Mono, Bi and Trihetercyclic Compounds: Synthesis, Characterization, Physicochemical, Structural and Biological Properties | Book Publisher International

The synthesis of new mono-, bi- and tri-heterocyclic carboxylic and phosphonic acid models are attracting the interest of research teams around the world due to the broad spectrum of activity they present. Indeed, these biomolecules constitute a class of compounds active in biochemistry, enzymology, medicine, agrochemical industry, and pharmacology. The Professors and Researchers, members of the Organic Chemistry Laboratory, aware of the importance of integrating the University into its socio-economic environment and of the interest in linking their fundamental research axes to the world of industry, have turned to themes, at the chemistry-biology interface, focused on the search for molecules with agrochemical, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic potential. In addition to these properties, these molecules have several reactive centers and can be involved in different reactions, very important steps in the formation of the organic chemist. This book covers key areas of heterocyclic chemistry. It is based on four pillars: (1) the extension of our previous work on heterocyclic alkylation and cycloaddition reactions to the preparation of new models of heterocyclic and phosphonic amino acids by the substitution reaction of O-tosyl group and azide derivatives by different amino acids with heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic chains (glycine, proline, histidine, tryptophan…); (2) the application of the synthesis strategy provided for in the first part to the synthesis of new mono-, bi- and tri-heterocyclic carboxylic and phosphonic models; (3) the use of spectroscopic methods (NMR 1H, 13C, 14N, 1D, 2D, IR) and analytical techniques (X-ray diffraction, mass, elemental analysis) for the characterization of the synthesized molecules, (4) the search for an application to the synthesized molecules.

Author (s) Details

Anouar Alami
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, FES, Morocco.

Younas Aouine
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Zohr University, P.B. 8106, Cité Dakhla, Agadir 80060, Morocco.

Brahim Labriti
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Hassane Faraj
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Abdelilah El Hallaoui
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Salaheddine Boukhssas
Doctoral Training “Bioactive Molecules, Health and Biotechnology”, Center of Doctoral Studies “Sciences and Technology”, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco and Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Khadim Dioukhane
Doctoral Training “Bioactive Molecules, Health and Biotechnology”, Center of Doctoral Studies “Sciences and Technology”, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco and Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Sara Hajib
Doctoral Training “Bioactive Molecules, Health and Biotechnology”, Center of Doctoral Studies “Sciences and Technology”, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco and Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Oumaima Karai
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Abdou Khadir Fall
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Khalid Boukallaba
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

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Protease Composition in Tissue Extracts of Hydrobionts from Antarctic Region: Recent Study | Chapter 13 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Aims: Marine hydrobionts, which grow in extreme conditions, e.g. low temperatures, are an important source of enzymes with unique properties. By this reason the proteases from cold-water organisms could have a considerable biotechnological and therefore, commercial significance. The objective of the current study was to investigate the proteolytic potential of marine hydrobionts from Antarctic region (an example of Odontaster validus and Glyptonotus antarcticus).  Methodology: SDS-PAGE was carried out for the determination of protein composition in extracts. The proteolytic activity was monitored by zymographic technique. Further, the samples were preincubated with protease inhibitors EDTA, PMSF and SBTI and then total proteolytic (with casein as substrate) activity was measured. Gel filtration chromatography was applied for the fractionation of tested extracts. Collagenolytic and trypsin-like (amidase activity) activities were assessed with help of native collagen type I and L-BApNA respectively. Results: The results of gelatin zymography provided evidence for the presence of active enzymes in extracts of both hydrobionts whereas fibrinogen zymography revealed the presence only one clear area in extract of O. validus. Specific protease inhibitors were used to identify the nature of proteases present in tissue of investigated hydrobionts. Based on this analysis, the proteolytic enzymes in extract of O. validus might be classified as metal-dependent proteases, whereas the enzymes in extract of G. antarcticus were most likely trypsin-like proteases. Tissue extracts were separated by gel filtration chromatography on seven fractions for O. validus and six fractions for G. antarcticus. Further enzymatic activity assay in obtained fractions revealed that both hydrobionts possessed significant collagenolytic activity, which was detected in the first four fractions.  Conclusion: The current study gives some information about protease composition in tissue extracts of hydrobionts of Antarctic region. It could be useful for better understanding of functional and catalytic characteristics of proteases from cold-water organisms.

