Love in Western Literature | Book Publisher International

This book tries to draft a historical route through Western Literature (particularly European, from Middle Ages to Stendhal) focusing the matter of love. Is such a trail a journey to glory, or a descent down to failure? The author leans heavily toward the second hypothesis. By failure we mean a progressive lowering of love sublimity, a gradual loss of sense, an opaque rising dullness. The unlucky love has been the glory of passion for Courtly and Petrarchan ages. But the desacralization of love will be the actual destiny of this culture, in diffraction and delusion. Even the adulterous liaison, tragic and sublime to the full extent in Paolo and Francesca or Tristan und Isolde, becomes boring, worthless and indecisive in novels by Constant or, later, Eça de Queiros. This essay deepens some of the countless ways in which love fails in Western tradition.

Author(s) Details

Roberto Gigliucci
Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale (Square) Aldo Moro, 5, Rome 00185, Italy.

View Book: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mono/978-93-89562-94-1

Variance Analysis of Democracy Index | Chapter 10 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3

This article deals with the variance analysis of democracy index data, obtained from the yearly report prepared by Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). The EIU calculated democracy index since 2006 for 167 countries covering almost the entire population of the world. Democracy index data vary over time and hence variance and time series analysis has been applied to available democracy index data for the period 2006-2018 to investigate the progress of democracy and to find the reason of democratic change. It is observed that some of the highly democratic countries including the USA gradually converted to moderate democratic countries. It is also observed that there exists a strong negative relation between democracy index and nonreligious population fractions for most of these countries. That is an increase of non-religious population fraction of a country may decrease the democracy index of that country.

Author(s) Details

M. Shafiqur Rahman
Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Syfun Nahar
Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/77/1051/744-1

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Targeting Infrastructure Projects, Innovative Technologies and Financing Options to Achieve Sustainable Economic Growth in Resource-Based Economies | Chapter 09 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3

This chapter evaluates different approaches and potential solutions for the seemingly intractable stagnation or decline of a country or region. It focuses on economic development in a resource-based economy that may have structural problems due to a lack of diversification. Infrastructure, strategic debt, and innovation are evaluated, with a goal of developing a balanced approach that strategically leverages existing infrastructure for a diversified economy and sustainable growth for resource-based economies. It includes expanding financing opportunities in these countries with a combination of infrastructure policies and energy technologies and capturing the opportunities using supply chain technologies. The goals are to avoid both “debt traps” and “Dutch Disease” by leveraging existing infrastructure within a plan that incorporates supply chain management the prudent use of available financing and strategic partnership, such as China’s Belt and Road Initiative and Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030. Finally, the chapter contains an analysis of Argentina’s economic problems explains how a current plan to build infrastructure and to develop innovative technology could provide a foundation for renewed economic growth and human capital development.

Author(s) Details

Gary Stading

Texas A & M University Texarkana, USA.

Larry R. Davis

Texas A & M University Texarkana, USA.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/77/1050/743-1

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Students’ Motivation to Learn Biology | Chapter 08 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3

Aims: The purpose of the study was to investigate gender and school type differences in motivational orientations among grade 10 students in co-educational schools of Siaya County, Kenya.

Study Design: The study adopted a concurrent mixed methods design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Siaya County, Kenya during the second term of the year 2018 in June.

Methodology: The sample consisted of 680 students (380 boys, 300 girls) from a population of 6800 students (3800 boys, 3000 girls) using multi-stage cluster sampling and simple random sampling. The study used Biology Motivation Questionnaire (BMQ) adopted and modified to suit the study from Tuan, Chin and Shieh (2005) and Biology Interview Guide (BIG). To test gender and school type differences in motivation, independent sample t-tests were used. The hypotheses were accepted at a significance level of α=0.05.

Results: The findings indicated statistically significant gender differences in Self-efficacy (SE), Active Learning strategies (ALS) and Learning Environment Stimulation (LES) in favour of boys. There were gender differences in Performance Goal (PG) and Achievement Goal (AG) in favour of girls; there were no significant gender differences in Biology Learning Value (BLV). The findings indicated statistically significant school type differences in SE, ALS, and LES in favour of High Performing Schools (HPS). There were also statistically significant school type differences in PG and AG in favour of Low Performing Schools (LPS). There were no statistically significant school type differences with regard to BLV.

Conclusion: It is concluded that gender and school type differences exist with regard to motivational orientations and beliefs. Implications for practice are highlighted.

Author(s) Details

Ongowo Richard Owino

Department of Curriculum Instruction and Media, Rongo University, P.O.Box 103-40404, Rongo, Kenya.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/77/1049/742-1

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Challenges of Curriculum Development for Health Sciences | Chapter 07 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3

There are many different theories for curriculum design and many affecting factors and challenges when setting or updating a curriculum. It is especially more challenging in health sciences when trying to link the usually knowledge based undergraduate teaching with the postgraduate competency based training. This paper is a literature review on challenges of curriculum development/ design in medical education in the period 1980 to 2012.

