Perspectives of Clean Cane Production Techniques and Environmental Sustainability: A Review | Chapter 8 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

Given the importance of sugar to humanity, clean cane production has become a source of concern for both academic and producers alike. Focusing on the largest producing and exporting countries of processed and refined sugarcane is the most appropriate means of understanding the concepts evolving around clean cane production. Climate change has not directly reduced the quantity of clean cane produced due to an increase in use of chemical products in farming for sugar cane, but has negatively affected the quality of output. Disease prevalence in harvested cane as well as high soil erosion from global warming have been key elements of the sudden decline in quality cane harvesting and processing. This decline in quality has not only reduce the amount of revenue accruable to farmers but with the consequence of future production prospect if improperly addressed. This study carried out a desk research methodology to review extant literature to identify contemporary issues that needs to be urgently researched on. While a number of issues were uncovered by this study, it was found that scientific experiments and mathematical models enhance theoretical facts on successful and disease-free clean cane production methods. But due to the practicability exceptions and the inherent limitations in outcomes of experiments, the research stresses on the importance of field work through observations before theoretical assessments on the findings and the causes of disease prevalence and quality decline in output. This is hoped will sanitize the cane production process and output for the present and future generations.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Doorasamy Mishelle

School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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Detailed Study on Translation: Students to Translate Environmental Expressions at Jadara University in Jordan | Chapter 7 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

This paper has coped with Environmental Sentences and Expressions (ESE). It aims at investigating the ability of translation students in translating the ESE at Jadara University in Jordan. Based on a practical study, a sample of 20 translation students was chosen randomly from the English Department, nine of them are urban, while eleven students are rural. For achieving the purpose of this paper and to collect data, a test of 25 environmental items was set up; the validity and the reliability were verified by a panel of judges at Jadara and Yarmouk Universities. Quantitatively, the researcher used SPSS to analyze data. Frequencies and percentages as a statistic method used to examine students’ ability in translating environmental terms and expressions. To know the differences between urban and rural students, T-test was used as another statistic method. The results of the study showed a poor level in translating environmental expressions. The results also revealed no significant differences between urban and rural students. In light of the study’s findings, it was recommended for issuing environmental course as an elective course for English students, and as a compulsory for translation students. Finally, some suggestions for further researches were written.

Author(s) Details –

Mohammad Alshehab
Jadara University, Jordan.

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Explaining the Requirements for Teacher’s Development Based on Professional Competencies Approach: Detailed Study | Chapter 6 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

As teacher competencies and skills play a major role in their performance and thus the achievement of school and educational goals, teachers need to equip themselves with a variety of competencies to educate children who are potentially future leaders of the community. In this context, the present study aimed to find the correlation between each of the main dimensions of professional competencies and the main components of Teacher Development (TD) in elementary schools. The study designed an applied research and used a survey method. The statistical population includes all primary school teachers in Isfahan province (N = 1150). Using a multi stage and proportional cluster sampling method, the sample size was 94 teachers. Data were collected by studying literature, interviewing experts and a questionnaire. The data were analyzed using correlation test and Analytical Network Process (ANP) technique using SPSS and Super Decisions software. The results of the research show that the dimension “skill” has the greatest impact on TD, and the dimensions “attitudes and behaviors”, “personality traits”, “knowledge” and “ability” are respectively in the second to fifth grades, as the most relevant dimensions of professional competence in primary school TD.

Author(s) Details –

Leila Moghtadaie

Department of Education, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

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A Study for Identifying the Elements of Gender References, Persuasive Techniques and Social Interaction Associated with Political Discourse: The Case of Hillary Clinton | Chapter 10 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

Discourse is an important tool discussing social relations in the discursive patterns. A well-designed discourse can easily dominate people and can construct their perceptions. Therefore, discourse is critical in the political world when one uses it to communicate ideas and visions to the people. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the elements of gender references, persuasive techniques and social interactions associated with political discourse of Hillary Clinton. The study has used the framework of conversation analysis for studying a total of three interviews and five debates of Hillary Clinton. The interviews and recording were extracted from YouTube and then transcribed and interpreted by converting them into text. The findings have revealed a significant  use of persuasive techniques and social interaction in Clinton’s political discourse. The results  also imply that using affiliation strategy, candidates can manipulate people. The study concludes that this strategy is more effective in representing oneself as truthful as compared to conventional narratives.

