Starch Phosphorylase: Biochemical and Biotechnological New Perspectives | Chapter 3 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

A dynamic mediatory role between starch synthesis and degradation has been ascribed to starch phosphorylase. However, plant starch phosphorylase is largely considered to be involved in phosphorolytic degradation of starch. It reversibly catalyzes the transfer of glucosyl units from glucose-1-phosphate to the non-reducing end of glucan chain with the release of inorganic phosphate. It is widely distributed in plant kingdom. Enzyme multiplicity is also common in starch phosphorylase and different multiple forms have been predicted to have different roles in starch metabolism. Here, various biochemical properties have been reviewed. Its regulation by aromatic amino acids has also been discussed. Importance of plastidial and cytoplasmic starch phosphorylase has also been discussed. Various biotechnological aspects have been discussed. Its exploitation in production of glucose-1-phosphate, a cytostatic compound has been discussed in the present review.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Anil Kumar 
School of Biotechnology, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Rd., Indore-452001, India.

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Pathogenicity of Antibiotic Resistant/Sensitive Bacteria Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas spp. | Chapter 2 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Bacterial and viral diseases constitute a major factor limiting the successes of shrimp farming industry. In this context, Identification of drug resistant pathogens and determination of the pathogenic processes of shrimp are fundamental for further progress in the disease management. They could be valuable in the evaluation of their epidemiology and control measures. Water samples from the aquaculture environment were contaminated with Vibrio anguillarum, V. damsela, V. furnissii, Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria. Both Vibrio spp and Aeromonas spp were shown to be pathogenic and to cause mortality to the infected post larval P. monodon. Vibrio spp. were shown to grow in TCBS agar, zobell’s marine agar and blood agar while Aeromonas spp. additionally exhibited growth in blood agar with selective supplement ampicillin (10 µg/ml) and showed a zone of clearance in DNase agar. LD50 values of V. anguillarim, V. damsela, V. funrissii, A. hydrophila and A. sobria to post larval P. monodon were determined as 1.1 x 105, 2.7 x 105, 6.0 x 105, 8.5 x 104, and 7.5 x 104 bacterial cells/ml respectively. Ciprofloxacin and streptomycin were found to be the most effective antibiotics in the reduction of the mortality of experimentally infected post larvae. The growth of Vibrio spp was inhibited by nifurpirinol (prefuran) at 25 µg/ml, oxytetracycline at 13 µg/ml, erythromycin phosphate at 4 µg/ml, chloramphenicol at 12 µg/ml, streptomycin at 2 µg/ml, and ciprofloxacin at 1 µg/ml. While the growth of Aeromonas spp was inhibited by nifurpirinol (prefuran) at 24 µg/ml, oxytetracycline at 14 µg/ml, erythromycin phosphate at 5 µg/ml, chloramphenicol at 12 µg/ml, streptomycin at 2 µg/ml, and ciprofloxacin at 1 µg/ml. Vibrio spp. was sensitive to o/129 vibriostatic agent (150 µg) whereasAeromonas spp. was resistant to it. The pathogenic bacteria viz. Vibrio spp and Aeromonas spp could be controlled to some extent with judicious use of effective antibiotics to improve the health status of shrimp in culture conditions and can have a positive impact in the areas of sustainable aquaculture environment and development. 

Author(s) Details
P. Ramasamy

Research and Development Wing, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, India. 

D. R. Gunasekaran
Research and Development Wing, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, India. 

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Toxicological Bioassay of Petroleum Products (Kerosene) in Tri-aquatic Ecosystem Using Pollution Bio-monitor Pseudomonas sp | Chapter 1 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

The toxicological bioassay of petroleum products (industrial and local ‘kpo-fire’ refined Kerosene) in tri-aquatic ecosystem (marine, brackish and freshwater) using pollution bio-monitor Pseudomonas sp. were investigated. The study employs experimental examination and statistical analysis of data and interpretation. It was designed to evaluate the different kerosene concentration and the duration of exposure that could cause potential toxicological effect on Pseudomonas sp. in tri-aquatic ecosystem which was used as indices to access level of pollution. Standard microbiological techniques were used; toxicity procedure were applied using local and industrial refined kerosene; prepared at concentrations of 1.625%, 3.25%, 6.5%, 12.5% and 25% in fresh, brackish and marine water; total of 36 different microcosms. These were tested with Pseudomonas sp. for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h separately for each toxicant. The cultures were incubated at 35°C for 24 hours. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was employed to compute the toxicities of the different toxicants on the test organism. The results specify that percentage (%) logarithm of mortality of Pseudomonas sp. increases with increased toxicants concentration and exposure time. The pollution bio-monitor Pseudomonas sp. demonstrated sensitivity to the toxicity of local and industrially refined kerosene. The sensitivity showed variations, toxic level decreased in the following order (noting that the lower the LC50, the more toxic the toxicants): Industrial refined kerosene in fresh water (18.79%) > Industrial refined kerosene in brackish water (20.81%) > Local refined kerosene in brackish water (21.47%) > Industrial refined kerosene in marine water (22.66%) > Local refined kerosene > (24.25) > Local refined kerosene in marine water (24.94%). Using the Pollution/Toxicity Bio-monitoring evaluation Chart; Local refined kerosene in marine, brackish and freshwater were ‘Toxic [High], Industrial refined kerosene in marine water was ‘Toxic [High]’ while Industrial refined kerosene in brackish and freshwater were ‘Toxic [very High]’. Conclusion: The study showed that industrial refined kerosene in fresh water (LC50 = 18.8%) has   the highest toxicity strength while local refined kerosene in marine water (LC50 = 24.92%) has the least toxicity strength on Pseudomonas sp. in the tri-aquatic ecosystem. These results show that local and industrial refined kerosene can inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas sp. in an aquatic  ecosystem; noting that Pseudomonas sp. is one of the most effective biodegrading bacteria in ecological biogeochemical cycles, pollutant removal/remediation and a key pollution bio-monitoring. Pseudomonas sp. tolerance for hydrocarbon and its initial sensitivity per mortality within 24  hours of exposure could be accessed as indices to measure level of pollution or toxicity of petroleum products.

