Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Plant Extracts for Textile Applications | Chapter 06 | Emerging Trends and Research in Biological Science Vol. 1

Aims: To carry out the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening and assess the antimicrobial activity of banyan (Ficus benghalensis), castor (Ricinus communis) and clerodendron (Clerodendron inerme) leaf extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Textile and Apparel Designing, College of Community Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, between July 2014 and June 2017.

Methodology: Extraction of phytochemicals was carried out by different solvents viz., 70% ethanol, 70% methanol and distilled water. The phytochemical screening was carried out for the presence of various bio-active constituents according to standard procedures. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay method. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of plants was assessed by agar well diffusion method.

Results: The qualitative screening revealed the presence of constituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols and saponins in all the leaf extracts. However, terpenoids were absent in banyan leaf extracts. Irrespective of solvents, castor extracts yielded higher total phenols followed by banyan and clerodendron extracts. Further, the antibacterial activity of the crude ethanol extract of castor against bacterial species viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and fungal strain, Aspergillus niger showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to banyan and clerodendron extracts.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the results has provided the basis for use of banyan, castor and clerodendron extracts as potential agents for applying antimicrobial finish to textiles. Hence, there is a need to explore the applicability of these plant resources which are rich in phytochemicals/phenolics and may have beneficial effects on health.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Shameembanu A. Byadgi
Department of Textile and Apparel Designing, College of Community Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India.

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Molecular Basis of Pathogenesis of Ectopic Fat Deposition in DM2 – An Overview | Chapter 07 | Emerging Trends and Research in Biological Science Vol. 1

The presence of fat, beyond physiological limits, in organs, other than the adipose tissue, like the liver, the skeletal muscle, the heart and the pancreas etc. is called ectopic fat. It causes specific organ dysfunction in the tissues concerned. The importance of the ectopic fat is that it is connected to peripheral tissue insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome etc. Though the molecular mechanisms underlying the specific organ dysfunctions are understood, still grey areas exists as to the source of the ectopic fat and how it finds it’s way to the specific sites of the target organs (intra- myocellular in skeletal muscle, hepatocyte cytoplasm of liver, epicardial surface and coronary arteries of heart etc.). The molecular mechanisms involving the actual ectopic deposition fat, are not clear. This article focuses on some of the grey areas in the pathogenesis of the ectopic fat deposition, besides reviewing briefly the facts already known in the literature about ectopic fat deposition.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. S. V. Prasad
Department of Internal Medicine, G.I.T.A.M Dental College, Rishikonda, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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In vivo Propagation of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) | Chapter 08 | Emerging Trends and Research in Biological Science Vol. 1

Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba) is a semi-hard wood perennial shrub grown on arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The stem cutting method is simple and efficient method for semi-hard wood plants to propagate vegetatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the best method of in vivo propagation through stem cutting of Simmondsia chinensis. The healthy branches of mature male and female plants were cut into 10 to 15 cm length having 4 to 5 nodes stem. The basal part of cuttings was dipped in the 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm of IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) and NAA (2-Naphthalene acetic acid) respectively for one hour. After which the stem cuttings were planted in the polypots trays filled with rooting media contained perlite and vermiculite (1:1). Among all concentrations of both auxins (IBA and NAA), the highest rooting 68.9% in male stem cutting and 66.5% in female stem cutting were observed at 2000 ppm concentration of IBA. At this concentration, the maximum number 12.5 and 13.2 of roots in male and female cuttings were obtained respectively. Vegetatively, in vivo propagation method through stem cuttings of male and female plants of Simmondsia chinensis proves to be ideal solution for production of large scale plant materials at commercial level.

Author(s) Details

Raman Bala
Department of Environmental Science, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, 124001 (Haryana), India.

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Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Mechanisms of Action of Fibrates – An Overview | Chapter 09 | Emerging Trends and Research in Biological Science Vol. 1