Literature review was conducted both manually and electronically with the objective to list challenges of curriculum design in health sciences as identified in relevant literature. It specifically looks into curriculum definition, standards, available models and resources among other things.  

A curriculum has at least four important elements: content; teaching and learning strategies; assessment processes; and evaluation processes.

A curriculum should set expectations for learners, advise the teacher what to do and help the institution monitor student learning and evaluate their education. It has to be flexible to adapt to changes and advances in medical education.

One of the biggest challenges is how to meet the demands of students, teachers and the health care system. Students need to identify principles in knowledge and learn to apply them to solve problems in the future.

Curriculum models are theoretically challenging. A choice of a specific model although not an objective by itself, is determined by different factors. This paper summarizes eight models for curriculum development.

Author(s) Details

Sarah Salih (MD, MBA, MA Health Management)

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/77/1048/741-1

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Difference in Student Attitudes to School Teacher and Peers – Comparison of Majority Minority and Mixed Ethnicity Networks | Chapter 06 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3

How to integrate children from minority groups with majority population in school is of great interest and the focus in this chapter. Immigrant students are known to have better attitudes towards school compared to native students, but feel a weaker sense of belonging at school. The aim of this Swedish study was to evaluate further how students adapt to their school class with respect to ethnicity and gender. Data from the self-reporting of attitudes by 12-year old students in 77 classes were sampled and used in confirmatory factor analysis. Three school factors and four relational factors were identified. Social networks were made up of students who voluntarily and reciprocally chose each other to be with during breaks. The analysis of the choices was carried out using a Matlab program identifying reciprocal (bilateral) choices. Three categories of network were identified using the names of their members. Mixed ethnicity networks were compared to majority (Scandinavian), and minority networks (Non-Scandinavian). Members outside networks were labelled “Outsiders”.

In Scandinavian networks, girls were more anxious at school and scored relationships to their classmates and the view of their peers significantly lower than the male students. Girls in this category also felt that disruption in the classroom was more common while the boys were, apparently, more tolerant of it.

One out of five was classified non-Scandinavian. Non-Scandinavian networks had high scoring for the categories “Interest in School” and “Working Atmosphere”. Scandinavian and Mixed networks showed similarities. Within Mixed networks, gender differences were exclusively dependent on Non-Scandinavian students’ attitudes. Non-Scandinavian girls in the Mixed networks were surprisingly similar to their female Scandinavian peers. Non-Scandinavian individuals in Mixed networks still had higher scores for “Interest in School”. Non-Scandinavian girls scored “Relationships to their classmates” and “View of their peers” lower than their male peers and confirmed that disruption in the classroom was more common. Individuals outside networks were overrepresented among Non-Scandinavians, and at risk of rejection. Outsiders showed weaker relationships with classmates, had more problems with peers and were more anxious at school. Furthermore, they considered disruption during lessons to be common. The significant gender differences are interesting and should be further investigated.

Promotion of a mixture of ethnicities appeared best for attitudes to school. For both immigrants and native students, it is a most valuable task to support the development of identities through schooling. Their final identity will include significant identification with peers. To actively prevent children from experience apparent isolation especially during breaks seems necessary. Teachers and/or other school staff are strongly recommended to help such children to interact with class members. Furthermore, it can be problematic if smaller networks become too closed. These very small groups become vulnerable if an individual move to another school or are absent due to other reasons.

The results of this study could be used to find a mixture of ethnicities that give the optimal score for attitudes towards school, teachers and peers. Educationalists can be encouraged to mediate important variables which exist in a safe and orderly school environment. This include a specific focus on teacher socialisation competence.

Author(s) Details

Mary-Anne Holfve-Sabel
Department of Educational Research and Development, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/77/1047/740-1

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Factors Contributing to Truancy among Students: A Correlation between Predictors | Chapter 05 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3

Truancy has been a universal unresolved educational problem in countries that made schooling a compulsory routine for children age seven years and older. The objective of this study is to identify the contributory factors of truancy and the correlation between the factors among secondary school students. The sample comprised 472 truants from Malaysia who have been routinely absent from school for 10 days to more than 40 days per year. Results demonstrated that teacher’s personality, students’ attitudes toward school, environment in school, school administration, teachers’ teaching, and environment outside school, peers and family are significant contributory factors of truancy. Significant positive correlations between all the factors causing truancy were found. Correlation between teachers’ teaching and teachers’ personality was the highest whereas the lowest correlation was revealed between school administration and family.

Author(s) Details

Zahari Ishak (PhD)
Department of Educational Psychology and Counselling, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia.

