Movement Patterns of Chilean Flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) inside Tongoy Bay (Central Northern Chile): Observations Using Passive Acoustic Telemetry | Chapter 02 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The movement patterns of juvenile and adult Chilean flounder (P. adpersus) were investigated inside Tongoy Bay using ultrasound signal acoustic receivers from June 2012 to March, 2013. Flounder landings in Tongoy Bay and Puerto Aldea from December 2011 to March 2013 were examined. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the Catch per Unit of Effort of Chilean flounder was significantly and negatively related to temperature and depth. Analyses of site- and time-specific length-frequency distributions indicated movement of Chilean flounder on the time scale of weeks, which was likely due to emigration of fish >30 cm in total length. A mark-recapture study was performed. Visible elastomer paint were used to tag 7,510 Chilean flounder. A total of 12 Chilean flounder individuals of different lengths were tagged with an ultrasound transmission device to monitor their movement inside Tongoy Bay. Adults flounder showed increased activity inside Tongoy Bay during the study period, likely due of the differences in length among the released individuals. Although differences were detected in the area occupied by juvenile and adult flounders in Tongoy Bay, it was also noticed that the smaller sized individuals exhibited changes in behavior after implanting the transmitters that resulted in impaired capacity to move freely.

Author(s) Details

Pablo M. Rojas
División de Investigación en Acuicultura, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, P.O. Box 665, Puerto Montt, Chile.

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Leaf Amino Acids and Anatomical Traits of Drought Tolerant vs Sensitive Genotypes of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Elevated Levels of Water Stress | Chapter 03 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

Many plants accumulate compatible osmolytes at high levels in plant cells such as amino acids and/or develop special epidermal cell bladders which may serve as external water reservoirs and having small and thick-walled cells in response to water deficit. The objectives of the present investigation were: (i) to study effects of water stress on the anatomical traits and accumulation of free amino acids in quinoa leaves and (ii) to describe differences among drought tolerant and sensitive genotypes in such traits following the imposition of water deficit. A field experiment was carried out in the growing season 2015/2016, using a split plot design with five replications. Main plots were allotted to three irrigation regimes, i.e. well watering (WW) [95% field capacity (FC)], moderate water stress (WS) [65% FC] and severe water stress (SWS) [35% FC] and sub plots to five genotypes. Mean squares due to genotypes, irrigation regimes and their interaction were significant (p≤0.01) for studied leaf free amino acids and anatomical traits. Water stress caused a significant decrease in leaf thickness under WS and SWS, upper and lower epidermis under WS, palisade and spongy layers under SWS, but caused a significant increase in palisade and spongy layers under WS and upper and lower epidermis under SWS. The genotype CICA-17 (tolerant) had the thickest leaf and upper epidermis and second thickest lower epidermis, palisade and spongy layers. Contents of each amino acid were significantly increased due to water stress, except Leucine. Increases in amino acid content increased by increasing severity of water stress. Maximum increase (109.6%) was shown by Threonine under SWS, but minimum (8.08%) was by Arginine under WS. Under SWS, the tolerant genotype CICA-17 showed the highest mean increase percentage (47.9%) in total amount of amino acids relative to WW; it showed the highest increase in all amino acids, especially Proline, Methionine and Phenylalanine.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Dr. Rabie Mohamed Abd El-Salam
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Dr. Ayman E. Badran
Plant Breeding Unit, Department of Genetic Resources, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

Mai M. El-Moghazi
Plant Breeding Unit, Department of Genetic Resources, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

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Genotype and Deficit Irrigation Effects on Agronomic, Physiologic, Yield and Root Traits of Maize (Zea mays L.) | Chapter 01 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The objectives of the present study were: (i) to assess the effects of drought stress at flowering and grain filling and genotype on maize (Zea mays L.) agronomic, physiologic, yield and root traits of maize and (ii) to identify high-yielding drought tolerant genotypes with desirable traits for future use in plant breeding programs. Fifteen commercial hybrids and seven breeding populations were evaluated in the field for two seasons under water stress at flowering (WSF) and grain filling (WSG) compared to well watering (WW). A split plot design with three replications was used. Data analyzed across seasons revealed a significant reduction in grain yield/plant (28.69 and 20.26%), chlorophyll concentration index (30.18 and 44.07%) and 100-kernel weight (6.75 and 12.36%) due to water stress under WSF and WSG, respectively, a significant reduction in ears/plant (11.58%), kernels/row (14.23%), kernels/plant (24.85%), number of whorls occupied with brace roots (9.31%), number of brace roots (18.27%), number of crown roots (11.50%) and root dry weight (28.31%) due to water stress under WSF and in upper stem diameter (18.46%) under WSG, but a significant increase in days to silking (3.50%), anthesis-silking interval (21.17%), barren stalks (26.18%) and crown root length (9.90%) due to water stress under WSF. Moreover, WSG caused significant increases in number of brace roots (10.10%), number of crown roots (14.71%) and root dry weight (11.60%), but caused a significant reduction in branching density of crown roots (10.05%). The best genotypes in grain yield under drought at either flowering or grain filling were characterized by one or more desirable root architecture traits. The cultivars P-3444, Egaseed-77 and SC-128 were considered tolerant to drought at flowering and/or grain filling and would be recommended to future breeding programs to utilize their desirable root traits and grain yield productivity in improving maize drought tolerance.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Prof. M. M. Shafik
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

