PSO Based Emotional BPN and RBF Neural Network Models for Wind Speed Prediction | Book Publisher International

The present research focuses on developing certain proposed machine learning neural network architectures along with certain mathematical criterion and stochastic population based swarm intelligence technique particle swarm optimization inspired by nature behavior to carry out wind speed prediction in renewable energy systems with real time wind farm datasets. In the developed machine learning model, the work concentrated on developing emotional neural network architecture models that are optimized employing the particle swarm optimization approach and the optimized emotional models are employed to carry out effective wind speed prediction for the given real time wind farm data. Four neural network models are proposed – PSO – EBPN (Emotional Back Propagation Neural Network) model, PSO – ERBFNN (Emotional Radial Basis Function Neural Network) model, PSO – EBPN model with hidden neuron criterion and PSO – ERBFNN model with hidden neuron criterion and as well all these four network models are employed to compute the predicted wind speed output. The developed models for wind speed prediction has performed in a better manner avoiding local and global minima problem and as well had a reasonable better convergence rate.

Author(s) Details

Dr. V. Ranganayaki
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Dr. N.G.P. Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

S. N. Deepa
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anna University, Regional Campus, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

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General Details of Chili | Book Publisher International

Food and medical usages of chili: Capsicum is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Its species are native to the Americas. Chili fruit was consumed as food and medicine. Capsicum contains capsaicin (methyl vanillyl nonenamide), named capsaicin. Pungency is caused by the presence of capsaicinoids. Bell pepper and other chilies are excellent sources of carotenoids, vitamins and many elements.

Production area of chili & import and export of chili in Thailand: In 2012, China was the first among all nations in harvested area of chili and fresh chili production. Thailand ranked 63th in harvested area of chili and ranked 60th in fresh chili production. Thailand imports a large amount of chili which is much higher than exported amount. Hybrid and open-pollinated chili seeds are produced in Thailand. The seeds are exported at higher amount compared to import.

Classification of chilies: Phylogenetical relationships and plant morphologies are used in the botanical classification of the Genus Capsicum while fruit size, fruit shape, fruit color, and pungency are used in horticultural classification. Thirty eight species are currently recognized, 5 of which are domesticated: C. annuum L., C. chinense Jacquin, C. frutescens L., C. baccatum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pavon.

C. annuum has very large, bright white flowers, C. chinense has a calyx constriction and generally more than two dull white flowers per axil, C. frutescens shows an unmistakably greenish-white, stiffly erect solitary flower, C. baccatum displays distinctive yellow-green corolla throat spots and C. pubescens displays purple flowers with white throat spots.

Alkaloids of chili fruit: The fruit of most species of Capsicum contains capsaicin. They have been found to be an effective pain reducer for muscle soreness, skin irritations, and rheumatism. Their consumption has been found to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Changes in phytochemical and antioxidant activity of chilies: The effect of fruit maturation on changes in carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acid, capxanthin, zeaxanthin, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity in different chili species (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, and Capsicum chinense) has been demonstrated. Generally, the concentration of these chemicals increased as the chilies reached maturity. Ascorbate is one of the best natural anti-oxidant substances, and chili (C. annuum L.) has the highest ascorbate content among plants.

Controls of pungency: Chili pungency levels of the fruit depend on genetic and environmental factors. The capsaicinoid content is affected by the genetic make-up of the cultivar, weather conditions, growing conditions, and fruit age. It was reported that pungency characteristics were generally controlled by at least two pairs of genes. However, when transcriptional levels of enzymes on the capsaicinoid pathway were monitored in C. annuum and C. chinense fruit, three genes were positively correlated with degree of pungency in placental tissue. Additionally, other studies have shown that only a single locus controlled the capsaicinoids synthesis. The presence of capsaicinoids is controlled by the Pun1 locus.

Pungency: The nature of pungency results from a mixture of seven homologous branded-chain alkyl vanillylamides. They often are called capsaicin after the most prevalent one, the amide of 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-benzylamine with 8-methyl-6-noneneoic acid, (C18H27NO3). Examination of the placenta of hot and sweet cultivars of red chili with light microscopy has shown that both types have glandular areas. The placenta of the pungent type has a more conspicuous blisterlike surface emerging from the glandular area where the cell wall is detached. The placental surface of the non-pungent type is smooth.