Author(s) Details
Dr. Renner Renner Nrior

 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Compound Producing Halophilic Bacteria | Chapter 10 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Halophilic bacteria are commonly found in natural environments containing significant concentration of NaCl that harbor a number of microbes producing novel bioactive compounds. In this study we aimed to isolate and screen out the halophilic bacteria and to determine their activity for production of the bioactive compounds. Marine soil sediments were collected from the solar saltpans of Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India. Based on colony morphology, two species were isolated and identification was done by using morphological and biochemical tests. The extracts of cell-free supernatant of the two halophilic isolates were screened for bioactive compound and tested for antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Vibrio sp, Escherichia coli and fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum by the agar cup diffusion method. The results were then compared to standard antibiotics which showed 80% of similar activity in 50 μL/g concentration. In addition, the arbitrary unit of two isolates was calculated against S. aureus which produced enhanced inhibitory results. These findings show that the saline soil of Thoothukudi represents an untapped source of bacterial biodiversity and also that most bacterial isolates are capable of antibacterial and antifungal metabolite production.

Author(s) Details

R. K. Deepalaxmi
Department of Microbiology, St. Mary’s College (Autonomous), Tamil Nadu, India.

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Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Thermophilic Campylobacter Isolated from Chicken in Côte d’Ivoire | Chapter 9 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Thermophilic Campylobacters are major causes of gastroenteritis in human. The main risk factor of infection is consumption of contaminated or by cross-contaminated poultry meat. In Coteˆ d’Ivoire, gastroenteritis is usually observed but no case of human campylobacteriosis has been formally reported to date. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from chickens ceaca in commercial slaughter in Abidjan. Between May and November 2009, one hundred and nineteen (119) chicken caeca samples were collected and analyzed by passive filtration method followed by molecular identification (PCR). From these 119 samples, 76 (63.8%) were positive to Campylobacter tests. Among the positive colonies, 51.3% were C. jejuni and 48.7% were C. coli. Of the 39 C. jejuni isolates, 79.5%, 38.5%, 17.9%, 10.3%, and 7.7% were, respectively, resistant, to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Among the 37 isolates of C. coli, 78.4%, 43.2%, 13.5%, 8.1%, and 0% were resistant, respectively, to the same antibiotics. On the other hand, detection of virulence putative gene shows presence of cadF in 100 % of tested strains. In addition, cdtA, cdtB and cdtC genes were detected in 100%; 69.43% and 71.06% respectively of C. jejuni isolates. Moreover, only cdtA gene of cdt genes was detected in 12.82% of C. coli strains tested in this study. In conclusion, we reported in this study the presence of high Campylobacter contamination of the studied chickens. Molecular identification of the bacteria was performed and determination of high resistance to antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone family was revealed.  

Author(s) Details

Dr. Goualié Gblossi Bernadette
Laboratoire  de Biotechnologies, Agriculture et Valorisation des Ressources  Biologiques, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Biosciences, Université de Cocody-Abidjan, 01 BP 582, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

Dr. Akpa Eric Essoh
Laboratoire  de Biotechnologies, Agriculture et Valorisation des Ressources  Biologiques, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Biosciences, Université de Cocody-Abidjan, 01 BP 582, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

Dr. Kakou-N’Gazoa Elise Solange
Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

Dr. Guessennd Natalie
Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

Dr. Bakayoko Souleymane
Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

Prof. Niamké Lamine Sébastien
Laboratoire  de Biotechnologies, Agriculture et Valorisation des Ressources  Biologiques, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Biosciences, Université de Cocody-Abidjan, 01 BP 582, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

Prof. Dosso Mireille
Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

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