Author(s) Details –

Hanaa Ali AlQahtani
Department of Foreign Languages, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia

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Critical Study on Collocation as Source of Translation Unacceptability: Indonesian Students’ Experiences | Chapter 9 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

The aims of the present study are to explore wrong English collocations made by some Indonesian English learners and to find out the causes of the wrong collocations. Twenty seven wrong English lexical collocations and nine wrong grammatical collocations collected from the students’ translation and writing assignments have been examined. After comparing the patterns of English collocations and the Indonesian collocations it is found out that the erroneous English collocations are attributed to four causes: (1) Learners’ lack of knowledge of collocation, (2) Differences of collocations between English and Bahasa Indonesia, (3) Learners’ low mastery of vocabulary and (4) Strong interferences of the learners’ native language. It is suggested that the students should be informed that collocation, like grammar, is one aspect of not only English but all other languages that should be learnt if they want their English sound natural and good command of vocabulary can contribute to the constructing of correct collocations.

Author(s) Details

Syahron Lubis
Postgraduate Studies of Linguistics, University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.

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Recent Study on Reflection as a Source of Teacher Development: Pre-service and Experienced Teachers | Chapter 3 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

This study traces evidence of reflection in teacher education and teaching practice by measuring reflection of pre-service teachers and experienced teachers and clarifying reflection-oriented reactions to possible confusions or problematic situations considering whether or not they are reflective practitioners. The data were collected from 514 volunteer pre-service teachers and 466 experienced teachers teaching science, math, English, Turkish and primary classes. Teacher Reflection Scale (TRS) [1] was used to collect data. In order to analyze the data and obtain descriptive statistics for the item results, SPSS 16.0 was employed. Statistical analyses gave evidence that pre-service primary teachers had a high mean of reflection. Under the light of the results gathered from data, experienced teachers did not attain higher reflection scores when compared to pre-service teachers. There is evidence that math teachers’ experiences in school settings might lead them to reflect on their practices in time. Experienced teachers of English, science, Turkish and primary education did not attain higher TRS scores when compared to pre-service teachers of the same subject areas. There was no statistically significant and meaningful difference between the rank averages of the mentioned groups’ reflection scores. Besides, pre-service and experienced primary teachers’ reflection scores seem higher than the ones obtained from other subject areas; also there is no significant difference between these two groups. Pre-service and experienced math teachers’ results demonstrate that the scores of experienced math teachers revealed a statistically significant difference at a meaningful level (p=.000).

Author(s) Details

Saziye Yaman
American University of the Middle East (AUM), Kuwait.

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Caste System, Dalitization and Its Implications in Contemporary India: Brief Overview | Chapter 2 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

This paper deals with caste system and its implication in contemporary India. It begins with the origin of caste, religious sanction and justification made by ancient Hindu scriptures. How the role of caste which was originally followed on the basis of function among people turned out to be a discriminating element of “Untouchability”. It highlights various factors influencing the stabilization and destabilization of caste in the lives of people. The only hope of the dehumanized people under caste discrimination rests in the constitution of India. Finally, it takes us to understand the process of Dalitization in India which gives future orientation to Dalit struggles. Certainly, their victory is found on the battle ground than visualizing it in the future. In this process at this juncture the political democracy of India is really at stake.

Author(s) Details

Selvin Raj Gnana
Department of Anthropology, School of Social Sciences, University of Madras, India.

