The Biological and Analytical Applications of Calixarenes Function: Facts and Growth Trends | Chapter 10 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

For over two decades, research on the biological and analytical applications of calixarenes and their derivatives has been shown remarkable properties towards organic and bioorganic molecules. Applications in the field of analytical chemistry and biological activity, as well as the anticancer properties of various calixarenes, have been studied and reported by several research groups. Due to their superior geometrical shape, calix[n]arenes structures (with n = 4; 6 or 8) have a special function, moreover, when combined with functional groups, the calixarenes can dissolve well and the low toxicity of the cell and the ability to form stable complexes with metal ion, especially the ability to transport drugs, it is allowed to be applied in the analysis and development of biosensors in fields: Biotechnology and drug discovery calixarene derivatives. The applications of calixarenes and their derivatives are summarized in this review, and future development prospects will be discussed.

Author(s) Details
Dr. Tran Quang Hieu
 Saigon Technology University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Dr. Nguyen Van Son
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Dr. Tran Nguyen Minh An
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam

Le Van Tan
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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A Study of Performance in Chemistry among Lower Secondary Government Schools in Zanzibar: Advanced Perspectives | Chapter 9 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol. 1

Performance in chemistry of form two national examinations in Zanzibar government schools have not been encouraging since 2009 to date despite several attempts made through additional carefully planned instructional strategies and models to improve the status of teaching and learning chemistry. From the performance data of 31 government schools sampled gotten from the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training Zanzibar shows the average mean score is 30.16 with a mean standard deviation of 2.1995 while those who passed are 30 ± 10%. With percentage pass mark set at 35%, performance has been poor and persistent. Conclusively, enhancement of teachers’ effectiveness, improved economies of education and setting aside fewer schools for science studies is mandatory. The study recommends heuristic approach of teaching intertwined with instructional objectives to bring learners into meaningful learning and effective understanding guided by the four domains of Bloom’s taxonomy with more motivational orientations and innovations.

Author(s) Details

Ochieng O. Anthony
Chemistry Unit, Department of Science, Sumait University, P.O. Box 1933, Zanzibar, Tanzania

Hemed M. Shabaan
Department of Science, Sumait University, P.O. Box 1933, Zanzibar, Tanzania

Sebtuu M. Nassor
Faculty of Education, Sumait University, P.O. Box 1933, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

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Study on Processing Method Influences the Effect of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Consumption on Blood Lipid Profile in Rats | Chapter 8 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

Cassava is consumed in many tropical countries and is fast becoming the major raw material of many diets, especially in the bakery, brewery and pharmaceutical industries. In a study to determine the effects of various formulations of Cassava feeds on blood lipid profile in rats. Forty adult Wistar rats weighing between 120 and 150 g were divided into 4 groups of 10 rats each. The rats were acclimatized for one week; fed with different formulations of Cassava feeds adlibitum, after which the rats were allotted into groups. Group 1 was fed on Garri; group 2 on Cassava flour; group 3 on Tapioca, and the control group (group 4) on normal chow. After 4 weeks, each animal was anaesthetized by exposure to chloroform vapour and blood samples collected by cardiac puncture. Group 1 diet (Garri) significantly increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and significantly decreased LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration (p<0.05) compared with the control group. In Group 2 (Cassava flour), there was significant increase in the concentration of HDL-C (p<0.05). Group 3 (Tapioca) had a significant increase in TC, TG, LDL-C concentrations (p<0.05), but an insignificant increase in HDL-C concentration (p<0.05) when compared with the control. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Garri and Cassava flour but not Tapioca enhanced HDL-C in the blood, with Garri proving to be the better of the two.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Adewumi Oluwafemi Oyabambi
Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Dr. Sikiru Abayomi Biliaminu
Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Kazeem Bidemi Okesina
Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Dr. Amase Nyamngee
Department Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

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A Study on Heavy Metal Content of Soil in Garki Area Council of Abuja, Nigeria | Chapter 7 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