Author (s) Details

Nataliia Raksha
ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine” of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

Tetiana Halenova
ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine” of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

Tetyana Vovk
ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine” of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

Oleksii Savchuk ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine” of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

Lydmila Ostapchenko
ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine” of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

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The Details of Revamp Studies on Morpho-Histology of the Male Reproductive System of Halys dentatus Fabricious (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) | Chapter 12 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Aim: Revamp studies on the morphology and histology of plant bug Halys dentatus F. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Study Design: Halys dentatus Fab. is acting as pest of many plants, multivoltine in nature, therefore their reproductive cycle observed throughout the year. Hence, the number of reproductive cycles increased the population of H. dentatus to cause harm to plants, therefore there is need to study the male reproductive system of H. dentatus as a part of fundamental studies. Place and Duration of Study: Entomology Research Laboratory; P.G. Department of Zoology, K.T.H.M. College, Nashik. (MS, India).  Methodology: Adults of H. dentatus (Fab.) were collected, anesthetized with anesthetic ether & embedded in dissecting paraffin wax plate, dissected in insect saline solution (Lum, [1]) using stereoscopic research binocular microscope. The male reproductive system exposed and isolated, fixed in Debocqui’s Bouin’s fixative for 18 hrs., dehydrated (acetone grades), Cleared (xylene; acetone), blocks were prepared, sections were cut on Leica microtome, stained & micro photographed. Results and Observation:  Morphology: The male reproductive system of H. dentatus (Fab.) constitute a pair of testis, pair of vas deferens, seminal vesicles, accessory glands (ectodermal & endodermal) & ejaculatory duct (Bulbus & Ductus).  Histology: Histology of testis of H. dentatus showed the six numbers of testicular follicles with different development zones; the growth zone, the maturation zone and the zone of differentiation. The inner layer of vas deferens and seminal vesicle was composed of cuboidal epithelial cells. The accessory glands are both ectodermal and endodermal in origin. The ectodermal accessory glands are triplate, milky white in colour while mesodermal accessory glands are convoluted bunch of fine tubular structure. Conclusion: The male reproductive system was studied with reference to revamp morpho-histology; during the year 2009-2011. The anatomy resemble with other pentatomid bug with little difference in vas deference, investing sac and in the number of testicular follicles. 

Author(s) Details

Jyoti H. Gangurde
P. G. Department of Zoology, Entomology Research Laboratory, K. T. H. M. College, Nashik-422002, Savitribai Phule Pune University, MS, India.

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Cultivation of Mint (Mentha x gracilis) in Agroforestry System | Chapter 11 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Aims: The cultivation of medicinal plants in intercropping with other species of agricultural use has been an alternative to make production sustainable in family farming. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth, biomass production, and chemical composition of the essential oil of mint (Mentha x gracilis Sole) in intercropping with fruit species in an agroforestry system. This study was conducted as an important contribution to agroforestry management practices and to assist in deciding which intercropping option to use in this cultivation system. In particular, this information should facilitate the establishment of scientific intercropping systems, help maintain the sustainable use of agroforestry and provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of agriculture. Study Design: The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments, mint inter planted with citrus (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), bananas (Musa spp.), blackberries (Morus nigra), or Barbados cherries (Malpighia glabra). Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the agroforestry located in the sector of Olericultura of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR), Brazil, in the period between November 2015 to February 2017. Methodology: We analyzed physiological and growth variables as light intensity, relative chlorophyll index, height, leaf area, biomass accumulation, essential oil content, oil production and chemical composition of mint in agroforestry. Results: The highest production of biomass  (252.50; 249.31 g planta-1)  and essential oil (135.42; 141.63 L ha-1) were obtained in the intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries, respectively, possibly due to the edaphic climatic conditions, such as greater light intensity, that favored the growth, production and chemical composition of the mint essential oil. Bananas and blackberries intercropped with mint were not beneficial for the growth and production of essential oils. Conclusion: The intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries resulted in higher growth, biomass accumulation and essential oil content and production. The major components of the essential oils were linalool (48.66; 49.87%) and carvone (18.30; 17.86%) with higher percentages in the intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries, respectively. The cultivation of mint by intercropping with fruit species such as citrus and Barbados cherries is an option to diversify the production of medicinal plants, making it sustainable.

Author(s) Details

Dalva Paulus
Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Technology – Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos, 85660-000, Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil.

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A Formula of Bacterial Pathogenicity (Theoretical Review): Recent Development | Chapter 10 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Four fundamental biological functions are responsible for bacterial pathogenicity in a multi-cellular host organism: The adhesive function, the function of invasion and penetration into the cell, the function of evasion of host defense and the damage function. The action of the first three of them (adhesion, invasion and evasion) is directed to towards establishing an ecological niche in Multicellular host, while the aim of the damaging function is destruction of this environment. 

Author(s) Details

Yurii V. Ezepchuk
The Gamaleya Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia and National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA.  

