Unraveling Siderophore Producing Bacteria from Plant Rhizosphere | Chapter 2 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Siderophores are those low molecular weight iron chelating components that are found to be secreted by a few bacteria located predominantly in the rhizosphere of leguminous plants. Their mechanism of action depends on the structure in which the siderophore is available. In the current study, an isolate SA6 was studied for its siderophore production which was found to be of carboxylate type. The optimal growth conditions for elevated siderophore production by SA6 were deliberated. The isolate was found to be enriched with plant growth promoting activities indicating its possible application in agriculture. Sequencing of the isolate has a 97% similarity index with Escherichia fergusonii.

Author(s) Details

B. Soundaryaa
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai, India.

Dr. S. Aruna Sharmili
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai, India.

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Plant Passive Immunity: Micromorphological and Biochemical Features of the Maloideae (Rosaceae) External Tissues | Chapter 1 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

The defeat of the fruits of fungal diseases is currently an important issue of plant science and is also of great economic importance. With the help of microscopic methods the leaves and fruits surface tissues of plants of four genera of the Maloideae subfamily were screened: Malus Mill., Pyrus L., Cydonia Mill., Mespilus L. and attempts were made to explain the dependence of mycosis damage on micro structural features. The species composition of fungi that cause damage to the Maloideae leaves and fruits in the Russia southern regions is analyzed. It is established that among pathogens with different types of parasitism there are common excitants, as well as highly specialized responses as on Mespilus germanica L. Higher resistance to the complex of fungal diseases, in comparison with apple and pear, was found in quince and medlar. This stability at the initial stage of the pathological process is associated with structural features such as micro morphology of the fruits and stomata cuticle in the abaxial epidermis of leaves. The leaves stomatal openings of medlar are narrow with raised outgrowths, on the surface of the fruits – the layered structure of the cuticular layer. Quince has a continuous cuticular cover. In the species least affected by mycoses, a high content of very-longchain fatty acids in the external tissues was revealed, which may be one of the factors of resistance to pathogens.  In addition, the studied species revealed differences in the content of polyphenols, which can inhibit the development of pathogens at the stage of their penetration. Thus, during the study, using the example of the Maloideae subfamily, we identified several factors of passive immunity of plants. Conventionally, they can be divided into two groups: mechanical and chemical, working at various stages of pathogen penetration into plant organism.

Author(s) Details

Alexander S. Voronkov 
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 127276, Moscow, Botanicheskaya St. 35, Russia.

Tamara Kh. Kumachova
Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, 127550, Moscow, Timiryazevskaya St. 49, Russia.

Tatiana V. Ivanova 
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 127276, Moscow, Botanicheskaya St. 35, Russia.

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Effect of Potash Alum on the Mycoflora of Postharvest Spoilage of Solanum lycopersicum L (Tomato) | Chapter 7 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Solanum lycopersicum L (Tomato) is one of the most economically attractive and widely consumed vegetables globally. Their high water content, perishability, transport and poor storage system predisposes them to spoilage by a broad spectrum of mycoflora resulting in huge postharvest losses. This study investigates the effect of Potash Alum (PA) on postharvest spoilage of S. lycopersicum L (Tomato). Composite samples of deteriorating tomatoes were subjected to standard mycological analysis from which total fungal colony counts obtained ranged from 1.64×106-5.70×109 CFU/g, and the following species were identified; Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizopus stolonifer, Geotrichum candidium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vitro antifungal activity of potash alum (1% (w/v) concentration) was determined on some of the isolates by agar well method (AWM) and diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) measured using a metre rule. G. candidum had the highest DIZ (9.0mm (29.0%) followed by A. niger (8.0 mm (25.8%) and 7.0mm ( 22.6%) for Fusarium and Penicillium species respectively. R. stolonifer showed no inhibition or zero. pH values increased from 4.35-4.52 whereas TTA values decreased from 0.13-0.07 within 2days of analysis. However, these results indicate that treatment of postharvest deteriorating tomatoes with potash alum prior to consumption would enhance food safety as some of these fungi are known to be spoilage, toxigenic or opportunistic pathogens. So, their presence raises concern on storability as well as public health risks associated with consumption of these fruits. Therefore, production of tomato requires an integrated and multidisciplinary research approach not only to reduce economic loss but also create consumers’ awareness on potential public health hazards of consuming relatively cheaper and pathogen contaminated deteriorating tomatoes.

