Physiological Panel of Some Feed Additives for Turkey Toms | Chapter 03 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aims: To find the effect of basil and thyme (medicinal plants) and some enzymes (kemzyme and zymogen) as feed additives on some productive performance, some metabolic parameters, integrity and functionality of gastrointestinal tract.

Study Design: Forty – eight male turkey toms (strain, Big 6), 3 months old were used with an average body weight 5.5 kg. All turkeys were apparently active and healthy.  The turkey toms were raised on floor covered with dry wood shaving, which was used in all partition, its thickness is about 10-15 cm and renewed every 3 days till the end of the experiment. The house was divided into 8 partitions, each partition was (240 cm X 180 cm) providing enough surface area for each turkey. In each partition there were plastic feeders and drinkers of 20 L capacity, it was provided with identifying card to record all required information. Food and water were available ad-libitum through the period of experiment. The house was well ventilated by natural windows. Light was turned off (one hour in 24 hours) as recommended by [1]. Turkey was kept under hygienic condition and as far as possible from any discomfort stimuli. Feeding Regimen; Basal ration were formulated to cover the nutrient requirements of growing turkey according to National Research Center [2]. Toms were randomly divided into eight groups (6 toms/each). The control group (C) was fed a basal diet without feed supplementation. Group(B) was supplemented with basil (3 g basil/kg diet) group (T) was fed thyme (2 g thyme/kg diet), group (TB) was fed a mixture of basil and thyme (3 g basil + 2 g thyme kg diet), group (Z) was fed zymogen (1 ml/4 liter water); and group (K) was supplemented with kemzyme (0.5 g/kg diet), group (BTK) was fed a mixture of basil, thyme and kemzyme, the last group was fed with diet supplemented with basil, thyme and zymogen (BTZ).

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was carried out in animal care center, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University. During the period from March till May 2015. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks.

Methodology: Body weight gain, feed conversion ratio was measured at the end of 10th week of experiment. Blood samples were taken to measure some biochemical & hormonal parameters, at the same time some tissues for morphological and molecular studies were prepared. Tissue samples were taken from duodenum. They were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for measuring the length of villi and the depth of crypts using A computerized microscopic image analyzer attached for full HD microscopic camera (Leica Microsystems, Germany was used to determine the histomorphometry parameters [3]. The other part of the collected tissues was prepared as homogenate for total DNA& RNA purification according to [4] using the QIAamp Mini Kit.

Results: Toms fed with either basil, thyme or kemzyme (BT) had significantly (p < 0.05) heaviest body gain than the control, (Z) or (BTZ). Significant increase occurred of the dressing percent (DP%) in group and (BT) compared to the groups (T, Z, BTK and BTZ).

Supplementation with (K) significantly decreases the serum total lipids than the (C) group and all supplemented groups at P < 0.05. Serum cholesterol levels of the groups (T), (BT) and (Z) recorded a significant increase than those of groups (C), (K), (BTK) and (BTZ). Meanwhile; triglyceride levels revealed significant decrease in control group at (p < 0.05) than all other groups. All experimental groups recorded no differences in both serum protein and albumin. Although there were an increased levels of serum AST of groups (T) and (Z) compared to control and other groups, meanwhile; (T) and (Z) groups revealed the lowest level of serum ALT.

Concerning the antioxidant parameters, results reviewed that (T), (BT), (BTK) and (BTZ) had a higher level of MDA activity than the (B), (K) and (Z) supplemented groups illustrate no difference versus the serum (MDA) activity of the (C) group. Serum SOD activity revealed no differences within all groups. Serum TAC recorded significant increase in all supplemented groups compared to their level in control group.

Studies of intestinal integrity; morphometry studies indicated that the villous height increased in groups (T), (Z) and (BTK) with a higher villous to crypt ratio and goblet cell numbers of group supplemented with (BTK). Moreover, the villous width revealed a significant increase in the (C) and (Z) groups. The measurement of total DNA of duodenal tissues which reflect the cell mitosis was higher in (T), (Z) and (BTK), (BTZ) at P < 0.05; the recorded results of DNA/protein of the same segment of the duodenal tissues revealed higher ratio (higher ribosomal activity) of (T), (Z), and (BTK) groups. Cell size of the duodenal tissues as indicated by (protein/DNA) was increased by (K) and decrease by (T) and (Z) supplementation at P < 0.05.