Fibrates are a class of medication that mainly lowers the blood triglyceride levels. They reduce the LDL and increase the levels of HDL C, in the blood. Clofibrate, the first member to be discovered                 in 1962, and introduced in USA in 1967, is withdrawn in 2002, due to unexplained hepatomegaly, hepato-toxicity and possible risk of hepatic cancer. Other fibrates are introduced in the late 1970s and early 1980s, such as gemfibrozil in the United States and bezafibrate and ciprofibrate in Europe. Their lipid lowering effects are found to decrease CVS risk, progression of atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome, macrovascular and microvascular diabetic complications like stroke, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and diabetic retinopathy. Various clinical trials like VA-HIT trial (Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Intervention Trial), FIELD trail. (The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes) Helsinki Heart Study, ACCORD -Lipid trial (The lipid component of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes trial) and  BIP (Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Study)  trial and angiography trials, like LOCAT(Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial) and BECLAIT(Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial) demonstrated the  beneficial effects of gemfibrozil and fenofibrate. Their mechanism of action remained obscure for three decades, ie till 1990s, when their mode of action was found. The Mechanism of action of fibrates include limitation of substrate availability for triglyceride synthesis in the liver, promotion of the action of lipoprotein lipase, (LPL) modulation of low density lipoprotein receptor/ligand interaction and stimulation of reverse cholesterol transport The biochemical and molecular mechanisms involving  the various  enzymes like LCAT (Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase)andCYP7A1 etc. (cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1)), transporters like ABC, CETP (ATP-binding cassette transporter, Cholesterol ester binding protein) and NTCP, OATP (Na+-dependent taurocholate transporter / organic anion transporters). These are the and nuclear factors like LXR, PPAR alfa etc. (liver orphan receptor α, and peroxisome proliferative nuclear factor), in relation to the mechanisms of action of fibrates are discussed. Areas of current interests in literature are briefed.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. S. V. Prasad
Department of Internal Medicine, G.I.T.A.M Dental College, Rishikonda, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Fresh Water Algae, Ankistrodesmus acicularis and Anabaena flos-aquae, to Dichlobenil Exposure | Chapter 12 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

The herbicide dichlobenil is widely used to control unwanted weeds in non-agricultural areas and aquatic environment. When released into environment, it may harm the growth of algae, which in turn might disturb the balance of aquatic ecosystem. Herein, the physiological as well as the biochemical responses of two fresh water algae, namely Ankistrodesmus acicularis (Chlorophyta) and Anabaena flos-aquae (Cyanobacteria), to different concentrations of dichlobenil were assessed. Parameters, including chlorophyll (a) Content, EC50 values, carbohydrate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents as well as the uptake by both algal species were evaluated. We found a significant decrease in chlorophyll (a) content of both algal species to intermediate and high concentration of dichlobenil, whereas stimulative effect was observed for low concentration of dichlobenil on Chl (a) content. Attainable results derived by probit analysis revealed that the EC50 values at 5th and 7th days were approximate to each other for both algal species. Furthermore, a drastic decrease (98%) in ATP content was noticed at 8.0 mg/L dichlobenil treatment in case of Ankistrodesmus acicularis. On the other hand, the activity of Anabaena flos-aquae cells was enhanced by the application of low and intermediate concentrations of dichlobenil (0.25-4.0 mg/L). Notably, higher concentration level (16.0 mg/L) causes substantial decreases in ATP content. Ankistrodesmus acicularis was found to be more sensitive than Anabaena flos-aquae. The uptake of dichlobenil was best fit to a pseudo-first order rate kinetic. The specific uptake rate constants of dichlobenil in case of Ankistrodesmus acicularis were considerably lower than the corresponding rates exhibited by Anabaena flos-aquae. The half- life time for a given concentrations of dichlobenil was at variance for both algal species. Such variation in the uptake rates and half- life time of dichlobenil for both algal species could have some implications on the aquatic ecosystem.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. Azza M. Abd El-Aty
Department of Water Pollution Research, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St., Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt.

Prof. Dr. Mohammed A. El-Dib
Department of Water Pollution Research, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St., Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt.

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Prevalence and Pattern of Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) among Primary School Children at Nnewi, Nnewi- North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria | Chapter 11 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) are of great Public Health importance. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of STHs among Primary School Children at Nnewi, Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. 250 school children aged 1-12 years were randomly recruited from 5 major primary schools at Nnewi between January and June 2017. 95 (38%) were males while 155 (62%) were females. Stool samples were collected using universal sterile containers and examined microscopically using saline floatation method. Out of the 250 pupils examined, 105 (42%) were positive for at least one STH. 40 (42.1%) of the males examined were positive while 65 (41.9%) of the females were positive. There was no significant difference between sexes (P > 0.05). Children aged 1-5 years had the highest prevalence (62.2%), followed by those aged 6-8 years (33.3). Children aged 9-12 years had the least prevalence. Prevalence was significantly different between the different age groups (P < 0.05). Among the STHs isolated, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (22%), followed by Hookworm (14%). The least prevalent was Trichuris trichiura (6%). No case of mixed infection was detected. The study concludes that STHs are of immense public Health importance in primary School children at Nnewi and efforts should be intensified to promote health education, personal hygiene and sanitation and regular deworming of school children. In conclusion, STHs have remained endemic in the study area in particular and Nigeria in general and is a major source of public health concern. Strict environmental sanitation, provision of adequate water supply, good housing, coupled with health education will go a long way towards its eradication. This should be the target of all governments in Nigeria.

Author(s) Details

Dr. S. N. Ukibe
Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

N. R. Ukibe
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria.

Dr. A. C. Obi-Okaro
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria.

M. O. Iwueze
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Bioscience, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Campus, Nigeria.