M. O. A. Elsheikh
Desert Research Center, Matariya, Cairo, Egypt.

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Usage of Probiotics in Aquaculture Cultivation of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) | Chapter 10 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The use of probiotics is an approach that can be done to increase aquaculture production. This research aims to find out the optimal BIOM-S probiotic on culture media of Nile tilapia and the influence to survival rate and growth rate of Nile tilapia. This research was conducted by an experiment using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This research consisted of five treatments and three replications, which were treatment A (control), treatment B (giving probiotic with 0,6 ml/L concentration), treatment C (giving probiotic with 0,8 ml/L concentration), treatment D (giving probiotic with, 0 ml/L concentration), and treatment E (giving probiotic with 1,2 ml/L concentration). The parameters in this research were the survival rate and specific growth rate. Survival rate and specific growth rate used data analysis with F test to find out the influence of each treatment. The concentration of optimal probiotic based on the results was 0.8 ml/L, it produced the highest survival rate for 81.67% and the specific growth rate for 0.039%. Based on these results, it is evident that the provision of probiotics can increase production in aquaculture cultivation. The results of this study are also in line with the results of similar studies on the use of probiotics in fish farming.


Author(s) Details

Yuli Andriani
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

Iskandar
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

Titin Herawati
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

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Frequencies of Genotypes and Alleles of the K232A Substitution in the DGAT1 Gene in Four Cattle Breeds of Russian Selection | Chapter 09 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The enzyme DGAT1 is involved in the synthesis of triglycerides. The most well-known polymorphic variant of the DGAT1 gene is substitution of lysine with alanine at position 232 of the protein (K232A). The 232K allele is associated with increased enzyme activity and a higher content and yield of fat in milk. There is less data on the frequencies of alleles of this replacement in different breeds in literature. In our research work, we analyzed the frequencies of genotypes and alleles of the K232A substitution in the DGAT1 gene in 4 breeds of Russian selection: Black-and-white Holsteinized, Kalmyk, Ayshire and Angus. We demonstrated that the K allele is minor in the populations of the analyzed cattle breeds.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Eugene Klimov
Center of Experimental Embryology and Reproductive Biotechnologies, Moscow, Russian Federation and  Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Anna Arkhipova
Center of Experimental Embryology and Reproductive Biotechnologies, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Svetlana Kovalchuk
Center of Experimental Embryology and Reproductive Biotechnologies, Moscow, Russian Federation.

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Lessepsian Migration with the First Record of the Red Sea Goatfish, Parupeneus forsskali (Fourmanoir & Guézé, 1976) in the Coastal Waters of Egyptian Mediterranean Sea | Chapter 08 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

Not all the invasion through the Suez Canal is of negative impacts, the richness of Red Sea species introduced through the Suez Canal (Lessepsian species) to the eastern Mediterranean coastline, reaching a maximum of 129 species per 100 km2. Many Lessepsian species have positive impacts on the ecosystem and biodiversity as well as securing food for millions of people in the coastal communities. In Egypt, more than 50% of the Mediterranean catch is of Red Sea origin. In this Chapter, we discuss the history of invasion through Suez Canal with the first record of the Red Sea goatfish, Parupeneus forsskali in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters as well as the economic values of the Lessepsian immigrants in the Egyptian waters. On 31 January 2016, a single specimen of this species was captured from Alexandria coastal waters (31°16’N; 30°10’E), Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The collected specimen represents the first record of P. forsskali in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. This specimen has a total length of 26.5 cm, fork length of 23.0 cm and standard length of 21.5 cm and weighed 228.4 g total weight.


Author(s) Details

Sahar F. Mehanna
Fisheries Division, Fish Population Dynamics laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Egypt.

Eman M. Hassanien
Fisheries Division, Fish Population Dynamics laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Egypt.