Author(s) Details

Lawrence O. Amadi
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, P.M.B. 5080, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria and Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Science, Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori, Nigeria.

Dr. (Mrs.) Felicia W. Nmom
Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, P.M.B. 5080, NkpoluOroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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The Role of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in Recognition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Lung Epithelial Cells: Detailed Study | Chapter 6 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) plays an important role in chloride and thiocyanate ion homeostasis in human epithelial surfaces. Deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (Δ508) leads to cystic fibrosis and dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Pseudomonas aeruginosa gains predominance, contributing over 80% of the lung bacteria in adults with CF and this strongly correlates with the decline of pulmonary function and mortality. The research aimed at understanding the role of CFTR in response to P. aeruginosa, (the most common pathogen that colonises the airways of Cystic Fibrosis patients), with the objectives of evaluating the relative expression of epithelial and inflammatory cytokines (IL-17C and IL-6) in five (Calu3, CFBE41o, CFBE41o wt, Calu3 altered and Calu3 knockout) human bronchial epithelial cell lines after two hours of infection with P. aeruginosa using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). It was found that Calu3 and Calu3 altered, treated cell lines significantly (p=0.05) increased in the level of IL-17C and IL-6 mRNA in all the experimental repeats compare to untreated.   The other three (CFBE 41o, CFBE41o wt, and Calu3 knockout) cell lines deficient of CFTR expressed low levels of these cytokines, but the level varied among the experiment in both treated and untreated cells suggesting that CFTR may modulate the level of cytokine production in bronchial epithelial cell lines. CFTR mutations have a direct effect on T cell function; enhance Th17 response which is one of the sources of IL-17. The IL-17C plays a central role in pulmonary host defence by orchestrating the accumulation and associated activity of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar space. However, the massive neutrophils accumulation in the CF lung does not correlate with bacterial eradication but rather causes extensive tissue damage and inflammation disproportion to infection indicating that the function of neutrophils is dysregulated in CF. Therefore, knocking down IL-17C may minimise inflammation in CF patients.

Author(s) Details

Ekong, Mercy Okon
Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria.

Tarh, Jacqueline Ebob
Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria.

Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma
Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria.

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Micropropagation of Narcissus tazetta ‘Chinensis’ and Its Relation to Secondary Metabolites Content: Brief Overview | Chapter 5 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Insects are a very diverse group of organisms that play a very great and crucial role in the survival and wellbeing of humans and other organisms. Several insect groups are vectors of diseases, transmitting pathogens among humans and other animals. Insects are found in diverse environment including dumpsites. This study was conducted to determine the insect vectors living in refuse dumps at Gombe Metropolis in Gombe State, Nigeria. The metropolis were divided into four longitudinal zones, and in each zone three dumpsites were randomly selected. Visual observations were used to estimate the composition of the refuse dumps. The study was conducted in Gombe metropolis of Gombe state between the months of May and August, 2018. Sweep nets, sticky traps, water traps and handpicking were used to collect the different vector species. Specimen collected were preserved and transported to the laboratory for identification. Standard Identification keys were used for the identification of the vectors. The compositions of the refuse dumps varied from vegetable matter and animal remains to assorted materials including used tyres, electronic parts, cartons, faecal matter, broken bottles, polythene bags. A total of 464 insect vectors belonging to 9 species were collected. Musca domestica 282(60.8%) was the dominant species, followed by Anopheles spp 55(11.9%) and Aedes species 44(9.4%). Periplaneta americana accounts 37(8.0%) of the collections. The thriving population of these vector species and the abundance of putrefying refuse dumps are risk factors of the endemic diseases transmitted by such vectors in the city. In view of these findings, it is expedient to properly dispose refuse to curtail the possibility of outbreak of vector-borne diseases.