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Ameliorating Effect of Moringa against Liver and Kidney Injury Induced by Monosodium Glutamate: Brief Overview | Chapter 9 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) produces adverse and damaging effects in different organs like liver and kidneys. Moringa has ameliorating effect on kidney and liver injury induced by monosodium glutamate.  Objective: To study the ameliorating effect of moringa against rats liver and kidney injury induced by monosodium glutamate. Design: Prospective study. Setting: College of Pharmacy, Qassim University. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 20 male rats and equally divided into 4 groups. The first group was control group, second group was moringa group, third group was MSG group and forth group was MSG plus moringa group. We determined liver function, albumin, total protein, kidney function, electrolytes and histopathological examination of tissue. Main Outcome Results: Moringa has ameliorating effect on kidney and liver injury induced by monosodium glutamate. Sample Size:  A total of 20 malerats. Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine. Significant decrease in the levels of albumin, total proteins and sodium levels in rats treated with monosodium glutamate. Kidney sections revealed normal structure of glomeruli and renal tubules as control group, liver revealed good improvements and mild cellular infiltrations were observed in rats treated with MSG and moringa group. Conclusion: Moringa causes ameliorating effect on kidney and liver injury induced by monosodium glutamate in rats. Limitation of the Study: Few studies about the protective effect of Moringa against toxic effect of MSG.  So we need to focus on its beneficial effect against toxicity induced by MSG.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Rehab M. El-Gharabawy

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt.

Dr. Amira S. Ahmed
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia and Department of Hormones, National Research Centre, Egypt.

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Morphological Character Variations in Lasiodiplodia Species: Pathogen of Inflorescence Dieback in Cashew Growing Ecologies of Nigeria | Chapter 8 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Nine isolates of Lasiodiplodia theobromae were collected from cashew inflorescences showing typical symptoms of dieback disease in nine different farms belonging to various cashew growing ecologies of Nigeria. The result revealed that most of the Lasiodiplodia species isolates exhibited significant differences in morphology, colour and spore dimensions. The colony growth rate of Lasiodiplodia species range from 11.95 mm to 14.17 mm, colony texture and colour of the isolates in the obverse were fluffy dark mouse grey, fluffy mouse grey, fluffy olivaceous grey or fluffy groh grey while the reverse colour of the isolates was either greyish blue or sky grey. Sporulation was observed at varied degrees in all the Lasiodiplodia species isolates except in isolates from Oro and Ejule and likewise is the numbers of pycnidia produced varied in all the isolates across growing ecologies. Significant variations were observed in the characters and morphology of the Lasiodiplodia species isolates causing inflorescence dieback of cashew in Nigeria. Conidia of all isolates are septated with single septa but the septa sizes varies and conidia sizes also differ. Eigenvalues and variance proportion consistently decreased among selected characters and the proportional contribution of each character to the total variance also varied in dimension and quantity. Four clusters significantly evolved in the dendogram with 2, 2, 4 and 1 isolates within each cluster.

Author(s) Details

Dele Omoyele Adeniyi
Department of Plant Biology, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515 Ilorin, Nigeria and Plant Pathology Section, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Nigeria.

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Effectiveness Test of Orchid Mycorrhizal Isolate (Ceratorhiza and Trichoderma) Indonesia and Its Role as a Biofertilizer: Critical Overview | Chapter 14 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Aim: The existence of Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungi (OMF) has a role to stimulate growth and support the supply of orchid nutrition as a biofertilizer agent. This study aimed to determine the association of mycorrhizal with Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume which was carried out through the effectiveness test of two Indonesian orchid mycorrhizal isolates i.e. Ceratorhiza and Trichoderma. Study Design: This study consisted of 4 treatments. Each treatment was repeated 3 times, each repetition of 5 plantlets, so that the total plantlet used was 60. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Department of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia, between June 2017 and April 2018. Methodology: The method of inoculating orchid mycorrhizal by placing a plantlet in a petri dish containing orchid mycorrhizal for 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. Then plantlets are grown on sterile moss growing media and acclimatized in a greenhouse. Observation of each treatment is carried out every day for the next month. Observation variables include the number of initial and final roots, the number of live and dead roots, and the number of living and dead plants. Results: The results of the orchid mycorrhizal induction test showed that the Ceratorhiza inoculation treatment showed a fluctuation in the mean increase in the number of final roots, live roots, dead roots, and dead plantlets that were higher than the Trichoderma inoculation treatment. The results also showed that the best inoculation time on Ceratorhiza and Trichoderma was day 3 and 4. The adaptation process had the effect of increasing the number of dead roots in weeks 1 and 2. The adaptation process stopped at the beginning of week 4 with the number of new roots appearing a lot. Conclusion: Orchid mycorrhizal Ceratorhiza shows the value of effectiveness test compared with Trichoderma. The results of this study are expected to be basic information in efforts to cultivate natural orchids in Indonesia .

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mahfut

Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Lampung, Lampung, 35145, Indonesia.