Conclusion: Supplementation of turkey rations with herbs (basil & thyme) and multienzymes (zymogen & kemzyme) either alone or in combination produce a significant improvement in turkeys’ performance. They may regulate feed intake, increase intestinal surface area for more absorption and utilization of feed; and Contain different antioxidants activity.

Author(s) Details

Sohair Y. Saleh
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Nahed S. El-Toukhy
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Hassan. I. Abass
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Salma I. El- Samannoudy
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Mohamed A. Tony
Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Amin M. Hassanin
Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Meonofya, Egypt.

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Importance of Silicon in Soils and Plants | Chapter 02 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The crust of the earth is largely composed of silicon that is found primarily as silicate minerals, secondary alumino silicates and various forms of silicon dioxide. However, the abundance of silicon in soils is not an indication that sufficient supplies of soluble silicon are available for plant uptake. In this chapter, the outcomes of many years of research conducted on silicon are consolidated to understand the state of knowledge for silicon fertilization guidelines in crop production. The monosilicic acid (H4SiO4) is the form of silicon used by plants, which is found both in liquid and adsorbed phases of silicon in soils. Silicon plays a very important role in drought tolerance because silicon fed plants maintains higher leaf water potential. This is assumed to be due to the formation of silica cutical double layer on the epidermis.

Author(s) Details

Dr. M. Yuvaraj [Ph.D.]
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Kalavai, Vellore, India.

Prof. Dr. P. P. Mahendran
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, India.

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Using GIS to Assess the Contribution of Farming Activities towards Climate Change in the State of Mississippi | Chapter 10 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

The study uses primary data, descriptive statistics, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and correlation analysis to analyze the contributions of farming activities to climate change in Mississippi between 1992 through 2002. This involved the assessment of methane emissions from rice cultivation in the state of Mississippi as well as the relationship between the levels of methane gas concentration and other variables associated with rice production. In highlighting the extent to which rice production activities fuel climate change, the results of the study not only showed greenhouse gas emission related rice production activities to be on the rise, but there is a relationship between methane emissions and rice farming. The GIS analysis also points to a visible concentration of rice production activities associated with methane emissions in the major counties of Bolivia, Sunflower and Washington along the Northwest portion of the state. While this raises the threats of climate change predictors in the area. To remedy the problems, the paper suggests five future lines of actions from the need for education to the promotion of emission trading.

Author(s) Details

Edmund C. Merem
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Yaw A. Twumasi
Department of Urban Forestry and Natural Resources, Southern University and A&M College, 102 C Fisher Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA.

Joan Wesley
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Emmanuel Nwagboso
Department of Political Science, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch, Jackson MS, 39217, USA.

Siddig Fageir
Department of Criminal Justice and Sociology, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch, Jackson MS, 39217, USA.

Marshand Crisler
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Peter Isokpehi
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Duro Olagbegi
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Mohammed Alsarari
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Coney Romorno
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

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Self-protective Measures against Climate Hazards in Ghana: The Case of Dansoman in the Greater Accra Region | Chapter 09 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

Self-mitigation and adaptation often require conceptual and feasible innovative mechanisms, locally designed with inputs from key stakeholders. Developing prudent adaptation measures for local communities are often time-consuming, and require in-depth analysis due to the complex nature of climate change, encompassing several sectors and external facilitators. In our quest to achieve Millennium Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 13), placing communities in acute and highly vulnerable locations at the center are essential in determining critical and actual areas stemming these communities, hence, employing bottom-up approach in realizing global goals of regulating deteriorating climatic conditions. The ultimate aim of the study was to find-out self-protective measures, initiated by key proponents in the area. The study employed an action-based, descriptive and inferential statistics in the collection and analysis of data. Response from informants constituting officials from various institutions and vulnerable groups in the area were subjected to content analysis to avoid misjudgments. Results show majority of self-protective measures, initiated by proponents in the area are short-term (reactive) measures which does not have the efficacy and capacity to deal with large scale climate events of greater magnitude and intensity. The study would inform the decision of policy-makers and interested stakeholders towards achieving SDG 13 as well as critical areas to prioritize, both in the short and long term. Further research could be conducted on the extent to which enhancing socio-economic parameters in the area can amplify residents’ susceptibility to climate hazards in the long run.

Author(s) Details

Isaac Sarfo (PhD Candidate)
Research Institute for History of Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, China.

Prof. Shuoben Bi
School of Geographic Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, China.

Jude Issa Dontoh
Ca Foscari University of Venice, Italy.

Charity Oseiwah Adjei
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, China.

Emmanuel Adu Gyamfi Kedjanyi
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, China.