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Spatial Distribution of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. Natural Stands in the Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean Zones of West Africa: Gradient Distribution and Productivity Variation across the Five Ecological Zones of Togo | Chapter 07 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

Aims: This study aims to analyze the structure of some populations and the natural regeneration potentials of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. According to the environmental conditions, taking into account the 5 ecological zones of Togo. Especially, it aims to: (i) Describe the geographical distribution of the species in Togo, (ii) Analyze the influence of environmental variables (climates, soils and type of vegetation) on the structural characteristics of natural stands and (iii) Determine the natural regeneration potentialities of the species.

Place and Duration of Study: Fieldworks were done from 10 October to 15 December 2013 throughout Togo.

Methodology: Forestry inventory was carried out on 200 plots of 1000 m2 randomly set up in P. erinaceus natural stands in the 5 ecological zones of Togo. In each plot, total height, the merchantable height and diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm were measured. The regeneration was studied in sub-parcels of 25 m2 set up in the previous parcels of 1000 m2. In these sub-parcels, the natural seedlings, coppices, sucker which the DBH is less or equal to 10 cm were counted. The geographic coordinates of each tree are registered with the GPS.

Results: The results show that P. erinaceus had a wide distribution and tolerance range in Togo. Trees populations’ average density is between 57±23 N/Ha and 76.5±42 N/Ha. The average diameter, the average total height, the basal area are significantly different for the stands of the 5 ecological zones (P= 0, 00). Diameter distribution indicates a reversed-J in ecological zones 2, 4 and 5 i.e. dominated by small diameters structure of P. erinaceus (Poir.) and unimodal distribution in zones 1 and 3. The study shows that a seedling which is the main strategy of regeneration is not significantly different between the stands studied. Results also show a good natural regeneration capacity of P. erinaceus by a coppice.

Conclusion: This study enables to describe the main characteristics of the natural stands of P. erinaceus in Togo and constitute therefore a useful source of information for the management of natural stands notably that of P. erinaceus.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Kossi Novinyo Segla
Laboratory of Forest Research, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, P.O.Box. 1515, Lomé, Togo.

Dr. Kossi Adjonou
Laboratory of Forest Research, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, P.O.Box. 1515, Lomé, Togo.

Dr. Habou Rabiou
Faculty of Agronomy Sciences, University of Diffa, B.P. 465 Diffa, Niger.

Professor Abdou Raoufou Radji
Laboratory of Forest Research, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, P.O.Box. 1515, Lomé, Togo.

Professor Adzo Dzifa Kokutse
Laboratory of Forest Research, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, P.O.Box. 1515, Lomé, Togo.

Professor Babou André Bationo
Department of Environment and Forests (INERA/DEF), Institute of Environment and Agricultural Research, 04 BP 8645 Ouagadougou 04, Burkina Faso.

Professor Mahamane Ali
Faculty of Agronomy Sciences, University of Diffa, B.P. 465 Diffa, Niger.

Professor Christine A.I. Nougbodé Ouinsavi
Laboratory of Studies and Forest Research (LSFR), Faculty of Agronomy, University of Parakou, Benin.

Professor Kouami Kokou
Laboratory of Forest Research, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, P.O.Box. 1515, Lomé, Togo.

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The Abundance, Distribution and Diversity of Benthic Invertebrates of Lake Malombe | Chapter 04 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The benthic zone of Lake Malombe was sampled for invertebrates, fungi and bacteria using an Ekman Grab measuring 15.2 cm by 15.2 cm. Thirty-six stations were surveyed for macro-invertebrates which were identified to the lowest taxa and enumerated to estimate abundance for the lake. The biomass of macro-fauna is being reported here for the first time and coincides with a decline in fish catches on Lake Malombe. Snails were the most dominant macro fauna, belonging to four genera Melanoides, Bellamya, Bulinus and Lanistes with the mean densities of 177.5, 34.7 and 4.3 and 0.1 m-2 individuals, respectively. Blood worms and Tubifex were also present. Although there are few such studies in Malawi, it was generally postulated that dominance of snails is a recent phenomenon following previous studies which showed the invasion of a form of Melanoides of Asian origin; its success might be responsible for its proliferation. The benthic substrate was mainly composed of mud, clay granules, sand and bedrock. The prevalence of Melanoides species and other high pollution tolerance species suggests that there is high ecosystem modification due to anthropogenic activities including sediment and nutrient loading from agricultural practices in the surrounding area. Compared to Lake Malawi and Upper Shire, Lake Malombe is by far the most productive. There were significantly higher (P<0.5) densities of aerobic, anaerobic bacteria and fungi, demonstrating the importance of the detrital food chain. Therefore, future programs aimed at enhancing fish restoration in Lake Malombe would be advised to include a suite of bottom feeding fish species. The state of benthos found in Lake Malombe is an indication of confounding impacts of over-fishing, climate change and catchment-wide activities. Thus, use of QIIME software could unravel microbiome characteristics, including climate change signatures. Similarly, further studies on food webs could contribute to a better understanding of the Lake Malombe trophic functions.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Orton V. Msiska [Ph.D.]
Fisheries Consultant, P.O. Box 833, Mzuzu, Malawi.

