Plant Passive Immunity: Micromorphological and Biochemical Features of the Maloideae (Rosaceae) External Tissues | Chapter 1 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

The defeat of the fruits of fungal diseases is currently an important issue of plant science and is also of great economic importance. With the help of microscopic methods the leaves and fruits surface tissues of plants of four genera of the Maloideae subfamily were screened: Malus Mill., Pyrus L., Cydonia Mill., Mespilus L. and attempts were made to explain the dependence of mycosis damage on micro structural features. The species composition of fungi that cause damage to the Maloideae leaves and fruits in the Russia southern regions is analyzed. It is established that among pathogens with different types of parasitism there are common excitants, as well as highly specialized responses as on Mespilus germanica L. Higher resistance to the complex of fungal diseases, in comparison with apple and pear, was found in quince and medlar. This stability at the initial stage of the pathological process is associated with structural features such as micro morphology of the fruits and stomata cuticle in the abaxial epidermis of leaves. The leaves stomatal openings of medlar are narrow with raised outgrowths, on the surface of the fruits – the layered structure of the cuticular layer. Quince has a continuous cuticular cover. In the species least affected by mycoses, a high content of very-longchain fatty acids in the external tissues was revealed, which may be one of the factors of resistance to pathogens.  In addition, the studied species revealed differences in the content of polyphenols, which can inhibit the development of pathogens at the stage of their penetration. Thus, during the study, using the example of the Maloideae subfamily, we identified several factors of passive immunity of plants. Conventionally, they can be divided into two groups: mechanical and chemical, working at various stages of pathogen penetration into plant organism.

Author(s) Details

Alexander S. Voronkov 
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 127276, Moscow, Botanicheskaya St. 35, Russia.

Tamara Kh. Kumachova
Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, 127550, Moscow, Timiryazevskaya St. 49, Russia.

Tatiana V. Ivanova 
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 127276, Moscow, Botanicheskaya St. 35, Russia.

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Effect of Potash Alum on the Mycoflora of Postharvest Spoilage of Solanum lycopersicum L (Tomato) | Chapter 7 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Solanum lycopersicum L (Tomato) is one of the most economically attractive and widely consumed vegetables globally. Their high water content, perishability, transport and poor storage system predisposes them to spoilage by a broad spectrum of mycoflora resulting in huge postharvest losses. This study investigates the effect of Potash Alum (PA) on postharvest spoilage of S. lycopersicum L (Tomato). Composite samples of deteriorating tomatoes were subjected to standard mycological analysis from which total fungal colony counts obtained ranged from 1.64×106-5.70×109 CFU/g, and the following species were identified; Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizopus stolonifer, Geotrichum candidium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vitro antifungal activity of potash alum (1% (w/v) concentration) was determined on some of the isolates by agar well method (AWM) and diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) measured using a metre rule. G. candidum had the highest DIZ (9.0mm (29.0%) followed by A. niger (8.0 mm (25.8%) and 7.0mm ( 22.6%) for Fusarium and Penicillium species respectively. R. stolonifer showed no inhibition or zero. pH values increased from 4.35-4.52 whereas TTA values decreased from 0.13-0.07 within 2days of analysis. However, these results indicate that treatment of postharvest deteriorating tomatoes with potash alum prior to consumption would enhance food safety as some of these fungi are known to be spoilage, toxigenic or opportunistic pathogens. So, their presence raises concern on storability as well as public health risks associated with consumption of these fruits. Therefore, production of tomato requires an integrated and multidisciplinary research approach not only to reduce economic loss but also create consumers’ awareness on potential public health hazards of consuming relatively cheaper and pathogen contaminated deteriorating tomatoes.

Author(s) Details

Lawrence O. Amadi
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, P.M.B. 5080, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria and Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Science, Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori, Nigeria.

Dr. (Mrs.) Felicia W. Nmom
Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, P.M.B. 5080, NkpoluOroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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The Role of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in Recognition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Lung Epithelial Cells: Detailed Study | Chapter 6 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) plays an important role in chloride and thiocyanate ion homeostasis in human epithelial surfaces. Deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (Δ508) leads to cystic fibrosis and dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Pseudomonas aeruginosa gains predominance, contributing over 80% of the lung bacteria in adults with CF and this strongly correlates with the decline of pulmonary function and mortality. The research aimed at understanding the role of CFTR in response to P. aeruginosa, (the most common pathogen that colonises the airways of Cystic Fibrosis patients), with the objectives of evaluating the relative expression of epithelial and inflammatory cytokines (IL-17C and IL-6) in five (Calu3, CFBE41o, CFBE41o wt, Calu3 altered and Calu3 knockout) human bronchial epithelial cell lines after two hours of infection with P. aeruginosa using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). It was found that Calu3 and Calu3 altered, treated cell lines significantly (p=0.05) increased in the level of IL-17C and IL-6 mRNA in all the experimental repeats compare to untreated.   The other three (CFBE 41o, CFBE41o wt, and Calu3 knockout) cell lines deficient of CFTR expressed low levels of these cytokines, but the level varied among the experiment in both treated and untreated cells suggesting that CFTR may modulate the level of cytokine production in bronchial epithelial cell lines. CFTR mutations have a direct effect on T cell function; enhance Th17 response which is one of the sources of IL-17. The IL-17C plays a central role in pulmonary host defence by orchestrating the accumulation and associated activity of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar space. However, the massive neutrophils accumulation in the CF lung does not correlate with bacterial eradication but rather causes extensive tissue damage and inflammation disproportion to infection indicating that the function of neutrophils is dysregulated in CF. Therefore, knocking down IL-17C may minimise inflammation in CF patients.

Author(s) Details

Ekong, Mercy Okon
Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria.

Tarh, Jacqueline Ebob
Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria.

Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma
Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria.

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Micropropagation of Narcissus tazetta ‘Chinensis’ and Its Relation to Secondary Metabolites Content: Brief Overview | Chapter 5 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Insects are a very diverse group of organisms that play a very great and crucial role in the survival and wellbeing of humans and other organisms. Several insect groups are vectors of diseases, transmitting pathogens among humans and other animals. Insects are found in diverse environment including dumpsites. This study was conducted to determine the insect vectors living in refuse dumps at Gombe Metropolis in Gombe State, Nigeria. The metropolis were divided into four longitudinal zones, and in each zone three dumpsites were randomly selected. Visual observations were used to estimate the composition of the refuse dumps. The study was conducted in Gombe metropolis of Gombe state between the months of May and August, 2018. Sweep nets, sticky traps, water traps and handpicking were used to collect the different vector species. Specimen collected were preserved and transported to the laboratory for identification. Standard Identification keys were used for the identification of the vectors. The compositions of the refuse dumps varied from vegetable matter and animal remains to assorted materials including used tyres, electronic parts, cartons, faecal matter, broken bottles, polythene bags. A total of 464 insect vectors belonging to 9 species were collected. Musca domestica 282(60.8%) was the dominant species, followed by Anopheles spp 55(11.9%) and Aedes species 44(9.4%). Periplaneta americana accounts 37(8.0%) of the collections. The thriving population of these vector species and the abundance of putrefying refuse dumps are risk factors of the endemic diseases transmitted by such vectors in the city. In view of these findings, it is expedient to properly dispose refuse to curtail the possibility of outbreak of vector-borne diseases.

Author(s) Details

E. Abba
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

Y. Lamogo
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria

Mrs. A. Rejoice
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria

A. Jemimah
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

Dr. K. P. Yoriyo
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

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