Physiological Panel of Some Feed Additives for Turkey Toms | Chapter 03 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aims: To find the effect of basil and thyme (medicinal plants) and some enzymes (kemzyme and zymogen) as feed additives on some productive performance, some metabolic parameters, integrity and functionality of gastrointestinal tract.

Study Design: Forty – eight male turkey toms (strain, Big 6), 3 months old were used with an average body weight 5.5 kg. All turkeys were apparently active and healthy.  The turkey toms were raised on floor covered with dry wood shaving, which was used in all partition, its thickness is about 10-15 cm and renewed every 3 days till the end of the experiment. The house was divided into 8 partitions, each partition was (240 cm X 180 cm) providing enough surface area for each turkey. In each partition there were plastic feeders and drinkers of 20 L capacity, it was provided with identifying card to record all required information. Food and water were available ad-libitum through the period of experiment. The house was well ventilated by natural windows. Light was turned off (one hour in 24 hours) as recommended by [1]. Turkey was kept under hygienic condition and as far as possible from any discomfort stimuli. Feeding Regimen; Basal ration were formulated to cover the nutrient requirements of growing turkey according to National Research Center [2]. Toms were randomly divided into eight groups (6 toms/each). The control group (C) was fed a basal diet without feed supplementation. Group(B) was supplemented with basil (3 g basil/kg diet) group (T) was fed thyme (2 g thyme/kg diet), group (TB) was fed a mixture of basil and thyme (3 g basil + 2 g thyme kg diet), group (Z) was fed zymogen (1 ml/4 liter water); and group (K) was supplemented with kemzyme (0.5 g/kg diet), group (BTK) was fed a mixture of basil, thyme and kemzyme, the last group was fed with diet supplemented with basil, thyme and zymogen (BTZ).

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was carried out in animal care center, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University. During the period from March till May 2015. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks.

Methodology: Body weight gain, feed conversion ratio was measured at the end of 10th week of experiment. Blood samples were taken to measure some biochemical & hormonal parameters, at the same time some tissues for morphological and molecular studies were prepared. Tissue samples were taken from duodenum. They were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for measuring the length of villi and the depth of crypts using A computerized microscopic image analyzer attached for full HD microscopic camera (Leica Microsystems, Germany was used to determine the histomorphometry parameters [3]. The other part of the collected tissues was prepared as homogenate for total DNA& RNA purification according to [4] using the QIAamp Mini Kit.

Results: Toms fed with either basil, thyme or kemzyme (BT) had significantly (p < 0.05) heaviest body gain than the control, (Z) or (BTZ). Significant increase occurred of the dressing percent (DP%) in group and (BT) compared to the groups (T, Z, BTK and BTZ).

Supplementation with (K) significantly decreases the serum total lipids than the (C) group and all supplemented groups at P < 0.05. Serum cholesterol levels of the groups (T), (BT) and (Z) recorded a significant increase than those of groups (C), (K), (BTK) and (BTZ). Meanwhile; triglyceride levels revealed significant decrease in control group at (p < 0.05) than all other groups. All experimental groups recorded no differences in both serum protein and albumin. Although there were an increased levels of serum AST of groups (T) and (Z) compared to control and other groups, meanwhile; (T) and (Z) groups revealed the lowest level of serum ALT.

Concerning the antioxidant parameters, results reviewed that (T), (BT), (BTK) and (BTZ) had a higher level of MDA activity than the (B), (K) and (Z) supplemented groups illustrate no difference versus the serum (MDA) activity of the (C) group. Serum SOD activity revealed no differences within all groups. Serum TAC recorded significant increase in all supplemented groups compared to their level in control group.

Studies of intestinal integrity; morphometry studies indicated that the villous height increased in groups (T), (Z) and (BTK) with a higher villous to crypt ratio and goblet cell numbers of group supplemented with (BTK). Moreover, the villous width revealed a significant increase in the (C) and (Z) groups. The measurement of total DNA of duodenal tissues which reflect the cell mitosis was higher in (T), (Z) and (BTK), (BTZ) at P < 0.05; the recorded results of DNA/protein of the same segment of the duodenal tissues revealed higher ratio (higher ribosomal activity) of (T), (Z), and (BTK) groups. Cell size of the duodenal tissues as indicated by (protein/DNA) was increased by (K) and decrease by (T) and (Z) supplementation at P < 0.05.

