Intensive Production of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Using Local Materials in Recycled Water | Chapter 06 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

This study was conducted with the aim of producing intensively and cheaply the fry of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus at the Akak Essatolo Fish Farm in Ebolowa, South Region Cameroon. For that, 10 broodstock of C. gariepinus, were used for the artificial reproduction. Pituitary extracts and Ovaprim hormones were used to induce oocytes maturation on females. Eggs were obtained by abdominal pressure of the female. Wicks (or Local raffia fibbers (Raphia regalis)) and mesh frame were used as incubators of fertilized eggs. 12 experimental batches each consisting of 50 g of fertilized eggs were spread in triplicates on both types of incubators previously arranged in closed-circuit tanks. Fertilized eggs were enumerated by direct observation. At the end of the hatching (D0) and of vitelline resorption (D3), larvae of each experimental lot were counted. The results obtained indicate that: Similar (P=.05) absolute and relative fecundities used were recorded in all treatments. Female eggs induced with pituitary extracts and incubated on raffia fibbers recorded lower (P˂.05) fertilization and hatching rates. All other treatments were comparable (P=.05) for these parameters. Deformed larvae rates were comparable (P=.05) for all treatments. Survival rates at the end of yolk sac resorption (J3) were higher (> 70%) in all treatment. However treatment with Ovaprim and wick, showed a survival rate (71.1%) significantly (P ˂ .05) lower than the other treatments (> 80); which have otherwise remained comparable (P=.05). It was concluded that, the superiority of ovaprim at the beginning of reproduction is offset by the poor survival rate, which is better with the pituitary gland. Then, the use of the synthetic hormone is not economical for optimal production of C. gariepinus fry. In the same way a mastery of the use of the raffia fibbers will improve the cost-effectiveness and consequently will decrease the production costs.


Author(s) Details

Claudine Tekounegning Tiogué
Laboratory of Applied Ichthyology and Hydrobiology, School of Wood, Water and Natural Resources (SWWNR), Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences (FAAS), The University of Dschang, P.O.Box 786, Ebolowa Antenna, Cameroon.

Delphin Alfred Eva Ambela
Institute of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences of Yabassi, The University of Douala, P.O.Box 2701, Douala, Cameroon.

Paulin Nana
School of Wood, Water and Natural Resources (SWWNR), Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences (FAAS), The University of Dschang, P.O.Box 786, Ebolowa Antenna, Cameroon.

Minette Eyango Tomedi–Tabi
Institute of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences of Yabassi, The University of Douala, P.O.Box 2701, Douala, Cameroon.

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Yield Stability and Adaptability of 25 Grain Sorghum B-Lines across Six Environments in Egypt Using AMMI and GGE-Biplot Models | Chapter 05 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

Presence of G×E interaction reduces the correlation between genotypic and phenotypic parameters and complicates progress of selection. Among several methods proposed for evaluation of the GE interaction, the AMMI and GGE-biplot are the most informative models. The objective of this study was to estimate the G×E interaction in sorghum parental lines and to identify sorghum B-lines of stability and adaptability across different environments using the AMMI and GGE-biplot models. Six environments with 25 sorghum B-lines were conducted at two locations in Egypt (Giza and Shandaweel) in two years and two planting dates in one location (Giza). A randomized complete block design was used in each environment (yield trial) with three replications. The AMMI analysis of variance indicated that the genotype (G), environment (E) and GE interaction had significant influence (p≤0.01) on sorghum grain yield. Based on AMMI model, BTX TSC-20 followed by ICSB-1808 showed both high yielding and stability across the test environments. However, ICSB-8001 (G11) and BTX-407 (G21), showed maximum stability, but with moderate grain yield. Based on GGE-biplot method, BTX TSC-20 (G25) was the winning genotype for the mega-environment which consists of E1 and E3, ICSB-14 (G3) for the mega-environment (E2 and E4), while BTX 2-1 (G20) for E5 mega-environment, ICSB-88003 (G12) and ICSB-70 (G6) for the mega-environment E6. These genotypes are the most adapted to the respective environments.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Rabie Mohamed Abd El-Salam
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Walaa Yaseen Saad Yaseen
Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Department of Grain Sorghum Research, Field Crops Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

