Cosmic Photon Radiation as the Driving Force for the Expansion of the Universe in Accordance with Hubble`s Law | Chapter 07 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

The Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC) offers no physically reasoned explanation for the expansion of cosmic space in accordance with Hubble’s Law. As will be illustrated in the course of this paper, an explanation for this special expansionary behaviour of the cosmos can be derived using Planck’s Law for the energy of photons E = h . v. It then emerges that the constant increase in the entropy of cosmic photons in the course of universal time causes the expansion of cosmic space. The permanently driving force for this expansion was thus from the very beginning the electromagnetic radiation energy, has remained so to date and will remain so for the entire duration of the universe.

The SMC postulates a continuous reduction of the speed of expansion due to the braking effect of the gravitation of all the cosmic masses – which does not correspond to reality. The author therefore proposes that the SMC be amended to reflect today’s insights by formulating an energy model of the cosmos based on the Planck action quantum h, which could be denoted as “Planck’s World Model of the Cosmos”.

Author(s) Details

Guido Zbiral
Independent Private Scientist, Klosterneuburg, Austria (Retd.).

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Relation between Planck’s Constant and Speed of Light, Predicting Proton Radius More Accurately | Chapter 06 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

Twin physics is a new physical model in which the basic features of quantum mechanics and relativity theory are combined to a manageable description, which can be represented geometrically. In this model, descriptions of phenomena on a quantum-mechanical scale can be combined with those at an astronomical scale by considering them in a complementary way. This is in agreement with the view of Heisenberg and carried out by using the definition of complementarity as given by Max Jammer.

The obtained theoretical results can be identified with basic physical phenomena like the forces of nature, a series of elementary particles and gravitational waves. If the proton, as described by twin physics, is combined with the early ideas of Einstein about the energetic equivalence of mass and radiation, a relation between the Planck’s constant and the speed of light is found, in which the mass and the radius of the proton occur. In this relation also a factor four appears, being an integer, which is acting as a conversion factor from mass to radiation. Besides of that, the relation leads to a more accurate prediction of the radius of the proton.

Author(s) Details

Anna C. M. Backerra
Gualtherus Sylvanusstraat 2, 7412 DM Deventer, The Netherlands.

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Dark Matter and Dark Energy as a Derivate from Cosmic Photon Radiation | Chapter 05 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

For many decades now, intensive efforts have been undertaken by physicists and cosmologists around the world to investigate dark matter (DM), without noticeable success to date. This situation leads me to believe that one of the assumptions underlying the current doctrine in physics may well be erroneous or incomplete – since a breakthrough in this field of physics and cosmology would otherwise surely have already taken place by now.

For the past years, the CERN Nuclear Research Centre has set itself the task of using the LHC (upgraded to 13 TeV) to investigate the still completely mysterious phenomenon of dark matter. The researchers at CERN favour the assumption – shared by the majority of physicists and cosmologists, that DM consists of massive non-baryonic particles (so-called WIMPs, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) hitherto completely unknown to us, which produce a non-baryonic, static gravitational field distributed throughout the entire cosmos.

I cast doubt on the above assumption that DM is massive in nature. As this paper will show, DM can be far better (and more simply) explained in terms of a non-massive gravitational derivate of those photons consumed in the expansion of cosmic space (by performing the work of expansion), those photons thereby being transformed into static physical quantities. This gravitational derivate creates a free gravitational field (decoupled from the other forces of nature) of non-baryonic, static nature, regionally varying in intensity, and this is known as dark matter.

Author(s) Details

Guido Zbiral
Independent Private Scientist, Klosterneuburg, Austria (Retd.).

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Meditator’s Non-contact Effect on Cucumbers | Chapter 04 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

We clearly show a non-contact effect in which the “presence” of a test subject (meditator) inside a pyramidal structure (PS) affects biosensors without making any physical contact. This is the world’s first report to show this type of effect by scientific measurements. We used edible cucumber sections as the biosensors and measured the concentrations of gas emitted from the sections by a technique developed by our group. The concentrations of gas emitted from biosensors were measured for a total of 1152 sample petri dishes; each dish contained four cucumber sections so that a statistically meaningful comparison could be made. We found that there was a statistically significant difference (p=8.7×10-9, Welch’s t-test, two-tails) in the concentration of emitted gas depending on whether the meditator was present or absent in the PS. Our experimental results clearly indicated that there was a scientifically measurable effect on biological objects with which the meditator had no direct physical contact.