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A Model of Storage Changes within the Cretaceous Sandstones of Lokoja Formation. North Central Nigeria | Chapter 08 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

An assessment of storage changes within the Cretaceous sandstones of Lokoja Formation constituting the sedimentary part of Lokoja and its environs was carried out using USGS GSFLOW-1.0 software to investigate reasons for water problems such as drying of streams and failure of wells commonly experienced in the area. Daily meteorological data from year 2001 to 2010 and hydraulic conductivity for the area were used as input for the model simulation. Model results indicate that storage in the watershed takes place in the soil-zone, unsaturated-zone and saturated-zone and that storage takes place at different periods in the storage zones. Three storage cycles were identified in each of the storage zones. Soil-zone storage is generally higher during the second and third cycles. Storage in the unsaturated zone is lowest in the first cycle with thickness of the zone decreasing to minimum in the second cycle as storage increases to maximum. Storage increased to maximum in the second cycle of the saturated zone with the first and third cycles showing negative storage changes as unsaturated zone thickness increased. Surface runoff, interflow, and groundwater discharge in form of springs contribute stream flow to the watershed. Failure of wells in the area is attributed to the geology and water loss to the surface leading to insufficient water reaching the saturated zone for storage.

Author(s) Details

F. A. Akpah
Department of Earth Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria.

C. O. Okogbue
Department of Geology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

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Biosorption of Cd (II) and As (III) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Tea Waste Biomass | Chapter 07 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

Biosorption of Cadmium (Cd (II)) and Arsenic (As (III)) ions from aqueous solution by tea waste biomass was examined in a batch experimental setup. The effects of pH and temperature on the biosorption were studied in this work. The optimum pH values for the maximum efficiency of biosorption of Cd (II) and As (III) ions were found to be 5.5 and 7.5, respectively. The adsorption process was endothermic in nature and spontaneous. Further, about 95% and 84.5% removal of Cd (II) and As (III) ions was obtained at 200 mg/l of adsorbate and 6 g/l and 7 g/l of adsorbent dosage, respectively. The present study showed that tea waste biomass can serve as a good and cheap substitute for conventional carbon based adsorbents for removal of metal ions from industrial wastewater.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Suantak Kamsonlian
Department of Chemical Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Prayagraj – 211004, India.

Dr. Chandrajit Balomajumder
Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee – 247667, India.

Dr. Shri Chand
Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee – 247667, India.

Dr. S. Suresh
Department of Chemical Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology Bhopal, Bhopal – 462051, India.

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Temporal and Spatial Variability in Water and Sediment Characteristics of Abule Agege, Abule Eledu, Ogbe, Creeks Adjoining Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria | Chapter 06 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

Lagos lagoon is known to contain a vast number of anthropogenic stressors that resulted from the influx of human activities due to the increase in human population, industries and incursion of contaminants from adjoining thus making the ecosystem highly contaminated. The degree of this contamination can be affected by the seasonal variations in time and space. The spatial and temporal variations in the hydrochemistry and sediments characteristics of three (3) Lagos lagoon’s creeks were investigated for six months (June, 2016 to November, 2016). Sub-surface water and sediments were collected with a 1 dm3 water sampler and Van-veen grab, respectively and analyzed. Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and conductivity of the water samples and pH, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate), total organic matter (TOM) and total organic content (TOC), alkalinity, acidity and particle size of the sediment samples were analyzed. The physico-chemical parameters in the water and sediment from the sampled creeks showed none significant differences (P>0.05). The study showed an increasing level of parameters’ rates analyzed, indicating increased contaminants in Abule Eledu and Ogbe creeks. Water temperature maintained a relatively uniform temperature with dissolved oxygen values range of 1.6 to 3.1 mg/L. Conductivity was higher in June to August while high prevalence of nutrients was observed in October and November. Abule Agege and Abule Eledu recorded TOM and TOC that were above 15 mg/kg in June to August while alkalinity and acidity were high in October (6.63 mg/kg) and November (7.72 mg/kg) in the study creeks. The sediment particles size of the creeks ranged from clay, muddy and sandy substratum signifying that they were macro benthic specific. The increase of the parameters’ concentration indicates that the three creeks are highly impacted by anthropogenic stressors, dependent on the source of pollution occurring at the sites as well as controlled by seasonal variations. Continuous monitoring and concerted efforts are needed to be done to prevent future heavy metal pollution, total degradation thereby formulating appropriate protective and conservation measures in the water’s quality of the Lagos lagoon’s creeks.