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Review of Edible Plants in Dumpsites: Risks of Heavy Metals Toxicity and Implications for Public Health | Chapter 13 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Studies of dumpsites have revealed that the surrounding soils and water are contaminated with high threshold of heavy metals through anthropogenic inputs. In this review, the uptake and toxicity risks of these heavy metals by habitual edible plants at levels above threshold limit and the implications for public health have been discussed. Edible plants are plants with nutritional and medicinal potentials which can salvage numerous human and animal needs when taken. Edible plants like most other underutilized plants in dumpsites have developed mechanisms which enable them to not only survive but accumulate high level of toxic heavy metals due to high level of environmental metal load in the dumpsites. This ultimately could lead to high human and animal exposure to these toxic elements through food-chain/food-web or direct ingestion of soils. The toxic effects caused by excess concentrations of these heavy metals in living organisms vary considerably and present numerous clinical situations ranging from neurological disorder, cellular damage among others and death in extreme cases. This review suggest the urgent need for policy makers to regulate the use of dumpsites for arable farming and the dependence on edible plants in dumpsites to avert heavy metal poisoning in populations.

Author(s) Details

Nwogo Ajuka Obasi
Environmental Biochemistry, Health and Toxicology Research Unit, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.

Mrs. Stella Eberechukwu Obasi
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Nigeria.

Getrude Obianuju Aloh
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Sunday Oge Elom
Environmental Biochemistry, Health and Toxicology Research Unit, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.

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Stimulation of Mutation by Gamma Irradiation in Mulberry (Morus) Genotype S54 | Chapter 12 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Abundant mulberry genotypes are accessible in nature, they are deficient in one or the other important economic trait required for silkworm Bombyx mori L. as mulberry leaf is the sole food. In the present experiment, as S54 mulberry genotype leaves are very much suited for rearing young age (Chawki) silkworms, an effort has been made to induce phytomorphological variability in S54 mulberry genotype using gamma rays. RBD Method with three replications / treatment was followed. Experiment was performed in Mulberry garden, Department of Sericulture, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore University and Mist chamber, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Gamma ray (1kR-10Kr) was used to induce variability in juvenile twigs of mulberry for various agro-botanical characters viz., sprouting, rooting, internodal distance, leaf area, plant height etc. and leaves were exposed to biochemical analysis. Mulberry genotype S54 showed linear decrease in growth parameters with the increased gamma ray dosage and plants exhibited variability with increased rooting (81.33%), plant height (147.86 cm) and leaf area (146.22 cm2) when compared to control in M1 generation at 7kR. Mutants displaying encouraging characters were grown for M2 generation which exhibited marked enhancement in growth and yield parameters. Biochemical constituents in S54 mutant leaves recorded at 7kR revealed increased proteins, carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and b. Mulberry cuttings irradiated with gamma ray (7kR) exhibited favorable characters in rooting, plant height and leaf area over the control in M1 generation and mutants were grown for M2 generation and marked improvement in growth, yield and bio-chemical parameters were witnessed.

Author(s) Details

Dr. H. L. Ramesh
Department of Sericulture, V. V. Pura College of Science, K. R. Road, Bangalore-560004, Karnataka, India.

Dr. V. N. Yogananda Murthy
Department of Biotechnology, Azyme Biosciences Private Limited, Jayanagar, Bengaluru-560069, Karnataka, India.

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Importance of Crop Wild Relatives and Landraces Genetic Resources in Plant Breeding Programmes and Their Conservation | Chapter 11 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Plant genetic resources are the biological basis of global food security. Agricultural diversity and genetic resources should be used more effectively to sustain the current level of food production and to solve future problems. The importance of plant genetic resources in the improvement of varieties with new features is indisputably known. The most effective use of plant genetic resources is undoubtedly in plant breeding and improvement of new varieties. In other words, it is used as a genitor. Since the cultivars are often inadequate in many genes, especially biotic and abiotic stress factors (diseases, pests, cold, drought, etc.) breeders constantly search for new sources of genetic materials. This review is based on reports in the landraces (primitive) varieties and crop wild relatives to explain the importance of genetic resources in plant breeding of reviewing scientific literature to pass.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Berk Benlioğlu
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Prof. M. Sait Adak
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

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Soil Erosion Magnitude of Upland Farming Practices in Bataan | Chapter 10 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

There were factors affecting erosion such as climate, soil type, vegetation and topography. Upland areas were denuding exponentially due to the fact that those people looking for livelihood had little concern and awareness on environmental sustainability and management. Upland farming practices that was easy like weeding, pest control and fertilization were often carried out without soil erosion control and water management. The result of the study revealed that an area with intercropped permanent crops has less amount of soil eroded or tolerable annual soil loss. But the areas with short duration crops (cash crops) and which adopted the same cropping pattern from the previous season resulted to severe soil erosion. Calculated annual soil erosion were 3.33, 4.57, 23.18, 0.31 tons and zero erosion for Site 1, Site 2, Site 3, Site 4, and Site 5, respectively.