Conclusion: Supplementation of turkey rations with herbs (basil & thyme) and multienzymes (zymogen & kemzyme) either alone or in combination produce a significant improvement in turkeys’ performance. They may regulate feed intake, increase intestinal surface area for more absorption and utilization of feed; and Contain different antioxidants activity.

Author(s) Details

Sohair Y. Saleh
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Nahed S. El-Toukhy
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Hassan. I. Abass
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Salma I. El- Samannoudy
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Mohamed A. Tony
Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Amin M. Hassanin
Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Meonofya, Egypt.

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Importance of Silicon in Soils and Plants | Chapter 02 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The crust of the earth is largely composed of silicon that is found primarily as silicate minerals, secondary alumino silicates and various forms of silicon dioxide. However, the abundance of silicon in soils is not an indication that sufficient supplies of soluble silicon are available for plant uptake. In this chapter, the outcomes of many years of research conducted on silicon are consolidated to understand the state of knowledge for silicon fertilization guidelines in crop production. The monosilicic acid (H4SiO4) is the form of silicon used by plants, which is found both in liquid and adsorbed phases of silicon in soils. Silicon plays a very important role in drought tolerance because silicon fed plants maintains higher leaf water potential. This is assumed to be due to the formation of silica cutical double layer on the epidermis.

Author(s) Details

Dr. M. Yuvaraj [Ph.D.]
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Kalavai, Vellore, India.

Prof. Dr. P. P. Mahendran
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, India.

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In vitro Seed Germination Behaviour of Simmondsia chinensis | Chapter 15 | Modern Research in Botany Vol. 1

Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider (Simmondsiaceae) is a evergreen shrub of desert and marginal land of India. It produces a unique liquid-wax which has commercial potential in pharmaceutical industry. It is difficult to propagate vegetatively as it is a seasonal procedure and grows slowly. Therefore, there is a need to improve the propagation method through seed germination and seedling behaviour. The present investigation was carried out to assess viability and in vitro germination tests of fresh and old seeds. It was found that light (16/8-h day/night photoperiod) conditions resulted in early and higher seed germination percentage as compared to total dark period under in vitro culture conditions. Improvement in germination percentage of one-year-old seeds was observed using Gibberellic acid (GA3), Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Thidiazuron (TDZ) under given photoperiod conditions. Interestingly, TDZ 1.0 mg/L-1 were produced highest germination rate of seeds (92%), as well as better seedling growth, followed by BAP with 70% germination rate at 0.5 mg•L-1 concentration. The method of propagation through in vitro seed germination could be effectively employed for large scale production of plant material.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Raman Bala
Department of Environmental Science, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India.

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In vitro Propagation of a Medicinal Plant Adhatoda vasica Nees by Shoot Bud Culture | Chapter 14 | Modern Research in Botany Vol. 1

Mass propagation of plant species through in vitro culture is one of the useful and most successful examples of commercial application of plant tissue culture technology. Recently, much progress has been done in this technology for regenerating medicinal plants. In present study an efficient protocol is devised for a rapid in vitro propagation through shoot bud culture of a valuable medicinal plant Adhatoda vasica. In present investigation the proliferating auxiliary shoot cultures were established on MS medium and Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP, NAA, kinetin and 2,4-D using nodal explants from the field grown mature healthy plant of Adhatoda vasica. After 30 days of culture raised from nodal explants of Adhatoda vasica, maximum number of shoots was produced, on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP. These explants had developed more than two shoots per nodes, while in other concentration of Kn, NAA and 2,4-D developed either two or less than two shoots/explants. Highest frequency of shoot formation and maximum number of shoots per explants were obtained on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/I IBA.

Author(s) Details

Dr. P. Soni
Department of Biotechnology, Spcas College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India.

Dr. A. N. Bahadur [Professor]
Department of Botany, Government E. Raghavendra Rao Postgraduate Science College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India.

Dr. V. K. Kanungo [Assistant Professor]
Government Nagarjuna Post Graduate College of Science, Chhattisgarh, India.

Dr. U. Tiwari [Asst. Professor]
Department of Botany, Government E. Raghavendra Rao Postgraduate Science College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India.