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Management of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Airport Inventories | Chapter 1 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

Greenhouse gases retain heat in the atmosphere since they absorb most of the Earth’s outgoing long wave infrared radiation. The energy trapping alters the radiative balance that, in turn, modifies weather patterns at a global scale, progressively increasing the natural greenhouse effect. Heat-trapping ability of some pollutants and primarily the carbon overload in the atmosphere as a result of human activities which have been protracted over a long period of time, has led to climate change and increase in global average temperature.

In a long-term perspective, emission abatement from aviation sector has needed wide-ranging strategies. In this view an inventory of greenhouse gases can be a benchmark with regard to which to assess the reaching of quantitative targets of emissions reduction set at the political level, to develop control measures and to monitor human-influenced climate drivers over time.

Based on the above, the article focuses on issues of air pollution generated by airport operations with a view to devising airport inventories appropriate for effectively managing Greenhouse Gas emissions.

After an overview of policy framework on climate change, core policies, standards and guidelines in force in the international regulatory context on this subject, the essential steps to be followed for developing an airport Greenhouse Gas emissions inventory and methodologies used to calculate their amount are presented. At last, references to proactively address issues concerning sustainability of airports are proposed and commented in order to gain better knowledge on management practices to be taken to plan mitigation measures and reduce polluting emissions.

Author(s) Details

O. Giuffre
Department of Engineering, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo, Italy

A. Granà
Department of Engineering, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

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Teacher Performance Appraisal in the Third World: Skeptical Implementation in Kenyan Public Schools | Chapter 5 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

Aims: Exploration of theoretical underpinnings of Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) in public schools in a phase with skeptical implementation of Teacher Performance Appraisal and Development system (TPADs) in Kenya.

Place: Public schools in Kenya.

Teacher Performance Appraisal in Kenya: This has evolved from haphazardly implemented individualized head teacher initiated activity to the current scenario whereby a uniform all inclusive guiding-tool, Teacher Appraisal and Development system, has been designed by Teachers Service Commission (TSC) for application in appraisal of teachers administered by head teachers in all public schools in Kenya.

Theoretical underpinning of Teacher Performance Appraisal in Kenya: TPA, being a process of evaluating teacher job performance, is embedded in cognitive evaluation theory. However, the transition to TPADs is bedeviled with skepticism among teachers hence the value of engendering theory of change in its implementation to realize service improvement.

Methodology: Desktop literature review.

Conclusion: It is imperative that a teacher, being the single most important resource in an educational enterprise, should not only seem to be effective but should also be evaluated to be adequately performing relevant duties. These should meet job requirements for providing continuously enhanced expected services to achieve desired individual learner and general school outcomes hence national educational goals.

Author(s) Details –

Jane Irene Dawo (PhD)
Department of Education Management and Foundations, Maseno University, Kenya.

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Anatomy of Pay in Decentralization by Devolution in Tanzania: Advanced Study | Chapter 4 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

Decentralization has become an eminent discourse for boosting people’s participation in decision making. Arguably, one of the pillars to boost good governance. Nevertheless, various levels of governance, which have resulted from decentralisation by devolution have varied perspectives on rewards for the work they perform especially the lowest namely village and ward levels. The contestation is on who deserves to receive payment for the elected posts. There are diversified opinions on the matter. Some opine that councillors, deserve more pay for their exertion. On the other hand, some opine that village chairpersons deserve pay for their work. Some people opine that both councillors and village chairpersons deserve pay. Hence, the main objective of the study is to find out which cadre deserves more attention to payment between the ward councillor’s and village chairpersons. This is a case study design which focused on Hai district in Kilimanjaro. The literature has employed interview as the major information collection strategy. Observation and documentation were used as supportive strategies. The sample was drawn through purposeful sampling from four wards, which is 100% of the sample with which the chairpersons are also the councillors in Hai district. The analysis of information has utilized descriptive analysis, which is cemented on logical reasoning of the contents. The research has concluded that 100% of the respondents were in favour of a village chairperson to be paid than a councilor. In addition, it was evident that village chairperson work is more tasking than councilors.

Author(s) Details

Norman A. S. King
University of Dodoma, United Republic of Tanzania and University of Iringa, United Republic of Tanzania.

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