Pungency evaluation methods: Levels of capsaicinoids in chili can be determined by using chemical, instrumental, or sensorial methods. Chili pungency is expressed in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). The Scoville Organoleptic Test has been replaced with instrumental methods. The most common instrumental method is high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This provides accurate and efficient analysis of content and type of capsaicinoids present in a chili sample.

Pungency levels of chili fruit: Bhut Jolokia (sometime called Naga Jolokia, or Bih Jolokio, or ghost chili) was officially proclaimed by the Guinness World Record as the new World’s hottest chili. The pungency showed 1,001,304 SHU (Scoville heat units). However, it was later found that the Trinidad Moruga scorpion was the hottest chili in the World with a heat level of 1,200,000- 2,009,231 SHU.

Genetics and male sterility in chili: There are two types of male sterilities: cytoplasmic male-sterility and genic male sterility. Production of F1 hybrids requires emasculation of the female parent and pollination by pollen from the male plant. Cytoplasmic male sterility eliminates the need for emasculation of the female plants and reduces the cost of production of F1 hybrid seeds. Today, several internationally known seed companies use the genic male sterility (msms) on a large scale for

producing hybrids, whereas the cytoplasmic male sterility is used mainly for breeding pungent (S) Rf rf hybrids.

Genetic and interspecific hybridization of chilies: Five cultivated species, C. annuum L., C. frutescens L., C. chinense Jacq., C. baccatum L., and C. pubescens R. & P. were reported. The first three domesticated species, considered part of the same gene complex, can intercross, while the other two are generally considered reproductively isolated, although some hybridization is possible with difficulties. Natural interspecific hybridization was found in ‘Bhut Jolokia’ which is a Capsicum chinense Jacq. cultivar. However, molecular analysis with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers confirmed the species identification and, interestingly, revealed that there may have been genetic introgression from Capsicum frutescens L. into ‘Bhut Jolokia’.

Genic male sterility: The genic male sterility of (GMS) in chili (C. annuum) is controlled by a recessive nuclear gene, ms. The pollen sterility is caused by nuclear genes. The GMS has been used in commercial F1 hybrid seed production of sweet peppers.

Cytoplasmic male sterility: Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait in which a plant fails to produce functional anthers, pollen grains, or male gametes. The CMS system requires nuclear genes that restore male fertility in the F1 hybrids produced. These restorers of fertility are called Rf genes and are distinct from genetic male sterility genes. The Rf genes have no expression except to restore sterile cytoplasm. Rf genes are required to restore fertility in the CMS cytoplasms that causes sterility. Molecular markers are used to speed up the process of CMS selection. Rflinked molecular markers in chili (C. annuum L.) are detected by using bulked segregant analysis to identify amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLPs).

Cytoplasmic genic male sterility in the genetic diversity of chilies (Capsicum annuum L.): Six experiments were carried out to evaluate the chili germplasm sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) at Chiang Mai University. Seventy-five accessions of chilies (Capsicum annuum L.) were evaluated for ability to be sterilized by CMS. Some of the male sterile and partially sterile lines showed excellent horticultural characteristics. They could be used as C lines and maintainers in F1 hybrid seed production.

Levels of capsaicin in chili fruit: Five experiments of long green chili, long white chili, and big fruit chili (Capsicum annuum) were tested in the rainy and winter seasons of 2006-2010 at Chiang Mai University. Chiang Mai, Thailand. It was found that the capsaicin levels in mature green fruits of the experiments varied significantly according to genetics and environment. The ranges of capsaicin levels of green mature fruits of the varieties tested were 2,760-12,030, 4,230-6,710, 530-6,450, 0-2,332, 50-5,720 Scoville units from the first to the fifth experiments, respectively.

Levels of vitamin C in chili fruit: Levels of vitamin C in chili fruit were observed in the five experiments of long green chili, long white chili, and big fruit chili in the rainy and winter seasons of 2006-2010 at Chiang Mai University. Chiang Mai, Thailand. It was found that the vitamin C levels in mature green fruits of the experiments varied significantly. The ranges of vitamin C levels of the varieties tested were 3.80-142.86, 114.74-158.98, 6.25-81.94, 31.79-154.97, and 3.85-7.69 mg./        100 g. fruit fresh wt. from the first to the fifth experiments, respectively.

The Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, announced the release of open-pollinated cultivars of chilies (Capsicum annuum L.) that are either restorers or maintainers of cytoplasmic male sterility. An outstanding contract was entered into in the agreement between Chiang Mai University and the Horticultural Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Science in China. Two commercial F1 hybrids were developed for the Chinese market.