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Investigating Proteomic Variations in Transgenic Tomatoes Compared to Its Non-transgenic Counterpart | Chapter 13 | Modern Research in Botany Vol. 1

Three complementary approaches were used for the assessment of proteomic variations due to genetic transformation. These approaches were gel electrophoresis, Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and amino acids analysis. First we assessed proteomic variations applying gel electrophoresis analysis in two different transformed plants (GM-potato and GM-Tomato) along with their non-transformed counterparts. Further we pursued with our analysis using one of the tested GM-plants (transgenic tomato) and its non-transgenic counterpart applying Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and amino acids analysis.

The results indicated proteomic variations between both transgenic plants (GM-potato and GM-tomato) compared to their non-transgenic counterparts, where the protein patterns separation on the 1D SDS-PAGE were not similar in both cases. Results of the amino acid concentrations of the transformed tomato were also different compared to its non-transgenic counterpart. These detected differences are most likely due to transformation process.

Results also revealed that the efficiency of GC/MS approach to identify a mixture of unknown proteins was limited. GC/MS analysis was only able to identify few number of protein molecules. Therefore, more advanced and specific technologies like LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF-MS are recommended to be employed for the identification of unintended effects due to genetic transformation in plants.

Author(s) Details

Professor Hanaa Abdel-Sadek Oraby
Department of Cell Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Professor Amal A. M. Hassan
Department of Cell Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Mahmoud M. Sakr
Academy of Science and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

Atef A. A. Haiba
Department of Genetics and Cytology, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

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Residual Effect of Segregated and Unsegregated Urban Solid Waste Compost on Quality of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) | Chapter 12 | Modern Research in Botany Vol. 1

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the residual effect of segregated and unsegregated urban solid waste compost on chlorophyll content, crude fiber and crude protein in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) during kharif-2016 in Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, Bangalore (India). The results revealed that chlorophyll content, crude fiber and crude protein content were significantly improved by the application of 100% NPK + segregated urban solid waste compost (10 t ha-1) followed by 100% NPK + unsegregated urban solid waste compost (10 t ha-1) as compared to the treatment which includes only inorganics.

Author(s) Details

Roohi
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore-65, India.

Hari Mohan Meena
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore-65, India.

H. C. Prakasha
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore-65, India.

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Rapid and Mass Propagation of Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell. from Shoot Tip and Nodal Explants | Chapter 11 | Modern Research in Botany Vol. 1

A rapid and efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell. (Violaceae) has been developed from the shoot tip and nodal explants. The explants were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of cytokinins, viz., BAP and Kin, ranging from 5 µM to 25 µM, either individually or in combinations of both these cytokinins for shoot induction. Shoot buds of both the explants proliferated on MS medium supplemented with both cytokinins. The best response was observed on MS medium containing 15 µM BAP. Subsequently the optimum concentration of BAP (15 µM) was combined with different concentrations of Kin ranging from 2 µM to 10 µM. Maximum number of 28.6 ± 0.90  and 36.8 ± 1.54 shoots were produced on MS medium containing 15 µM BAP + 6 µM Kin from the shoot tip and nodal explants respectively. The regenerated shoots were transferred to rooting medium containing auxins at different concentrations ranging from 2 µM to 10 µM of IAA, IBA or NAA. The highest number of roots were observed on half strength MS medium fortified with 4 µM IBA. The plantlets were then hardened and acclimatized in soil. About 80% of plantlets were survived in the field condition. A completely randomized design was used in all experiments and analysis of variance and mean separations were carried out using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.  Each treatment factor consists of 10 replicates repeated for 5 times. This protocol would help ex situ conservation of this medicinal plant.

Author(s) Details

Dr. P. Velayutham
Krishna College of Arts and Science, Kolluthannipatti, Karur Dt. Tamil Nadu, India.

C. Karthi
ICAR – National Research Centre for Banana, Tiruchirappali, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Determination of the Paper Quality as a Substrate for Oyster Mushroom Cultivation | Chapter 10 | Modern Research in Botany Vol. 1

Eight different kinds of papers, viz., glaze paper, brown paper, news paper, magazine paper, chart paper, kite paper, rough copy paper and A-4 size printing paper, and two types of cardboard viz., corrugated cardboard and card board were evaluated for different manifestations of white oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida Strain-P1. Among them news paper was later treated as a control. The mushroom was utilized all the substrates for their growth and sporophore formation. Majority of substrates were taken almost equal time for spawn run, primordial development and fruiting bodies maturation. The measured parameters were net yield (Weight of fresh mushrooms), biological efficiency, number of fruiting bodies produced and average weight of sporophores varied among themselves. The crop of mushroom was harvested in three flushes where yield and biological efficiency ranged 190-495 gm, 38-99% for the substrate used. Magazine paper (450 gm; 90%) and card board (495 gm; 99%) produced significant (P=0.05) yield and biological efficiency over control. They also produced significant number of mushroom fruit bodies (56 and 64, respectively). Corrugated cardboard (10.29 gm) was found significant in terms of average weight per sporocarp. The percentage yield of different substrates was also evaluated. Among the substrates, card board contributed 14% of total mushroom production followed by magazine paper (13%) and news paper (12%).