Author(s) Details

Ricson L. Ines
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bataan Peninsula State University, Bataan, Philippines.

Fernando V. Gonzales
Department of Agriculture, Bataan Peninsula State University, Bataan, Philippines.

Walter G. Valdez
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bataan Peninsula State University, Bataan, Philippines.

Jonathan E. Lacayanga
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bataan Peninsula State University, Bataan, Philippines.

Editha A. Ganado
Department of Agriculture, Bataan Peninsula State University, Bataan, Philippines.

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Plant Assemblages along an Altitudinal Gradient of Mount Oku Forests (Cameroon) | Chapter 09 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Plant assemblage organization along physical environmental gradients remains a central issue of community on local, regional or continental scales. Mount Oku, commonly known as KilumIjim, situated at the North-west Cameroon has the most important remnant of Afromontane forest in Central Africa. These forests are recognized as a globally important center of endemism and a hotspot for biodiversity conservation but they are now undergoing unprecedented degradation. The aim of this study is to identify different plant assemblages in Mount Oku forests. In order to explore variations in vegetation composition of the study area, we realized 102 floristic plots along an altitudinal gradient. The floristic plots were subjected to a hierarchical cluster analysis (HC) using the Ward method. Our results allowed us to reveal 9 plant assemblages on Mount Oku, situated at different altitudinal levels. At the landscape level, this forest cover is old, but the plant communities composing it are largely recent because they emerge from secondary dynamics following various disturbances of the inner forest (Crops, pastures, logging, etc.). These plant communities cover a large altitudinal range. However there are still communities of ancient forests but very disturbed, situated on altitudinal levels from about 1900 to 2600 m. The general composition of the forest flora of Mount Oku indicates that this vegetation has preserved characteristics of a tropical Afromontane flora. The results show that the composition of plant communities is determined mainly by human activities that tend to erase the influence of natural factors such as altitude.

Author(s) Details

M. C. Momo Solefack
Department of Plant Biology, University of Dschang, P.O.Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.

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Effect of Mechanical Damages and Storage Conditions on Quality of Markies cv. Potatoes for Processing | Chapter 08 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Aims: Evaluate whether mechanical damage and storage conditions affect the quality of the ‘Markies’ potato for processing.

Study Design: The experimental design was the completely randomized, in the scheme of splitplots. The plots were composed of treatments with and without mechanical damage and the subplots were made up by the evaluation times, with 5 replicates, where the experimental unit was composed of 2 tubers.

Place and Duration of Study: Tubers of the ‘Markies’ cultivar from the producing region of Perdizes, State of Minas Gerais, were planted in June 2016 and harvested in October 2016.

Methodology: The tubers were stored for 2 months at 8°C and further divided into treatment with damage, in which the tubers were subjected to impact and abrasion and control treatment, in which the tubers were not damaged. After that, they were stored at 28°C and evaluated for their loss of loss of accumulated fresh mass (FML), total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugar (RS), nonreducing sugar (NRS) and color after frying in the periods of 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after being placed at room temperature.

Results: The mechanical damage in the tubers increased FML, however, it did not affect the content of TSS, NRS, RS and color after frying. Increases were observed in the content of TSS and NRS after 12 h of evaluation. Grade 2 was assigned to the coloring scale after frying for the tubers regardless of treatment or evaluation period.

Conclusion: Mechanical damage increases the FML and the ‘Markies’ cultivar is suitable for the industry of pre-fried potato processing even under the occurrence of mechanical damage and exposure to high temperatures.

Author(s) Details

Dreice Nascimento Gonçalves
Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n – Campus Universitário, Viçosa – MG, 36570-900, Brazil.