Breeding methods for chili improvement: Improvement of chili varieties aims to improve yield, disease resistance, insect resistance, and various unique characteristics. Researchers have identified varieties of chili resistant to bacteria, fungal, and viruses. Traditional methods of breeding for self-pollinating crops are used in the improvements. There are several methods used: pedigree method, single seed descent, mass or bulk selection method, backcross method, recurrent selection, and the F1 hybrid development. Single seed descent, mass selection, and recurrent selection are rarely used for chili. On the other hand, pedigree method, backcross method, and F1 hybrid are commonly used.

F1 hybrids: Five experiments of long green chili, long white chili, and big fruit chili (Capsicum annuum) were tested in the rainy and winter seasons of 2006-2010 at Chiang Mai University. Chiang Mai, Thailand. The general combining abilities of the lines in all experiments were significantly different for horticultural characteristics. However, the specific combining abilities of these characteristics of the F1 hybrids were not significantly different. The significance of the specific combining abilities was noted for some of the physio-chemical properties. Some F1 hybrids of showed heterosis and heterobeltiosis of some horticultural characteristics and physio-chemical properties. Fruit characteristics of these varieties were more or less the same as the commercial varieties. They are potential varieties for commercial markets.

Improvement of chili varieties in Thailand: Major improvements of chili varieties in Thailand have been carried out by the private sector. Most commercial chili cultivars sold in Thailand have been developed by seed companies. Very few government sectors participate in chili research, especially in varietal improvement. The National Center for Genetics and Engineering and Biotechnology and the National Research Council of Thailand have supported other government sectors financially in carrying out research and development of chili. Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus has collected chili germplasm and evaluated the germplasm for disease and insect resistance, resistance to anthracnose, resistance to viruses and resistance to the fruit fly. Routine breeding techniques were used to identify cytoplasmic male sterilities of chili germplasm at Chiang Mai University and Ubon Ratchathani Unirversity Stabilities of cytoplasmic male sterility, combining abilities, heterosis and heterobeltiosis of horticultural characteristics, and physio-chemical properties of chili maintainers were also evaluated were observed at Chiang Mai University. Identifying chili cultivars with stable amounts of capsaicinoids have been studied at Khon Kaen University. Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus has reported on the resistance mechanisms, genetic controls for resistance, inheritance of the resistant genes, and breeding of chili for resistance to Colletotrichum spp.

Improvement of chili varieties outside Thailand: Major improvements in chili varieties have been carried out by the World Vegetable Center. Multiple disease resistant (Tobamovirus and Phytophthora blight) sweet pepper hybrid, resistant to PVY, resistant to pepper mottle virus (PepMoV), resistant to CMV, resistant to insects, resistant to bacterial wilt, and resistant to anthracnose have been released by the Center. The Center initiated the development of hot pepper CMS lines, more than a dozen pairs (with different genetic backgrounds) of CMS (Peterson’s cytoplasm), maintainer and restorer inbred lines have been developed and made available to public and private sector partners.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Maneechat Nikornpun (Associate Professor)
Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

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Movement Patterns of Chilean Flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) inside Tongoy Bay (Central Northern Chile): Observations Using Passive Acoustic Telemetry | Chapter 02 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The movement patterns of juvenile and adult Chilean flounder (P. adpersus) were investigated inside Tongoy Bay using ultrasound signal acoustic receivers from June 2012 to March, 2013. Flounder landings in Tongoy Bay and Puerto Aldea from December 2011 to March 2013 were examined. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the Catch per Unit of Effort of Chilean flounder was significantly and negatively related to temperature and depth. Analyses of site- and time-specific length-frequency distributions indicated movement of Chilean flounder on the time scale of weeks, which was likely due to emigration of fish >30 cm in total length. A mark-recapture study was performed. Visible elastomer paint were used to tag 7,510 Chilean flounder. A total of 12 Chilean flounder individuals of different lengths were tagged with an ultrasound transmission device to monitor their movement inside Tongoy Bay. Adults flounder showed increased activity inside Tongoy Bay during the study period, likely due of the differences in length among the released individuals. Although differences were detected in the area occupied by juvenile and adult flounders in Tongoy Bay, it was also noticed that the smaller sized individuals exhibited changes in behavior after implanting the transmitters that resulted in impaired capacity to move freely.

Author(s) Details

Pablo M. Rojas
División de Investigación en Acuicultura, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, P.O. Box 665, Puerto Montt, Chile.