Author(s) Details

Dr. Siddhant [M.Sc., Ph.D., FAELS, MIAER, FIARA]
Department of Botany, Durgesh Nandini Degree College, Faizabad (U.P.), India.

Dr. O. P. Ukaogo
Department of Industrial Chemistry, Envirnmental/Analytical Units, Abia State University, Nigeria.

S. S. Walakulu Gamage [BSC, MPhil (Reading)]
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhana, Matara, Sri Lanka.

Dr. Ruchira Singh [M.Sc., Ph.D.]
Independent Researchers, Ayodhya, India.

Mr. Mahesh Kumar [M.Sc., B.Ed. FIARA]
Independent Researchers, Ayodhya, India.

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Phytochemical, GC/MS Analyses and Cytotoxic Effects of Maerua pseudopetalosa (Gilg and Bened.) De Wolf Tuber Fractions | Chapter 09 | Modern Research in Botany Vol. 1

Tuber extracts were subjected to column chromatography technique. Eight fractions were obtained for ethyl acetate and twelve for ethanol. The brine shrimp lethality assay was used for assessment of toxicity. For the first time promising result was shown for ethanolic extract. The fractions F8, F9, F11 and F12 were represented high toxicity equal to 1.25, 7.98, 0.185, 0.041 µg/ml respectively. Also F7 and F10 showed toxic effects (89.9, 30.6 µg/ml) whereas F5 (LC50 807 µg/ml) was weakly toxic.

Ethyl acetate fractions showed moderate toxicity for F7 and F4 (299.7 and 375.4 µg/ml), while F2, F6 and F8 were weakly toxic. However F1 exhibited high toxic effect.

Ethanolic extract which is the highest bioactive extract was subjected to TLC analysis. Tests for secondary metabolites proved the presence of tannins, sterols and alkaloids. Also detection of triterpenes, sterols and flavonoid represented positive results.

The fractions F8, F9, F11 and F12 with high cytotoxic values were identified by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry analysis. Thirty three compounds were detected; which were not recorded in any previous work in the available literature. Fraction 8 and 9 were found to be cytotoxic due to the presence of oleate and linoleate compounds; with more cytotoxicity in fraction 8 as a result of the additional presence of decenoic acid. Also, fraction 12 was more cytotoxic than fraction 11 and this was attributed to the presence of a proline derivative (Proline-N-methyl- butyl ester). This compound might be considered as the cause of the high toxicity of the fraction; since free proline was used as an inhibitor of breast cancer development. Surprisingly, M. pseudopetalosa tubers were used in the folkloric medicine of the natives of the South Blue Nile State in Sudan for the treatment of breast cancer growth without any knowledge of their chemical constituents.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Manal A. Ibrahim
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science and Technology, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan.

El Bushra E. El Nur
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

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Acacia nilotica, Albizia saman, Azadirachta indica: Ethanobotany and Medicinal Uses | Chapter 08 | Modern Research in Botany Vol. 1

Ethno-botany accounts for the study of relationship between people and plants for their use as medicines, food, shelter, clothing, fuel, fodder and other household purposes. India is a repository of medicinal plants. Different medicinal plant parts and their products have been used in traditional medicine since time immemorial. They still play an important role in effective disease control with no side effect and have natural origin. They are considered as the great source of unique compounds for the development of medicines for the cure of various diseases. The present article is an attempt to explore and comprehensively highlight the biological activities, pharmacological actions and medicinal applications of three plants namely Acacia nilotica, Albizia saman, Azadirachta indica.

Author(s) Details

Parul Tripathi
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow Campus, Gomti Nagar Extension, Lucknow-226028, India.

Aditi Singh
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow Campus, Gomti Nagar Extension, Lucknow-226028, India.

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