This study investigates the concentration of Heavy Metals in soil sample from 15 different locations in Garki area of Federal Capital Territory (F.C.T) Abuja, Nigeria. The soil PH of the sample sites varies on the average from 6.44 to 7.24 in water indicating only a slightly acidic to neural. The level of Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Zn were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained indicated that these metals on dry weight basis in the soil ranged between (36.60525.0 µg/g) Pb, (15.00-74.40 µg/g) Cu, (17.50-29.80 µg/g) Zn, (0.7-2.20 µg/g) Cd, (16.16-24.60 µg/g) Ni, and (270-558.0 µg/g) Mn. From the results, areas with high traffic density seem to be relatively high in concentration of tested metals than those from less traffic density. A significant correlation was found between traffic density and metal concentrations. Generally, the concentrations obtained were much higher than the tolerable limit for safe environment as prescribed by National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) and World Health Organization (WHO).

Author(s) Details

Suleiman Kabiru
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Rufai Yakubu
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Aminu Lukman
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Toba Akintola
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.


Mathias Alegbemi
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.


Fatimat Musa
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.

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Low Temperature Conductivity Study of MultiOrganic Solvent Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Rechargeable Battery Application: Recent Study | Chapter 12 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

The conductivity of an electrolyte plays a significant role in deciding the performance of any battery over a wide temperature range from –40°C to 60°C. In this work, the conductivity of lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) at a varied salt concentration range of 0.2 M to 2.0 M in a multi-solvent organic electrolyte system over a wide temperature range –40°C to 60°C are reported. The mixed solvents used were 1, 3-dioxolane (DOL), 1, 2-dimethoxyethane (DME), and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) with an equal ratio of DOL: DME: TEGDME (1:1:1 by volume). The experimental analysis performed over the wide temperature range revealed the maximum conductivity at salt concentrations ranging from 1.0 M to 1.4 M for equal molar solvents. The optimum salt concentration and maximum conductivity in a different solvent composition ratio (i.e., 3:2:1) for all the temperatures is reported herein. The temperature-dependence conductivity of the salt concentration did not fit the Arrhenius plot but it resembled the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher plot behaviour. The present conductivity study was carried out to evaluate the overall operable temperature limit of the electrolyte used in the lithium-sulfur battery.

Author(s) Details

Ravindar Dharavath
Power Supply Systems Lab, Research Centre Imarat, Hyderabad 500069, Telangana, India.

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Submicro Level in Chemistry Education: Atoms, Ions and Moleculesto Understand Acid-base and Redox Reactions | Chapter 11 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

From experiences all over the world we know that formulae and chemical equations are memorized very often or are equalized by counting the number of „atoms on the left and right side of the equation“. Looking to our Chemical triangle (Fig. 1) lecturers and students are jumping from the Macro level just to the Symbolic level. If we would go first from Macro level to Submicro level and explain chemical reactions with involved atoms, ions and molecules, learners would understand chemistry more successfully. With a special questionnaire we are investigating the ability of university students and chemistry teachers in Indonesia, Tanzania and Germany to interpret given chemical equations with involved particles. We found a lot of misconceptions and proposed how to challenge them.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Barke
Department of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry Education, University of Münster, Germany.

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Efficiency of Sawdust from Selected African Indigenous Wood spp. as a Low-cost Adsorbent for Removal of Copper Ion from Contaminated Water: Advanced Study | Chapter 5 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol. 1

Aims: This study investigates the use of sawdust from 3 hardwood species as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of copper from contaminated water.  Study Design: The experimental design used for this study was 3 x 2 x 4 factorial experiment; the different sawdust species, two baselines (treated and untreated) and four levels of pH and time as factors were combined and used for the study. Methodology: Test was carried out to investigate the effect of sawdust pre-treatment on their adsorption capacity in the removal of Copper ions from contaminated water at different pH levels; the sawdust samples were sieved through a screen size of 850 μm after which a portion of each species sawdust was subjected to pre-treatment by boiling while the other portions were maintained as control samples (untreated). Results: The results shows that adsorption capacity for both treated and untreated samples were 69.75±13.78%,  68.60±19.48%, 69.34±23.08%, 74.79±17.79%, 74.52±22.30% and 76.90±18.21% for  Alstonia boonei, Erythrophleum suaveolens  and Ficus mucuso  respectively. Conclusion: The contact time and pH showed no significant difference between the treated and untreated samples. Sawdusts from the selected wood species are suitable to be used as adsorbent towards the removal of copper from contaminated water.

