denuding exponentially due to the fact that those people looking for livelihood had little concern and awareness on environmental sustainability and management. Upland farming practices that was easy like weeding, pest control and fertilization were often carried out without soil erosion control and water management. The result of the study revealed that an area with intercropped permanent crops has less amount of soil eroded or tolerable annual soil loss. But the areas with short duration crops (cash crops) and which adopted the same cropping pattern from the previous season resulted to severe soil erosion. Calculated annual soil erosion were 3.33, 4.57, 23.18, 0.31 tons and zero erosion for Site 1, Site 2, Site 3, Site 4, and Site 5, respectively.

Author(s) Details

Ricson L. Ines
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bataan Peninsula State University, Bataan, Philippines.

Fernando V. Gonzales
Department of Agriculture, Bataan Peninsula State University, Bataan, Philippines.

Walter G. Valdez
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bataan Peninsula State University, Bataan, Philippines.

Jonathan E. Lacayanga
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bataan Peninsula State University, Bataan, Philippines.

Editha A. Ganado
Department of Agriculture, Bataan Peninsula State University, Bataan, Philippines.

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Plant Assemblages along an Altitudinal Gradient of Mount Oku Forests (Cameroon) | Chapter 09 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Plant assemblage organization along physical environmental gradients remains a central issue of community on local, regional or continental scales. Mount Oku, commonly known as KilumIjim, situated at the North-west Cameroon has the most important remnant of Afromontane forest in Central Africa. These forests are recognized as a globally important center of endemism and a hotspot for biodiversity conservation but they are now undergoing unprecedented degradation. The aim of this study is to identify different plant assemblages in Mount Oku forests. In order to explore variations in vegetation composition of the study area, we realized 102 floristic plots along an altitudinal gradient. The floristic plots were subjected to a hierarchical cluster analysis (HC) using the Ward method. Our results allowed us to reveal 9 plant assemblages on Mount Oku, situated at different altitudinal levels. At the landscape level, this forest cover is old, but the plant communities composing it are largely recent because they emerge from secondary dynamics following various disturbances of the inner forest (Crops, pastures, logging, etc.). These plant communities cover a large altitudinal range. However there are still communities of ancient forests but very disturbed, situated on altitudinal levels from about 1900 to 2600 m. The general composition of the forest flora of Mount Oku indicates that this vegetation has preserved characteristics of a tropical Afromontane flora. The results show that the composition of plant communities is determined mainly by human activities that tend to erase the influence of natural factors such as altitude.

Author(s) Details

M. C. Momo Solefack
Department of Plant Biology, University of Dschang, P.O.Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.

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