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Leaf Amino Acids and Anatomical Traits of Drought Tolerant vs Sensitive Genotypes of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Elevated Levels of Water Stress | Chapter 03 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

Many plants accumulate compatible osmolytes at high levels in plant cells such as amino acids and/or develop special epidermal cell bladders which may serve as external water reservoirs and having small and thick-walled cells in response to water deficit. The objectives of the present investigation were: (i) to study effects of water stress on the anatomical traits and accumulation of free amino acids in quinoa leaves and (ii) to describe differences among drought tolerant and sensitive genotypes in such traits following the imposition of water deficit. A field experiment was carried out in the growing season 2015/2016, using a split plot design with five replications. Main plots were allotted to three irrigation regimes, i.e. well watering (WW) [95% field capacity (FC)], moderate water stress (WS) [65% FC] and severe water stress (SWS) [35% FC] and sub plots to five genotypes. Mean squares due to genotypes, irrigation regimes and their interaction were significant (p≤0.01) for studied leaf free amino acids and anatomical traits. Water stress caused a significant decrease in leaf thickness under WS and SWS, upper and lower epidermis under WS, palisade and spongy layers under SWS, but caused a significant increase in palisade and spongy layers under WS and upper and lower epidermis under SWS. The genotype CICA-17 (tolerant) had the thickest leaf and upper epidermis and second thickest lower epidermis, palisade and spongy layers. Contents of each amino acid were significantly increased due to water stress, except Leucine. Increases in amino acid content increased by increasing severity of water stress. Maximum increase (109.6%) was shown by Threonine under SWS, but minimum (8.08%) was by Arginine under WS. Under SWS, the tolerant genotype CICA-17 showed the highest mean increase percentage (47.9%) in total amount of amino acids relative to WW; it showed the highest increase in all amino acids, especially Proline, Methionine and Phenylalanine.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Dr. Rabie Mohamed Abd El-Salam
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Dr. Ayman E. Badran
Plant Breeding Unit, Department of Genetic Resources, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

Mai M. El-Moghazi
Plant Breeding Unit, Department of Genetic Resources, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

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Genotype and Deficit Irrigation Effects on Agronomic, Physiologic, Yield and Root Traits of Maize (Zea mays L.) | Chapter 01 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The objectives of the present study were: (i) to assess the effects of drought stress at flowering and grain filling and genotype on maize (Zea mays L.) agronomic, physiologic, yield and root traits of maize and (ii) to identify high-yielding drought tolerant genotypes with desirable traits for future use in plant breeding programs. Fifteen commercial hybrids and seven breeding populations were evaluated in the field for two seasons under water stress at flowering (WSF) and grain filling (WSG) compared to well watering (WW). A split plot design with three replications was used. Data analyzed across seasons revealed a significant reduction in grain yield/plant (28.69 and 20.26%), chlorophyll concentration index (30.18 and 44.07%) and 100-kernel weight (6.75 and 12.36%) due to water stress under WSF and WSG, respectively, a significant reduction in ears/plant (11.58%), kernels/row (14.23%), kernels/plant (24.85%), number of whorls occupied with brace roots (9.31%), number of brace roots (18.27%), number of crown roots (11.50%) and root dry weight (28.31%) due to water stress under WSF and in upper stem diameter (18.46%) under WSG, but a significant increase in days to silking (3.50%), anthesis-silking interval (21.17%), barren stalks (26.18%) and crown root length (9.90%) due to water stress under WSF. Moreover, WSG caused significant increases in number of brace roots (10.10%), number of crown roots (14.71%) and root dry weight (11.60%), but caused a significant reduction in branching density of crown roots (10.05%). The best genotypes in grain yield under drought at either flowering or grain filling were characterized by one or more desirable root architecture traits. The cultivars P-3444, Egaseed-77 and SC-128 were considered tolerant to drought at flowering and/or grain filling and would be recommended to future breeding programs to utilize their desirable root traits and grain yield productivity in improving maize drought tolerance.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Prof. M. M. Shafik
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