Author(s) Details

E. Abba
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

Y. Lamogo
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria

Mrs. A. Rejoice
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria

A. Jemimah
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

Dr. K. P. Yoriyo
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

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Eukaryotic Multi-subunit DNA Dependent RNA Polymerases: An Insight into Their Active Sites and Catalytic Mechanism | Chapter 01 | Emerging Trends and Research in Biological Science Vol. 1

Aim: To analyze the most complex multi-subunit (MSU) DNA dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) of eukaryotic organisms and find out conserved motifs, metal-binding sites and catalytic regions and propose a plausible mechanism of action for these complex eukaryotic MSU RNAPs, using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) RNAP II, as a model enzyme.

Study Design: Bioinformatics, Biochemical, Site-directed mutagenesis and X-ray crystallographic data were analyzed.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India, between 2007- 2013.

Methodology: Bioinformatics, Biochemical, Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) and X-ray crystallographic data of the enzyme were analyzed. The advanced version of Clustal Omega was used for protein sequence analysis of the MSU DNA dependent RNAPs from various eukaryotic sources. Along with the conserved motifs identified by the bioinformatics analysis, the data already available by biochemical and SDM experiments and X-ray crystallographic analysis of these enzymes were used to confirm the possible amino acids involved in the active sites and catalysis.

Results: Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of RNAPs from different eukaryotic organisms showed a large number of highly conserved motifs among them. Possible catalytic regions in the catalytic subunits of the yeast Rpb2 (= β in eubacteria) and Rpb1 (= β’ in eubacteria) consist of an absolutely conserved amino acid R, in contrast to a K that was reported for DNA polymerases and single subunit (SSU) RNAPs. However, the invariant ‘gatekeeper/DNA template binding’ YG pair that was reported in all SSU RNAPs, prokaryotic MSU RNAPs and DNA polymerases is also highly conserved in eukaryotic Rpb2 initiation subunits, but unusually a KG pair is found in higher eukaryotes including the human RNAPs. Like the eubacterial initiation subunits of MSU RNAPs, the eukaryotic initiation subunits, viz. Rpb2, exhibit very similar active site and catalytic regions but slightly different distance conservations between the template binding YG/KG pair and the catalytic R. In the eukaryotic initiation subunits, the proposed catalytic R is placed at the -9th position from the YG/KG pair and an invariant R is placed at -5 which are implicated to play a role in nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) selection as reported for SSU RNAPs (viral family) and DNA polymerases. Similarly, the eukaryotic elongation subunits (Rpb1) are also found to be very much homologous to the elongation subunits (β’) of prokaryotes. Interestingly, the catalytic regions are highly conserved, and the metal-binding sites are absolutely conserved as in prokaryotic MSU RNAPs. In eukaryotes, the template binding YG pair is replaced with an FG pair. Another interesting observation is, similar to the prokaryotic β’ subunits, in the eukaryotic Rpb1 elongation subunits also, the proposed catalytic R is placed double the distance, i.e., -18 amino acids downstream from the FG pair unlike in the SSU RNAPs and DNA polymerases where the distance is only -8 amino acids downstream from the YG pair. Thus, the completely conserved FG pair, catalytic R with an invariant R, at -6th position are proposed to play a crucial role in template binding, NTP selection and polymerization reactions in the elongation subunits of eukaryotic MSU RNAPs. Moreover, the Zn binding motif with the three completely conserved Cs is also highly conserved in the eukaryotic elongation subunits also. A plausible proof-reading mechanism during the elongation process is also proposed based on the MSA and experimental data. Another important difference is that the catalytic region is placed very close to the N-terminal region in eukaryotes.

Conclusions: Unlike reported for the DNA polymerases and SSU RNA polymerases, the of eukaryotic MSU RNAPs use an R as the catalytic amino acid and exhibit a different distance conservation in the initiation and elongation subunits. An invariant Zn2+ binding motif, found in the Rpb1 elongation subunits is proposed to participate in the proof-reading function. Differences in the active sites of bacterial and human RNA polymerases may pave the way for the design of new and effective drugs for many bacterial infections, including the multidrug-resistant strains which are a global crisis at present.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Peramachi Palanivelu
Department of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625021, India.