Author(s) Details

Osamu Takagi [Ph.D. (Sci.)]
International Research Institute (IRI), 1108-2 Sonno, Inage, Chiba 263-0051, Japan.

Masamichi Sakamoto [M.A.Sc.]
Aquavision Academy, 1228-3 Tsubuura, Narita, Chiba 287-0236, Japan.

Hideo Yoichi [M.A.]
International Research Institute (IRI), 1108-2 Sonno, Inage, Chiba 263-0051, Japan.

Kimiko Kawano [Ph.D.]
International Research Institute (IRI), 1108-2 Sonno, Inage, Chiba 263-0051, Japan.

Mikio Yamamoto [Ph.D.(Med.), Ph.D.(Engin.)]
International Research Institute (IRI), 1108-2 Sonno, Inage, Chiba 263-0051, Japan.

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Advanced Dyeing with Natural Dyes for Interior and Fashion Designs | Chapter 03 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

Textile industry has an economic importance all over the world. Its artistic coloration serves the interior and fashion designs through the printing processes. Natural dyes are a fascinating phenomenon that enticed researchers to their chemistry and hues to explore that no other dyes provide a better opportunity of how to protect and respect the environment. Therefore, there has been an international revival to the status of natural colors to increase the value of textile products and contributes them in creating a more ideal healthy eco-friendly textiles home environment to consider both the aesthetic and functional aspects of furnishings and clothing. This chapter deals on dyeing silk fabric by a mixture of different percentages of cochineal, turmeric and indigo powders in water-acetone co solvent. Extraction and dyeing processes were conducted in one step at different pH values using ultrasound as a promising technique in saving energy. The pH values control the adsorption capacity and play an important role for obtaining different hues which could be attributed to their resonating structures. So, this chapter give the chance to improve the natural dyeing heritage to meet the economic and environmental future demands. Furthermore, this chapter provided ideas by computer aided design (CAD) to exhibit some interior and fashion designs from the resulted hues using tie and dye technique to rethink sustainable practices for different outputs designs.

Author(s) Details

Heba F. Mansour
Department of Art Education, Faculty of Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman and Department of Oman Textile Printing, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Egypt.

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A Bridge between Quantum Mechanics and Astronomy | Chapter 02 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

Small-scale physics called quantum mechanics is still incompatible with large-scale physics as developed by Einstein in his general relativity theory. By using twin physics, which is a dualistic way of considering the universe, and following Einstein’s later advice, it is possible to create a bridge between these extremes. The formulation is carried out using complementary language in which time and space necessarily occur as two distinct qualities, although they are treated analogously. The basic item in the theory is the Heisenberg unit (H-unit), which is defined as a constant amount of potential energy, supplied with mathematical attributes; by interaction with another H-unit, these attributes may be transformed into real phenomena. With this theory, a photon can be described such that its velocity is constant without using the related postulate, showing how the speed of light is the link between small- and large-scale physics. The existence of Planck’s constant emerges from the explanation. The photon is related to a massless electron, which is described by the mirrored interaction of H-units.

Author(s) Details

Anna C. M. Backerra
Stichting de Schat, Gualtherus Sylvanusstraat 2, 7412 DM Deventer, The Netherlands.

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Second-order Gauge-invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory: Current Status Updated in 2019 | Chapter 01 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

The current status of the recent developments of the second-order gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory is reviewed. To show the essence of this perturbation theory, we concentrate only on the universe filled with a single scalar field. Through this review, we point out the problems which should be clarified for the further theoretical sophistication of this perturbation theory. This review is an extension of the review paper [K. Nakamura, “Second-Order Gauge-Invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory: Current Status”, Advances in Astronomy, 2010 (2010), 576273.]. We also expect that this theoretical sophistication will be also useful to discuss the future developments in cosmology as a precise science.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Kouji Nakamura
Gravitational-Wave Science Project, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan.

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