M. O. A. Elsheikh
Desert Research Center, Matariya, Cairo, Egypt.

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Usage of Probiotics in Aquaculture Cultivation of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) | Chapter 10 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The use of probiotics is an approach that can be done to increase aquaculture production. This research aims to find out the optimal BIOM-S probiotic on culture media of Nile tilapia and the influence to survival rate and growth rate of Nile tilapia. This research was conducted by an experiment using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This research consisted of five treatments and three replications, which were treatment A (control), treatment B (giving probiotic with 0,6 ml/L concentration), treatment C (giving probiotic with 0,8 ml/L concentration), treatment D (giving probiotic with, 0 ml/L concentration), and treatment E (giving probiotic with 1,2 ml/L concentration). The parameters in this research were the survival rate and specific growth rate. Survival rate and specific growth rate used data analysis with F test to find out the influence of each treatment. The concentration of optimal probiotic based on the results was 0.8 ml/L, it produced the highest survival rate for 81.67% and the specific growth rate for 0.039%. Based on these results, it is evident that the provision of probiotics can increase production in aquaculture cultivation. The results of this study are also in line with the results of similar studies on the use of probiotics in fish farming.


Author(s) Details

Yuli Andriani
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

Iskandar
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

Titin Herawati
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

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Frequencies of Genotypes and Alleles of the K232A Substitution in the DGAT1 Gene in Four Cattle Breeds of Russian Selection | Chapter 09 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The enzyme DGAT1 is involved in the synthesis of triglycerides. The most well-known polymorphic variant of the DGAT1 gene is substitution of lysine with alanine at position 232 of the protein (K232A). The 232K allele is associated with increased enzyme activity and a higher content and yield of fat in milk. There is less data on the frequencies of alleles of this replacement in different breeds in literature. In our research work, we analyzed the frequencies of genotypes and alleles of the K232A substitution in the DGAT1 gene in 4 breeds of Russian selection: Black-and-white Holsteinized, Kalmyk, Ayshire and Angus. We demonstrated that the K allele is minor in the populations of the analyzed cattle breeds.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Eugene Klimov
Center of Experimental Embryology and Reproductive Biotechnologies, Moscow, Russian Federation and  Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Anna Arkhipova
Center of Experimental Embryology and Reproductive Biotechnologies, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Svetlana Kovalchuk
Center of Experimental Embryology and Reproductive Biotechnologies, Moscow, Russian Federation.

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Lessepsian Migration with the First Record of the Red Sea Goatfish, Parupeneus forsskali (Fourmanoir & Guézé, 1976) in the Coastal Waters of Egyptian Mediterranean Sea | Chapter 08 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

Not all the invasion through the Suez Canal is of negative impacts, the richness of Red Sea species introduced through the Suez Canal (Lessepsian species) to the eastern Mediterranean coastline, reaching a maximum of 129 species per 100 km2. Many Lessepsian species have positive impacts on the ecosystem and biodiversity as well as securing food for millions of people in the coastal communities. In Egypt, more than 50% of the Mediterranean catch is of Red Sea origin. In this Chapter, we discuss the history of invasion through Suez Canal with the first record of the Red Sea goatfish, Parupeneus forsskali in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters as well as the economic values of the Lessepsian immigrants in the Egyptian waters. On 31 January 2016, a single specimen of this species was captured from Alexandria coastal waters (31°16’N; 30°10’E), Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The collected specimen represents the first record of P. forsskali in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. This specimen has a total length of 26.5 cm, fork length of 23.0 cm and standard length of 21.5 cm and weighed 228.4 g total weight.


Author(s) Details

Sahar F. Mehanna
Fisheries Division, Fish Population Dynamics laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Egypt.

Eman M. Hassanien
Fisheries Division, Fish Population Dynamics laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Egypt.

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Spatial Distribution of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. Natural Stands in the Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean Zones of West Africa: Gradient Distribution and Productivity Variation across the Five Ecological Zones of Togo | Chapter 07 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

Aims: This study aims to analyze the structure of some populations and the natural regeneration potentials of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. According to the environmental conditions, taking into account the 5 ecological zones of Togo. Especially, it aims to: (i) Describe the geographical distribution of the species in Togo, (ii) Analyze the influence of environmental variables (climates, soils and type of vegetation) on the structural characteristics of natural stands and (iii) Determine the natural regeneration potentialities of the species.

Place and Duration of Study: Fieldworks were done from 10 October to 15 December 2013 throughout Togo.

Methodology: Forestry inventory was carried out on 200 plots of 1000 m2 randomly set up in P. erinaceus natural stands in the 5 ecological zones of Togo. In each plot, total height, the merchantable height and diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm were measured. The regeneration was studied in sub-parcels of 25 m2 set up in the previous parcels of 1000 m2. In these sub-parcels, the natural seedlings, coppices, sucker which the DBH is less or equal to 10 cm were counted. The geographic coordinates of each tree are registered with the GPS.