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Studies on Alzheimer Disease – Metformin Connection – A Brief Review | Chapter 02 | Emerging Trends and Research in Biological Science Vol. 1

Metformin is the widely prescribed first line oral antidiabetic drug used in diabetes mellatus, type 2. The global sales turnover of metformin runs into millions of dollars. The Increased risk of metformin (Met) users for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) is reported first in a study conducted in 2011.  Since then, the subject has attracted the attention   of the researchers as well as the pharmaceutical industry, resulting in a number of studies, both clinical as well as experiments on animals. Confusing results poured in, ranging from confirmation of the risk of AD to protection against developing AD, making the scenario, all the more intriguing. Added to the confusion, is the diversity of various studies as well as the parameters interpreting their results. Of the many clinical trials, some are retrospective cohort studies (Tseng Chin-Hsiao [1]), case control studies (Imfeld P, et al. [2]) Randomised studies (Hsu CC, et al. [3]), double blind, cross over pilot studies. (Aaron Koenig et al. [4]) and some longitudinal studies (Ng TP, et al. [5]), besides studies doing meta analysis. Of these studies most of the trials estimate the risk of development of dementia with metformin alone (Tseng Chin-Hsiao [1]) or in comparison with other OHAs (Hsu et al. [3], Cheng et al. [6]). The other studies studied the effect of metformin on the cognition (Moor EM, et al. [7]). These trials have different out come measures, (like Hazard ratio, (HR) Odds (OR) ratio, relative risk (RR) etc.) which don’t mean one and the same. So the multiplicity of the types of studies and different out- comes with different conclusions will be surely baffling to an average reader who tries to take cognisance of the involved issues. The article attempts to take stock of the overall developments in this regard. The author adopted a reader friendly approach which is discussed in the article, at the outset. Finally, it is reiterated that future prospective studies only can resolve the conflict of opinion on the nexus between metformin and Alzheimer’s disease.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. S. V. Prasad
Department of Internal Medicine, G.I.T.A.M Dental College, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Ethanol Affects Liver Oxidative Stress and Methylation Status in HCV-infection: study on NS5A-Transgenic Mice | Chapter 03 | Emerging Trends and Research in Biological Science Vol. 1

Background: Alcohol consumption accelerates the progression and worsens the outcomes of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection in heavy and moderate drinkers. Non-structural NS5A protein is a known inducer of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. Although alcohol consumption exacerbates the course of HCV-infection, the combined effects of NS5A protein and alcohol have not been studied and experimental animal HCV models as well as ways of ethanol administration to animals are not optimized.   Our aim was to investigate the effects of two modes of oral ethanol feeding on induction of oxidative stress, methylation status and changes in proteasome activity in livers of NS5A-transgenic (Tg) mice.

Methods: Ethanol was administered either in drinking water (chow- fed mice given 20% ethanol in water; designated chow-EtOH) or in Lieber DeCarli liquid diet (LCD-EtOH). Appropriate controls were used.  The mechanisms of alcohol and NS5A-induced changes in oxidative stress, liver methylation status and 20S proteasome activity were determined after 5 weeks of the feeding regimen.

Results: Ethanol administration using both feeding regimens induced oxidative stress and suppressed cytosolic proteasome activity. However, only LCD-EtOH diet induced fatty changes in the liver, which correlated with higher levels of oxidative stress, impaired methylation potential and reduced cytosolic and nuclear proteasome activity. Importantly, LCD diet administration by itself promoted lipid peroxidation in NS5A-expressing mice.

Conclusion: We conclude that both modes of oral ethanol feeding (chow and LCD-based) induce oxidative stress in NS5A-Tg mice that suppresses proteasome activity. Nonetheless, impaired methylation potential, higher level of oxidative stress and suppression of nuclear proteasome was observed only in LCD-EtOH mice.  However, the effects of LCD-control liquid diet in inducing lipid peroxidation in NS5A-Tg mice, in certain cases, tended to mask the effects of ethanol, indicating that fatty diet serves as a second hit for NS5A-protein-induced stress response of liver cells.

Author(s) Details

Natalia A. Osna [M.D., Ph.D.]
Research Service, Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System Omaha, NE, USA and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE  68105, USA.

Murali Ganesan [Ph.D.]
Research Service, Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System Omaha, NE, USA and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE  68105, USA.

Larisa Y. Poluektova [M.D., Ph.D.]
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE  68105, USA.