Author(s) Details

E. A. Iyiola 
Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Nigeria and School of Forestry, University of Cantebury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

J. M. Owoyemi
Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Nigeria and School of Forestry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

T. P. Saliu
Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Nigeria.

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A Mechanistic Study on Kinetics of Oxidation of Diazepam by N Bromosuccinimide in Acid Medium | Chapter 4 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

The oxidation of diazepam (DZ) by N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) in aqueous acid medium follows a first-order kinetics in [NBS] and a fractional-order each on [HCl] and [DZ]. The reaction stoichiometry involves one mol NBS consumed by one mol DZ. The rate of the reaction increases with the decrease in dielectric constant of the medium. Added products and the variation of ionic strength have no significant effect on the rate of the reaction. The oxidation products were identified by spectral analysis. A mechanism involving the formation of an intermediate NBS-DZ complex has been proposed. The solvent effect is consistent with the charge dispersion going into the transition state. The activation parameters for the reaction have been determined. The negative entropy of  activation suggests the formation of a rigid, associative transition state involving loss of degrees of freedom.

Author(s) Details

Dr. N. Nanda
Department of Chemistry, BMS College for Women, Basavanagudi, Bangalore 560004, India.

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New Application of Solid-phase Microextraction (SPME) in Analyzing Volatile Hydrocarbons (C1–C9) in Natural Gas | Chapter 3 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) has already been applied to collect and identify volatile light hydrocarbons in oil and source rocks.  However, this technology has not yet been used to analyze volatile light hydrocarbons in dry gas (natural gas with C1/C2+>95%). In this study, we developed a method to measure the molecular and carbon isotope composition of natural gas using Divinylbenzene/ Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber. This fiber proved to be suitable for extracting C1–C9 hydrocarbons from natural gas without inducing carbon isotopic fractionation. Notably, the extraction coefficients of the analytes were not the same, but rather increased with the increasing carbon number of the hydrocarbons. Nevertheless, we successfully identified 24 hydrocarbons from the in-lab standard natural gas, while also obtaining the carbon isotope composition of C1 to C9 hydrocarbons with satisfying repeatability. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the molecular composition data was in the range of 0.06–0.74%, with the RSD of the carbon isotope composition data not exceeding 1‰. Finally, seven natural gas samples, collected from different sedimentary basins, were successfully analyzed and the stable carbon isotope compositions of C1–C9 hydrocarbons present in these were determined through this method. 

Author(s) Details

Chunhui Cao
Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, PR China and Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000, PR China.

Zhongping Li 
Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, PR China and Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000, PR China.

Liwu Li
Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, PR China and Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000, PR China.

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Lipase Mediated Synthesis of (3R)-Stiripentol | Chapter 6 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

Racemic stiripentone was synthesised from piperonal and pinacolone and reduced to the alcohol stiripentol, which was obtained in high yield. Kinetic resolution of stiripentol catalysed by lipase A from Candida antarctica via esterification with vinyl butanoate has been performed with an E-value of 24. This allowed isolation of (3S)-stiripentol with an enantiomeric excess (ee) of 86% and the corresponding (3R)-butanoate with an ee of 87%. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the ester product gave (3R)-stiripentol with an ee of 94%. Additionally, a novel one-pot two-step pathway for the synthesis of 5-vinylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole starting from (E)-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid has been developed. Lipase catalysed esterification of 4,4-dimethylpent-1-en-3-ol afforded (R)-(+)-4,4-dimethylpent-1-en-3-ol and an ee >99% of (3R)-stiripentol was obtained via cross metathesis of this compound coupled with 5vinylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole.  

Author(s) Details

Mohammed Farrag El-Behairy
Department of Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sadat City, Menoufiya, 32897, Egypt

Elisabeth Egholm Jacobsen
Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.

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