Results: The results show that P. erinaceus had a wide distribution and tolerance range in Togo. Trees populations’ average density is between 57±23 N/Ha and 76.5±42 N/Ha. The average diameter, the average total height, the basal area are significantly different for the stands of the 5 ecological zones (P= 0, 00). Diameter distribution indicates a reversed-J in ecological zones 2, 4 and 5 i.e. dominated by small diameters structure of P. erinaceus (Poir.) and unimodal distribution in zones 1 and 3. The study shows that a seedling which is the main strategy of regeneration is not significantly different between the stands studied. Results also show a good natural regeneration capacity of P. erinaceus by a coppice.

Conclusion: This study enables to describe the main characteristics of the natural stands of P. erinaceus in Togo and constitute therefore a useful source of information for the management of natural stands notably that of P. erinaceus.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Kossi Novinyo Segla
Laboratory of Forest Research, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, P.O.Box. 1515, Lomé, Togo.

Dr. Kossi Adjonou
Laboratory of Forest Research, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, P.O.Box. 1515, Lomé, Togo.

Dr. Habou Rabiou
Faculty of Agronomy Sciences, University of Diffa, B.P. 465 Diffa, Niger.

Professor Abdou Raoufou Radji
Laboratory of Forest Research, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, P.O.Box. 1515, Lomé, Togo.

Professor Adzo Dzifa Kokutse
Laboratory of Forest Research, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, P.O.Box. 1515, Lomé, Togo.

Professor Babou André Bationo
Department of Environment and Forests (INERA/DEF), Institute of Environment and Agricultural Research, 04 BP 8645 Ouagadougou 04, Burkina Faso.

Professor Mahamane Ali
Faculty of Agronomy Sciences, University of Diffa, B.P. 465 Diffa, Niger.

Professor Christine A.I. Nougbodé Ouinsavi
Laboratory of Studies and Forest Research (LSFR), Faculty of Agronomy, University of Parakou, Benin.

Professor Kouami Kokou
Laboratory of Forest Research, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, P.O.Box. 1515, Lomé, Togo.

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The Abundance, Distribution and Diversity of Benthic Invertebrates of Lake Malombe | Chapter 04 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The benthic zone of Lake Malombe was sampled for invertebrates, fungi and bacteria using an Ekman Grab measuring 15.2 cm by 15.2 cm. Thirty-six stations were surveyed for macro-invertebrates which were identified to the lowest taxa and enumerated to estimate abundance for the lake. The biomass of macro-fauna is being reported here for the first time and coincides with a decline in fish catches on Lake Malombe. Snails were the most dominant macro fauna, belonging to four genera Melanoides, Bellamya, Bulinus and Lanistes with the mean densities of 177.5, 34.7 and 4.3 and 0.1 m-2 individuals, respectively. Blood worms and Tubifex were also present. Although there are few such studies in Malawi, it was generally postulated that dominance of snails is a recent phenomenon following previous studies which showed the invasion of a form of Melanoides of Asian origin; its success might be responsible for its proliferation. The benthic substrate was mainly composed of mud, clay granules, sand and bedrock. The prevalence of Melanoides species and other high pollution tolerance species suggests that there is high ecosystem modification due to anthropogenic activities including sediment and nutrient loading from agricultural practices in the surrounding area. Compared to Lake Malawi and Upper Shire, Lake Malombe is by far the most productive. There were significantly higher (P<0.5) densities of aerobic, anaerobic bacteria and fungi, demonstrating the importance of the detrital food chain. Therefore, future programs aimed at enhancing fish restoration in Lake Malombe would be advised to include a suite of bottom feeding fish species. The state of benthos found in Lake Malombe is an indication of confounding impacts of over-fishing, climate change and catchment-wide activities. Thus, use of QIIME software could unravel microbiome characteristics, including climate change signatures. Similarly, further studies on food webs could contribute to a better understanding of the Lake Malombe trophic functions.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Orton V. Msiska [Ph.D.]
Fisheries Consultant, P.O. Box 833, Mzuzu, Malawi.

James Banda
Fisheries Research Unit, P.O. Box 27, Monkey-Bay, Malawi.

Barnett Kaphuka
Fisheries Research Unit, P.O. Box 27, Monkey-Bay, Malawi.

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