Kusum K. Kharbanda [Ph.D.]
Research Service, Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System Omaha, NE, USA and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE  68105, USA and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE  68105, USA.

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Rare Occurrence of the Young Basking Shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus, 1765) in the Northeastern Mediterranean | Chapter 04 | Emerging Trends and Research in Biological Science Vol. 1

One female specimen of Basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (TL – total length = 245 cm; W – weight = 75 kg) was incidentally captured by a bottom trawler at a depth of about 25 m on 20 March 2014 from the off Yesilovacık coast (Mersin Bay, Turkey). Morphometric measurements presented in this paper. The present article reports the young occurrence of C. maximus in the northeastern Mediterranean, Turkey. The basking shark was not very abundant throughout the eastern Mediterranean Sea. This species is infrequent in the northern part of the Mediterranean, Turkey. The occurrence of this species not only extends the geographical distribution of its known range but also represents the first presentation of a young female specimen from the northeastern Mediterranean (Mersin Bay, Turkey). Due to their slow maturity, extended longevity, and low reproduction rate, the basking shark is considered to be extremely vulnerable to overfishing. Their population numbers declining significantly in the past decades. Thus, the basking shark species is currently listed in Appendix I and II of CMS, Annex I of the CMS Sharks MOU, and Annex I of UNCLOS.

Author(s) Details

Deniz Ergüden
Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Iskenderun Technical University, TR 31220 Iskenderun, Hatay, Turkey.

Deniz Ayas
Faculty of Fisheries, Mersin University, Yenişehir Campus, TR 33160, Mersin, Turkey.

Sibel Alagöz Ergüden
Imamoglu Vocational School, Cukurova University, TR 01700, Imamoglu, Adana, Turkey.

Hasan Deniz Akbora
Faculty of Fisheries, Mersin University, Yenişehir Campus, TR 33160, Mersin, Turkey and Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta 99628, North Cyprus via Mersin 10, Turkey.

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Digestibility of Leaf Proteins of Gnetum spp Vegetables in Rats and Effects of Some Antinutrients | Chapter 05 | Emerging Trends and Research in Biological Science Vol. 1

Aims: Study leaf protein digestibility and effect of some antinutritional factors of Gnetum africanum and Gnetum buchholzianum on young male rats Wistar albinos.

Study Design: Nutritional enhancement of use of Gnetum spp leafy vegetables.

Place and Duration of Study: Limbe botanical Garden of Cameroon, between November 2013 and February 2014.

Methodology: Proteins and antinutritional factors were determined using standard analytical methods. Standard diet AIN-93 was used as reference for preparation of experimental diets used for in vivo digestibility of these leafy vegetables. Rats were fed with diets containing respectively 5% or 10% leaf proteins of G. africanum (GA5P or GA10P) or G. buchholzianum (GB5P or GB10P).

Results: Results showed that mean proteins contents was 16.70 mg/100g. Average contents of crude fibers, Neutral Detergent Fibers, Acid Detergent Fibers, crude phenolic compounds, tannins and phytates were respectively 36.17, 41.97, 37.80 g/100 g and 478.80, 244.94, 215.64 mg/100. Rats’ growth was more promoted by diets containing 5% proteins. Protein Efficiency and Net Protein Efficiency Ratio were low. Digestibility Coefficient, Biological Value and Net Protein Utilization were high for 5% proteins diets. Principal Component Analyses revealed that fibers and antinutrients reduced growth and nitrogen retention from diet containing 10% proteins.

Conclusion: Gnetum spp. leafy vegetables have high contents of fiber, phenolic compounds and phytates which contribute to reduction of digestibility of theirs proteins.

Author(s) Details

Ndomou Mathieu
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O.Box 24157, Douala, Cameroon.

Mezajoug Kenfack Laurette Blandine
University Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Bioprocess, Food Biochemistry and Nutrition Unit, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon.

Gouado Inocent
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O.Box 24157, Douala, Cameroon.

Tchiégang Clergé
University Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Bioprocess, Food Biochemistry and Nutrition Unit, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon.

Professor Ngogang Yonkeu Jeanne
Faculty of Medicine, Université des Montagnes, Bagangté, Cameroon.

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