Author(s) Details

A. P. Onyena
Department of Marine Environment and Pollution Control, Faculty of Marine Environmental Management, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Delta State, Nigeria. 

C. A. Okoro
Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

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Recovery of Pure Slaked Lime from Carbide Sludge: Case Study of Lagos State, Nigeria | Chapter 05 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

Carbide sludge is the by-product of reaction between calcium carbide and water in the production of acetylene gas for welding purposes. This by-product is discarded as waste due to high content of impurities as a result of the reactants and reaction processes. In this research work an attempt was made at developing an appropriate process technology for the recovery of pure slaked lime from Nigeria’s automobile welders’ carbide sludge using solubilisation and evaporation process technology. The percentage purity of the slaked lime recovered through the process was 88%. The recovered slaked limes had pH of 11.93, were soluble in glycerol and dilute acid, insoluble in alcohol, and sparingly soluble in water. The optimum percentage yield was 78.2% at a ratio of 1:1000(w/v) of sludge to water held for 24 h at room temperature.

Author(s) Details

J. A. Chukwudebelu [PhD.]
Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria.

C. C. Igwe
Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Dr. O. E. Taiwo
Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Mr. O. B. Tojola
Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria.

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Groundwater Nitrate | Chapter 04 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for many small agricultural communities. Nitrate concentration in groundwater is a major problem in Nira River basin area, which is mainly due to the run off or seepage of chemical fertilizers from the agricultural field. A total of 45 water samples were collected in the period of post-monsoon (POM) winter and pre-monsoon (PRM) summer seasons from bore wells. The water samples were analysed using standard methods of APHA suggested for analysis of nitrate. Groundwater quality parameter varies spatially in different seasons. In the present study, spatio-temporal variation in nitrate levels in bore wells of Baramati Tahsil area is examined. The results of analysis showed that nitrate concentration in POM and PRM was above the maximum permissible limit of WHO and BIS recommended for drinking purpose. In POM 74% groundwater samples from canal irrigated area and 11% from non-canal-irrigated area were above the standard limit of WHO and BIS. In PRM 66.67% and 11% samples respectively from canal irrigated and non-canal-irrigated area were above the maximum permissible limit of WHO and BIS (45 mg/l). This indicates that peoples especially children using the water from bore wells with higher concentration of nitrate than standard limit, stands a high risk of methemoglobinemia (sometimes referred to as “Blue baby syndrome”). In canal irrigated area concentration of nitrate was found higher than the non-canal-irrigated area. This may due to the use of more nitrogenous fertilizers by farmers in their farms, improper disposal of animal and human wastes in canal irrigated area as compared with non-canal-irrigated area. The groundwater of such bore wells was not suitable for drinking purpose without treatment at the time of analysis. Nitrate containing groundwater is more effective and useful for irrigation purpose. The nitrogen can be removed from drinking water by using treatment such as ion exchange, biological de-nitrification and reverse osmosis.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. R. P. Dhok
Agricultural Development Trust’s Shardabai Pawar Mahila College, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Shardanagar, Baramati, India.

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Evaluation of Three Geostatistical Interpolation Methods for the Estimation of Average Daily Rainfall | Chapter 03 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

This study focuses on evaluating the results from three geostatistical interpolation methods used for the estimation of average daily rainfall in ILWIS 3.7. Rainfall data from nine (9) gauging points over the Upper Deep River Basin, North Central Nigeria were used. The total catchment area is 6076 km2. The moving average method, ordinary kriging technique and nearest point or Thiessen method were used for the interpolation. The rainfall values used were for five (5) days in the same month where rainfall data for at least six (6) of the nine (9) gauging points were recorded, since rain did not fall on the whole the catchment on the same day. The results obtained from the different geostatistical methods used were different but closely similar with the moving average method recording the highest rainfall values for all interpolations. The techniques behind the methods were evaluated and discussed based on the results obtained. From the results it was observed that the moving average method calculated half of the maximum rainfall within the catchment and assigned that value for the average rainfall while in the Thiessen polygon method, the results obtained were similar to the arithmetic average of the rainfall values with all zero points counted as one point. The work demonstrated that remote sensing and GIS techniques are fast in the estimation of average rainfall over a catchment area and the estimated rainfall data for any point within the catchment can be obtained from the output raster maps. It is recommended for GIS users to choose the geostatistical method that best suits their purpose.

Author(s) Details

R. E. Daffi
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

F. B. Wamyil
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

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