Luciana Gomes Soares
Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n – Campus Universitário, Viçosa – MG, 36570-900, Brazil.

Ariana Mota Pereira
Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n – Campus Universitário, Viçosa – MG, 36570-900, Brazil.

Paula Acácia Silva Ramos
Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n – Campus Universitário, Viçosa – MG, 36570-900, Brazil.

Maria Eduarda da Silva Guimarães
Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n – Campus Universitário, Viçosa – MG, 36570-900, Brazil.

Fernando Luiz Finger
Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n – Campus Universitário, Viçosa – MG, 36570-900, Brazil.

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The Diversity of Green Bean Biochemical Compounds in Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) as Evaluated by Near Infrared Spectroscopy | Chapter 07 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Aims: This study characterized biochemical compound variability that influence green bean quality in C. canephora as a basis for identifying heterogeneous genotypes for use in crop improvement because genetic erosion aided by climate change effects is gradually threatening the cultivation of Ugandan Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) local races.

Study Design: Four hundred and fifty four accessions from twenty four districts were analyzed with Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) for six biochemical compounds using calibrations developed at CIRAD, France.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was conducted at the National Coffee Resources Research Institute (NaCORRI), Uganda between January 2007 and December 2013.

Methodology: Spectrometer Nirsystem 6500 Foss- (Denmark) machine and Software ISI NIRS 2 version 4.11 (Infra Soft International, Port Matilda, USA) were used to analyze ground samples in diffuse reflectance from 400 nm to 2500 nm (2 nm steps) and predictive models were used to quantify the biochemical contents in the green beans. Data was analyzed with XLSTAT version 2011.2.05 (Addinsoft), Paris, France.

Results: Chlorogenic acid and fat concentrations of 13.26 and 13.19% dry matter respectively reported in this study were much higher than 5.88 and 9.0% dry matter respectively reported earlier. Caffeine concentrations were positively significantly correlated with cholorogenic acid but negatively significantly correlated with trigonelline, sucrose, fat and dry matter contents. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid concentrations increased with age whereas trigonelline declined as trees aged. Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline concentrations were at their lowest levels in elevations of between 1000- 1200 metres above sea level and like fat and dry matter concentrations, the compounds were at their highest levels in higher elevations of about 1500 metres above sea level. Local landraces, ‘’nganda’’ and ‘’erecta’’ had higher concentrations of chlorogenic acid, sucrose and caffeine than improved, hybrid and commercial types.

Conclusions: Ugandan C. canephora caffeine content was lower than that of West-African Robusta coffee but higher than that of Arabica coffee. Four distinct diversity groups derived from the six biochemical compounds represented the major organoleptic categories. The results reported here will be useful in defining the desirable cup qualities of Robusta coffee as demanded by world markets.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Kahiu Ngugi
Department of Plant Sciences and Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O.Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Pauline Aluka
National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO), National Coffee Resources Research, Institute (NaCORI), P.O.Box 185, Mukono, Uganda.

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Groundwater Salinity | Chapter 06 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Saline groundwater occurs in the Karha River basin area. Groundwater is one of the major resource for the peoples of River area for domestic and agricultural purpose. The groundwater samples from study area were collected in the period of post-monsoon (POM) and pre-monsoon (PRM) seasons. The various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Electrical conductivity, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), HCO3-, Cl-, and SO42- were determined using standard procedures of APHA. The results of analysis were compared with the drinking water quality standards of Indian Standard Institute (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO). For suitability of groundwater for agricultural purposes, groundwater data was compared with standard parameter of FAO. The average annual values of the electrical conductivity of groundwater ranged from 504 to 8624 μS/cm in the study period. In Karha River basin area the salinity of groundwater was considerable. 24% samples were EC up to 750 μS/cm which is low salinity and suitable for all purposes such as drinking, domestic and agricultural.  In rest of the area 76% groundwater samples showed high to very salinity (EC > 2250 μS/cm). Higher saline water is not suitable for drinking, domestic and agricultural purpose. The soluble sodium percentage values ranged from 7.68 to 92.83%. 18% groundwater samples from the study area showed higher soluble sodium percentage (>60%), indicating, groundwater in the study area was doubtful to unsuitable for irrigation purpose.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. R. P. Dhok
Agricultural Development Trust’s Shardabai Pawar Mahila College, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Shardanagar, Baramati, India.

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