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Insect Vectors Associated to Dumpsites in Gombe Metropolis, Nigeria, Western Africa | Chapter 4 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Insects are a very diverse group of organisms that play a very great and crucial role in the survival and wellbeing of humans and other organisms. Several insect groups are vectors of diseases, transmitting pathogens among humans and other animals. Insects are found in diverse environment including dumpsites. This study was conducted to determine the insect vectors living in refuse dumps at Gombe Metropolis in Gombe State, Nigeria. The metropolis were divided into four longitudinal zones, and in each zone three dumpsites were randomly selected. Visual observations were used to estimate the composition of the refuse dumps. The study was conducted in Gombe metropolis of Gombe state between the months of May and August, 2018. Sweep nets, sticky traps, water traps and handpicking were used to collect the different vector species. Specimen collected were preserved and transported to the laboratory for identification. Standard Identification keys were used for the identification of the vectors. The compositions of the refuse dumps varied from vegetable matter and animal remains to assorted materials including used tyres, electronic parts, cartons, faecal matter, broken bottles, polythene bags. A total of 464 insect vectors belonging to 9 species were collected. Musca domestica 282(60.8%) was the dominant species, followed by Anopheles spp 55(11.9%) and Aedes species 44(9.4%). Periplaneta americana accounts 37(8.0%) of the collections. The thriving population of these vector species and the abundance of putrefying refuse dumps are risk factors of the endemic diseases transmitted by such vectors in the city. In view of these findings, it is expedient to properly dispose refuse to curtail the possibility of outbreak of vector-borne diseases.

Author(s) Details

E. Abba
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

Y. Lamogo
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria

Mrs. A. Rejoice
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria

A. Jemimah
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

Dr. K. P. Yoriyo
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

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Population Dynamics of Five Important Commercial Fish Species in the Sundarbans Ecosystem of Bangladesh: Recent Advancement | Chapter 3 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Aims: To determine the population dynamics and assess the exploitation level of Mystus gulio, Acanthopagrus latus, Chelon parsia, Otolithoides pama and Lates calcarifer in the Sundarbans ecosystem of Bangladesh. Study Design: Monthly length-frequency data of five fish species were collected from the Sundarbans ecosystem. The lengths of five fish species were recorded to the nearest one cm intervals in each month. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted from January to December 2011 in the Sundarbans ecosystem in Bangladesh. Methodology: The FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT II) software was used to estimate the von Bertalanffy growth parameters (L and K), mortality coefficients (Z, M and F), probability of capture, recruitment pattern and Yield/Biomass-per-recruit for five commercially important fish species caught by fishers in the Sundarbans ecosystem of Bangladesh. Results: In the Sundarbans ecosystem of Bangladesh area the values of asymptotic length (L) for Mystus gulio, Acanthopagrus latus, Chelon parsia, Otolithoides pama and Lates calcarifer were found to be 23.0 cm, 33.6 cm, 30.0 cm, 32.5 cm and 55.0 cm respectively while the growth co-efficient (K) were 0.75, 0.85, 1.1, 0.8 and 0.5 respectively. The estimates for L (23.00 – 55.0 cm) and K (0.5-1.1 year-1) obtained were consistent with those available in the literature. Relatively high K and low L values, typical of short-lived tropical fishes, were obtained for Mystus gulio, Acanthopagrus latus, Chelon parsia and Otolithoides pama. The length growth performance index (’) of the Pauly and Munro’s function was in the range of 2.599 – 3.180. Natural mortality, fishing mortality and total mortality were in the range of 0.956-1.89, 0.55-1.58 and 1.52-3.3 respectively. Estimates for total mortality (Z) and natural mortality (M) imply low annual rates of survival and high turnover rates. The recruitment pattern suggested one main pulse of annual recruitment. The exploitation rate was estimated to be between 27% and 47% and the length at first capture was estimated to be approximately 19-54% of L. The exploitation rate obtained for five fish species are relatively lower compared to other available studies in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. The growth and exploitation rates obtained were compared with available estimates to evaluate the consistency of the results with current knowledge about the species in the region. Conclusion: The study indicated that the length-at-first-capture/L seem to be a simple parameter, which could be used to make a rapid assessment of the status of the stocks. All together, the present study reveals that the population of these five studied species attains acceptable sustainability levels in the Sundarbans ecosystem and scope for a slight increase in catch efforts. 

Author(s) Details  

Md. Golam Mustafa
Center for Resource Development Studies Ltd, 13C/8C Babar Road, Block B, Mohammadpur, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.

Imran Ahmed
Department of Forest, Bon Bhaban, Agargaon, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.

Mohammod Ilyas
WorldFish, South Asia, Level 5-7, House 2/B, Road 4, Block B, Banani, Dhaka 1213, Bangladesh.

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