A Brief Analysis of Thermal Properties of Mixed (PP/EPR)/ABS with Five Model Compatibilizers | Chapter 04 | Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 1

The inluences of incorporating compatibilizers E-EA-MAH, E-MA-GMA, E-AM, SEBS KRATON G, or PP-g-MAH on the thermal properties of mixed (polypropylene/ethylene propylene rubber)/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PP/EPR)/ABS have been investigated. It has been shown that the mixture of polypropylene and ABS is not sufficiently stable. This instability has referred to an incompatibility between these two copolymers. Thus, in this study, to improve this behavior, we introduce the compatibilizing agents mentioned above. They are all from commerce. The objective for each mixture developed in this study is to have a composite material with optimal thermal stability. The temperature range explored for all of our mixes ranges from -100°C to 200°C (increase of 10°C/min or decrease of -10°C/min), by two sweeps back and forth with delays of two minutes at the limits of this interval. DSC investigations have revealed that the incorporation of 5% of ABS in the copolymer (PP/EPR) does not fundamentally affect the thermal properties of the basic copolymer; additionally, the addition of 1.5% of each of the compatibilizers in the basic mixture does not significantly alter the crystallization temperature values and the melting of the -P- sequences. Here is a variation of melting enthalpy values of the -P- sequences of 18.23% using SEBS KRATON G and of 10.38% using E-AM-GMA. When the rate of each of the compatibilizers increases to 5%, overall crystallization enthalpies of -P- sequences are almost kept unchanged, except for the case of using the compatibilizer E-AM-GMA with a variation of 8.42%. Here is a minor variation of the melting enthalpy of -P- sequences with higher levels of compatibilizer. He incorporation of 5% ABS copolymer in the PP/EPR does not significantly alter the thermal properties of the basic structure of (PP/EPR)/ABS.

Author(s) Details
Dr. Noah Pierre Marcel Anicet
Laboratory of Mechanics, ENSET, University of Douala, P.O.Box 1872, Douala, Cameroon and Department of Mechanical Engineering, ENSET, University of Douala, P.O.Box 1872, Douala, Cameroon.

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A Recent Study on Compositional Characteristics of Commercial Roasted Beet Root Chips Snacks | Chapter 03 | Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 1

Beta vulgaris L. (beetroot) contains high amounts of active substances. The amounts of various compounds sucrose, glucose, fructose, micronutrients and physical properties were found in roasted beet root chips of two varieties cultivated in Jessore (BRJS) and Kustia (BRKS), Bangladesh. Large differences were found between the varieties for some nutrients (such as sucrose), whereas others showed only minor variation (physical properties and acceptability).

The study aims to estimate the composition characteristic of commercial roasted beet root chips snacks. The total sucrose content was found to range between 73.6 g/kg and 82.6 g/ kg of roasted chips samples. Other detected glucose, which accounted for up to 4.1% to 3.2% and fructose 1.31% to 1.21%. The % CV of sucrose, glucose and fructose were 14.5%, 43.3% and 52.6% respectively. Physicochemical properties of beet root Chips was studied and is shown in Table 4 for accepted sample BRTJS. The average weight of one piece of beetroot chips was 2.22 gm, diameter 5.15 cm, thickness 0.35 cm, height 0.7 cm and bulk density was 0.35 g/cm3. The average apparent moisture diffusivity was calculated as 5.35X10-9m2s-1 with standard deviation 2.43X10-9m2s-1. The highest value of moisture diffusivity recorded as 1.9X10-9 of the MHSDT method and lowest value of 2.25X10-9. Proximate values was 2.2% moisture, 0.7% ash, 17% protein, 1.25% fat, 1.7% crude fiber and 74.02% carbohydrate respectively. Sensory evaluation for acceptances of the sample-RBJS got a highest sensorial score (9.0) for all parameters like the color (9.2), taste (9.25), texture (8.5), after taste (7.0) and overall acceptability (9.0) than other BRKS sample.

Author(s) Details

Prof. B. Hossain
Department of Nutrition and Food Engineering, Daffodil International University, Dhaka- 1207, Bangladesh.

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Predicting the Behaviour of the Sand Beam Reinforced by Geosynthetics | Chapter 02 | Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 1

Soil is one of the most unique construction material by having no exact stress-strain relationship to express by constant equations. This distinctive property of soil makes it difficult to predict the behavior according to different types of stresses.

Author(s) Details

Sami Gören
Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia.

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An Ultra-Thin, Inverted ‘E’ Monopole Antenna for Wireless Operations in the Laptop Computer | Chapter 01 | Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 1

A novel and ultra-thin inverted ‘E’ shaped monopole antenna for Wireless operations in the laptop computer is presented. The thickness of the antenna is only 0.2mm and is designed using only a pure copper strip of size 20×6mm^2. The innovation of the design is miniaturized size and wider impedance bandwidth in dual band operation using two monopole radiating strips  namely RS (inverted J) and PQ(inverted Z) along with open ended vertical tuning stub of size 4.5×1 mm2. The measured impedance bandwidth spanned as 11.24% (2.35-2.63)GHz in a lower band (F_l) and 18.78% (4.92-5.94)GHz in the upper band (F_u) for VSWR<2 and covers 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN and 5.5 GHz WiMAX bands. The presented antenna has proved excellent radiation performance, including nearly omni directional patterns, a stable gain of around 4dBi and an excellent efficiency of around 90% in F_l and F_u bands. This confirms the applicability for WLAN/WiMAX applications in the prominent ultra-thin laptop computers.

Author(s) Details

Jayshri S. Kulkarni
Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune 411048, India.

Swapnita Dhabre
Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune 411048, India.

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Advanced Study on Synthesis and Optical Performances of a Waterborne Polyurethane-based Polymeric Dye | Chapter 05 | Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 1

A waterborne polyurethane-based polymeric dye (WPU-CFBB) was synthesized by anchoring 1, 4-bis(methylamino)anthraquinone (CFBB) to waterborne polyurethane chains. The number molecular weight, glass transition temperature and average emulsion particle size for the polymeric dye were determined, respectively. This polymeric dye exhibited intriguing optical behaviors. The polymeric dye engendered two new absorption bands centered at about 520 nm and 760 nm if compared with CFBB in UV-vis spectra. The 760 nm peak showed hypsochromic shift with the decrease of average particle sizes. The polymeric dye dramatically demonstrated both hypsochromic and bathochromic effects with increasing temperature. The fluorescence intensity of the polymeric dye was much higher than that of CFBB. It was found that the fluorescence intensities would enhance from 20°C to 40°C and then decline from 40°C to 90°C. The fluorescence of the polymeric dye emulsion was very stable and was not sensitive to quenchers.

Author(s) Details

Xianhai Hu
CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, P.R. China and School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Building Energy Efficiency Research Institute, Anhui University of Architecture, Hefei 230022, P.R. China.

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