James Banda
Fisheries Research Unit, P.O. Box 27, Monkey-Bay, Malawi.

Barnett Kaphuka
Fisheries Research Unit, P.O. Box 27, Monkey-Bay, Malawi.

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Intensive Production of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Using Local Materials in Recycled Water | Chapter 06 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

This study was conducted with the aim of producing intensively and cheaply the fry of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus at the Akak Essatolo Fish Farm in Ebolowa, South Region Cameroon. For that, 10 broodstock of C. gariepinus, were used for the artificial reproduction. Pituitary extracts and Ovaprim hormones were used to induce oocytes maturation on females. Eggs were obtained by abdominal pressure of the female. Wicks (or Local raffia fibbers (Raphia regalis)) and mesh frame were used as incubators of fertilized eggs. 12 experimental batches each consisting of 50 g of fertilized eggs were spread in triplicates on both types of incubators previously arranged in closed-circuit tanks. Fertilized eggs were enumerated by direct observation. At the end of the hatching (D0) and of vitelline resorption (D3), larvae of each experimental lot were counted. The results obtained indicate that: Similar (P=.05) absolute and relative fecundities used were recorded in all treatments. Female eggs induced with pituitary extracts and incubated on raffia fibbers recorded lower (P˂.05) fertilization and hatching rates. All other treatments were comparable (P=.05) for these parameters. Deformed larvae rates were comparable (P=.05) for all treatments. Survival rates at the end of yolk sac resorption (J3) were higher (> 70%) in all treatment. However treatment with Ovaprim and wick, showed a survival rate (71.1%) significantly (P ˂ .05) lower than the other treatments (> 80); which have otherwise remained comparable (P=.05). It was concluded that, the superiority of ovaprim at the beginning of reproduction is offset by the poor survival rate, which is better with the pituitary gland. Then, the use of the synthetic hormone is not economical for optimal production of C. gariepinus fry. In the same way a mastery of the use of the raffia fibbers will improve the cost-effectiveness and consequently will decrease the production costs.


Author(s) Details

Claudine Tekounegning Tiogué
Laboratory of Applied Ichthyology and Hydrobiology, School of Wood, Water and Natural Resources (SWWNR), Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences (FAAS), The University of Dschang, P.O.Box 786, Ebolowa Antenna, Cameroon.

Delphin Alfred Eva Ambela
Institute of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences of Yabassi, The University of Douala, P.O.Box 2701, Douala, Cameroon.

Paulin Nana
School of Wood, Water and Natural Resources (SWWNR), Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences (FAAS), The University of Dschang, P.O.Box 786, Ebolowa Antenna, Cameroon.

Minette Eyango Tomedi–Tabi
Institute of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences of Yabassi, The University of Douala, P.O.Box 2701, Douala, Cameroon.

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Yield Stability and Adaptability of 25 Grain Sorghum B-Lines across Six Environments in Egypt Using AMMI and GGE-Biplot Models | Chapter 05 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

Presence of G×E interaction reduces the correlation between genotypic and phenotypic parameters and complicates progress of selection. Among several methods proposed for evaluation of the GE interaction, the AMMI and GGE-biplot are the most informative models. The objective of this study was to estimate the G×E interaction in sorghum parental lines and to identify sorghum B-lines of stability and adaptability across different environments using the AMMI and GGE-biplot models. Six environments with 25 sorghum B-lines were conducted at two locations in Egypt (Giza and Shandaweel) in two years and two planting dates in one location (Giza). A randomized complete block design was used in each environment (yield trial) with three replications. The AMMI analysis of variance indicated that the genotype (G), environment (E) and GE interaction had significant influence (p≤0.01) on sorghum grain yield. Based on AMMI model, BTX TSC-20 followed by ICSB-1808 showed both high yielding and stability across the test environments. However, ICSB-8001 (G11) and BTX-407 (G21), showed maximum stability, but with moderate grain yield. Based on GGE-biplot method, BTX TSC-20 (G25) was the winning genotype for the mega-environment which consists of E1 and E3, ICSB-14 (G3) for the mega-environment (E2 and E4), while BTX 2-1 (G20) for E5 mega-environment, ICSB-88003 (G12) and ICSB-70 (G6) for the mega-environment E6. These genotypes are the most adapted to the respective environments.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Rabie Mohamed Abd El-Salam
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Walaa Yaseen Saad Yaseen
Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Department of Grain Sorghum Research, Field Crops Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

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