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Microbial Contamination of Some Antidiabetic Herbal Preparations Available in Bangladesh | Chapter 10 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

Herbal Medicines (HM) are being used in our country for a long time but the  type and load of the microbial agents has not been isolated in locally produced finished products of HM. The present study was designed to assess the microbial load, genus & species of the microbes contaminating with HM. Seven different Antidiabetic Herbal Preparations (ADHPs) were purchased randomly and analyzed for microbial contaminants. Blood agar, Mac Conkey agar, Chocolate agar and Saboraud’s dextrose agar were used (Oxoid) for culturing and isolation of bacteria and fungus. Identification of organisms were done as standard ways. Total aerobic bacterial plate count was done as per the method of Brown, Poxton and Wilkinson. Out of 07 anti diabetic solid and liquid samples, except ADHP-3, Bacillus subtilis (3.5 – 4.0 x 104 cfu/g) was isolated from solid ADHPs and Enterococcus spp. (1.0×104 cfu/ml) was isolated from liquid ADHP, but all samples were free from fungi (yeasts and moulds). However presence of bacteria in these samples indicates the possibility of increased number of bacteria. So, the sample should be handled in any step maintaining standard sterility of the environment, instrument and involved personnel. The result of present study showed the contamination rate within tolerable level but the presence of bacteria in these samples was not desirable.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Md. Ranzu Ahmed
Department of Chemistry, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh and Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. S. M. Z. H. Asna
Department of Microbiology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. Begum Rokeya
Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Professor Dr. M. Abu Sayeed
Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Emeritus Professor Dr. M. Mosihuzzaman
International Centre for Natural Product Research (ICNPR), BUHS, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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Growth Promotion of Plants, Especially Rice, by Phosphate Solubilizing Microbes | Chapter 09 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

Phosphorus (P) is the second important macronutrient after nitrogen and important at all growth stages of plants including rice. It is an important constituent of macromolecules like DNA, RNA, ATP, phospholipids etc. and a major repository of chemical energy. P availability is optimum at neutral pH. Phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM) viz. Bacillus, Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus spp. recycle the  nutrients  like  N,  P,  C,  K,  S,  Fe  etc. and promote growth of plants. The endophytes like Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas spp., epiphytes like Rhizobium, Pantoea spp., rhizospheric organisms like Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Erwinia spp. And entomopathogens viz. Beauveria, Metarhizium, Nomuraea spp. mineralize insoluble P to make accessibility to plants. Soil enzymes also solubilize organic phosphates (OP) to available forms. Oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid, production of organic and inorganic acids, ammonia, H2S etc. are major mechanisms for P mineralization by microbes. So, phosphate solubilizing microbes would be efficient biofertilizers as they promote plant growth, improve soil properties and prevent plant pathogens without any harsh effect on the environment.

Author(s) Details

Nilima Dash
Microbiology Laboratory, Division of Crop Production, National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, 753006, Odisha, India.

Dr. Tushar Kanti Dangar
Microbiology Laboratory, Division of Crop Production, National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, 753006, Odisha, India.

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Synanthropic Indices and Baits Preferences of Common Non-biting Flies (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria | Chapter 08 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

Non-biting surveys in urban, rural and forested areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigera, using rotten meat, fish, fruits and human faeces, for collection yielded 4290 and 2474 flies from 9 families in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Synanthropic Indices (SI) of 15 species were calculated for the wet season, of which 10 species were positively synanthropic and five negatively synanthropoc to human settlements. In the dry season, the SI of all the 9 species computed were positive for human settlements. Significant bait preferences were shown only in the wet season by Chrysomya albiceps (F=10.2+++; P<0.05) for rotten meat and Poecilosomella angulata (F+9.6+++; P<0.05) for human faeces.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ekanem, Mfon Sunday
Department of Zoology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Mfonobong Okon Idiong
Department of Zoology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Professor Efana James Usua
Department of Zoology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

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Toxicity of Dichlorvos (2, 2- Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate) on Fish Life | Chapter 07 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

Environmental contaminants are having a major impact on receiving ecosystems including air, soil and surface water. Wastes resulting from human activities mostly end up in surface water through deposition and indirectly through runoff. Indiscriminate application of pesticides and the remains of empty cans are often improperly discharged. This possess a threat to the aquatic system especially amongst communities close to surface water resources. In Nigeria, the use of 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (an organophosphate insecticide) for the control of insects in household settings, agricultural field practice and in storage facilities abounds. 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate has different trade names depending on the region. This study reviewed the toxicity associated with 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate. The study found that the toxicants induces behavioural and morphological alteration, histopathological, haematological, biochemical, enzymatic, electrolytes and developmental defects and death depending on the concentration and exposure duration. The study also found that insecticides containing 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate is toxic to fish even at low concentrations (0.2 – 2 ppm). Hence, there is the need to exercise caution in the use and disposal of empty cans of 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate close to surface water.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Sylvester Chibueze Izah
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Bayelsa Medical University, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Dr. Glory Richard
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

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