Low Suet Fin (PhD)
Department of Educational Psychology and Counselling, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/77/1046/739-1

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A Cross-cultural Pragmatic Study on Openings and Closings in Upward Academic Request Emails | Chapter 04 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3

This study reports on a study of the use and forms of openings and closings, as rapport-management strategies in academic request emails to university instructors by graduates, who formed three discourse communities, i.e. Chinese, British and Chinese English speakers. Using discourse analytic techniques, a total of 187 emails from 155 postgraduates were analyzed and a number of similarities and differences or divergences were identified. The findings suggest that the discursive practices were subject to intricate and dynamic relations between a number of macro- and micro-contextual factors, and some technical features of emails against different socio-cultures. It is hoped that the results will contribute to enhancing knowledge in the field of rapport management and electronic communication across cultures.

Author(s) Details

Wuhan Zhu

The Post-Doctoral Station, Shanghai International Studies University, Shanghai 200083, China and School of English Studies, Zhejiang International Studies University, Hangzhou 310023, China.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/77/1045/738-1

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How International Students Using Communication Centers Navigate Locus of Control | Chapter 03 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3

This study documents how students learning English as a second language exhibit various levels of internal and external locus of control in their learning process. Focus group interviews were conducted with 21 non-native English speakers from seven nations enrolled in an intensive English language learning program at a mid-size research university in the southeastern United States. All participants engaged regularly in conversational practice at the university’s oral communication center. Participants were asked about the processes they used for learning English and what their sources of motivation were. Thematic content analysis revealed that internal and external locus of control tended to operate synergistically in the process of learning a new language and adapting to a new culture. Motivation to initiate and persist in new language acquisition emerged from a blend of personal agency, inspiration from family and teachers, and social exigencies. The dynamic interplay between internal and external locus of control challenges common portrayals of these dimensions as antagonistic. Learners often range across levels of internal and external orientations, suggesting need to reconsider characterizations of internality primarily as an enhancer and externality primarily as an inhibitor of learning.

Author(s) Details

Roy Schwartzman

Department of Communication Studies, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA.

Karen E. Boger

Department of Communication Studies, University of Southern Mississippi, USA.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/77/1044/737-1

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Tag – Books, Science, Locus of control, communication centers, English as a second language, intercultural communication.

The Effects of Mindfulness Training on Wisdom in Elementary School Teachers | Chapter 02 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3

Aims: School teachers have hundreds of spontaneous interactions with students each hour, requiring frequent decision-making. Often these interactions require social understanding, perspective taking and emotional self-regulation, constructs often identified with wise reasoning and mindfulness.  Increasing mindfulness could aid wiser reasoning in addressing the challenges of classroom demands. The present study evaluated effects of an online mindfulness course on measured wisdom in a sample of public elementary school teachers.

Study Design: This study used a pretest/posttest design using data collected immediately before taking the online mindfulness course and after completion of the course. End of the school year follow-up data was analyzed for all teachers.

Place and Duration of Study: Participants were enrolled from multiple cities across the United States including Boston, Columbus, Chicago, Milwaukee, Seattle, and San Diego between June 2014 and June 2015. Data were collected online and analyzed at the University of Chicago.

Methodology: Public elementary school teachers (n = 12) were assigned to a mindfulness training or a matched wait-list condition (11 female, 1 male; age range 26 – 57 years). Teachers had a range of teaching experiences from 1 to 36 years (median =18 years) and taught grades K-4 at schools with 30% – 50% Caucasian students with 40%-60% students receiving free and reduced-price lunches. We used standardized measures for mindfulness, wisdom, emotion regulation, compassion, theory of mind, state/trait anxiety, stress, burnout, and efficacy.

Results: Online mindfulness training produced a significant increase in mindful awareness and changes in cognitive wisdom implying increased understanding of inter/intrapersonal concerns. There was a significant increase in mindful attention in those who completed both pre- and post-class online evaluations (n = 10) solicited by Mindful Schools (t (9) = 2.738, p = .02) from 54.3 to 59.9 following training (ΔM= 5.6, SD = 6.5). Wisdom, measured with Ardelt’s Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (n =12), demonstrated a significant increase in the cognitive dimension of wisdom (t(11) = 2.39, p =.03) with a non-significant increase in the affective dimension (t(11) =1.38, p =.19) and a non-significant reduction in the reflective dimension of wisdom (t(11) =.96, p = .35) following mindfulness training.

Conclusion:  Online mindfulness training may help develop wise decision making as a skill for teachers to aid classroom management and social problem solving.

Author(s) Details

Jean Ngoc Boulware

University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Ave, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Brenda Huskey

University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Ave, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Heather Harden Mangelsdorf

University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Ave, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Howard C. Nusbaum

University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Ave, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/77/1043/736-1

View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/pass/v3