Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in Nnewi Town of Anambra State, Nigeria: A Recent Perspective | Chapter 13 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Vaginal candidiasis (VC) is a common genital tract infection that affects mostly women especially the pregnant women leading to complications as abortions, premature birth, low birth weight among others. Vaginal specimens were collected from 300 pregnant women attending pre-natal visits in three selected hospitals in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria using sterile swab sticks. Specimens were cultured in Sabouraud and blood agar media under sterile condition. All pregnant patients were considered throughout the period of the study, having obtained an informed consent from them. Chisquare analysis of data indicated that ninety patients were positive for candidiasis, a prevalence rate of 30.0%. Furthermore, pregnant women aged 26 to 30 recorded the highest prevalence (13.669; df = 5) that was statistically significant (p<0.05). The women who in their third trimester of pregnancy were mostly infected (6.163; df = 2) with infection status which was highly significant (p<0.05). The symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were uniformly infected with Candida hence, there was no significant difference between them (p>0.05). Further stratification of the pregnant women according to their parity revealed that Candida infection decreased with parity and was significantly higher in those in their first and second pregnancy (p<0.01). Consideration of the socio-economic status and occupation of the pregnant women showed no significant difference (p>0.05).  It was suggested that avoidance of predisposing factors, Vaginal Candidosis could resolve within a short period of time.

Author(s)  Detail

Professor Okonkwo, Nnaemeka Joe
Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Umeanaeto, Pauline Ukamaka
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

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Influence of Different Factors on the Process of Biological Decontamination of Pyrophoric Iron Sulfide: Detailed Research | Chapter 12 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

This article describes the use strains thiobacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Achi1, Achi3 for decontamination pyrophoric deposits, which are a source of fires in refineries. It is found that the inhibitory factor is the intensity of insolation and organic impurities, and optima conditions for decontamination of hazardous waste are the temperature of 30 ± 35°C, the use of hydrocarbonoxidizing microorganisms and pH 2.0-2.5. 

Author(s) Details

Akmaral Issayeva
Institute of Ecology and Biology, Shymkent University, Kazakhstan.

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Preliminary Phytochemical Investigations with Quantitative Fractionation of Orange Pulp (Citrus aurantium Var. Dulcis L.): Natural Product Waste as Medicine a Recent Study | Chapter 11 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Day by day, faith of people on herbal medicine increases due to the side effect of synthetic drugs; this has resulted into people falling back to the traditional knowledge of plant for their health care. Certain local practitioner and traditional healers use the fruits of Citrus aurantium var. Dulcis L. pulps in various disease management and so, they advise to eat the pulps along with the drinking of the juice. The present study deals with preliminary phytochemical analysis of the fruit of Citrus aurantium var. Dulcis L pulp using 95% ethanol for its extraction. The fruits of Citrus aurantium var. Dulcis L. pulp ethanolic extract revealed the presence of all tested phytochemical compounds except protein and glycoside. These include Alkaloids, Tannins, Phenolic, Quinine, Reducing Sugar, Coumarins, Flavonoids, Saponins and Steroids. During the analysis, the quantitative fractionation of the ethanolic extract showed a reasonable amount of saturated hexane fraction (40 g), unsaturated hexane fraction (2.0 g), methanolic fraction (1.3 g), acidic fraction (1.2 g) and basic fraction (0.3 g). These results from the fruit of Citrus aurantium var. Dulcis L. pulps revealed their ignored medicinal importance by throwing it away to domestic animals, contributing to environmental de-sanitation and a natural product waste as medicine. And it’s a needful help for the scientific documentation and standardization of row fruits waste material as to be used in medicine and recommended for worldwide acceptance.  

Author(s) Details

Y. Rufai 
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education Okene, P.M.B. 1026 Kogi State, Nigeria.

S. Fatimah
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education Okene, P.M.B. 1026 Kogi State, Nigeria.

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Quality Assessment of Post-Harvest Fungal Diseases of Mango Fruits (Mangifera indica L.) in Saudi Arabia | Chapter 15 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

A survey was conducted between May and July to assess the extent of loss in mangoes at wholesale and consumer levels caused by fungal spoilage during post-harvest. Mango fruits were purchased from different markets in Saudi Arabia and the degree of losses due to fungal spoilage was assessed at the different levels of marketing. Fungal spoilage was found to be the highest at the consumer level and least at the wholesale level. Aspergillus flavus rot, Aspergillus niger rot, Fusarium sp. and Penicillium spp. rot were the commonest diseases affecting the mango fruits.

Author(s) Details

 Ahmed Rashed Al-Najada
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O.Box 6086, Riyadh, 11442, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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Carrier Rate of Typhoid Organisms in Enugu, Nigeria: Brief Research | Chapter 14 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Aims: To determine the carrier rate of typhoid and paratyphoid organisms in Enugu community. Place and Duration of Study: The project was carried out in Enugu Urban in South Eastern part of Nigeria. Those enrolled in the study that lasted for one year are students, traders and civil servants.   Methodology: Ninety six apparently healthy adults without any complaints, comprising of forty eight males and forty eight females were selected for the study. Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from all in the study group. The samples were subjected to standard bacteriological culture for enteric organisms at the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Results: Salmonella typhi was isolated from the stool of two (2.08%) of the candidates while S. paratyphi was recovered from the stool of another individual (1.04%) of the study group. No candidate gave Widal titre greater than 40 to ,O, agglutinin  which is statistically significant (Anova F value 597.7, P value <0.0001). Only Two Candidates positive for S. typhi culture gave titre of 160 to, H, antigen, also statistically significant (Anova F value 1195, P value <0.0001). Conclusion: Typhoid carrier rate in Enugu Community is 2.1% while that of paratyphoid is 1.0%. From the study females are more likely to be typhoid carriers in Enugu.  

Author(s) Details

Dr. Martin E. Ohanu
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria.

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Studies on Mycotoxin Contamination and Induced Biochemical Changes Associated with Some Important Medicinal Plants | Chapter 8 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Studies were undertaken on mycotoxin contamination and induced biochemical changes in some important medicinal plants. For the purpose of study four important medicinal plants namely Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Plantago ovata and Vitex negundo were selected. Samples were collected from different localities of Uttarakhand (India). Mycotoxin producing fungi like A. flavus, A. ochraceus, F. verticillioides and Penicillium citrinum were recorded. In comparison to other mycotoxigenic fungi, percentage toxigenicity was higher in Aspergillus flavus. In case of E. officinalis, 32.69% isolates of A.flavus were toxigenic and produced aflatoxins up to 21 µg/ml in the liquid media followed by A. indica where 22.2% isolates produced aflatoxin in the range of 0.4-13.8 µg/ml. In case of V. negundo and P. ovata 14.28% and 8% isolates of A. flavus elaborated aflatoxin B1,B2 and aflatoxin B1 respectively at low concentration. Mycotoxin contamination in stored samples of E. officinalis and V. negundo showed aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B1,B2 as natural contaminant. Twenty eight percent (28%) samples of E. officinalis exhibited higher concentration of aflatoxins up to 0.98 µg/g whereas in case of V. negundo 6% samples were found naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Alkaloid content of medicinal plant produce understudy was estimated in healthy as well as A. flavus infested samples.There was an indication of inhibition in the total alkaloid content due to the toxigenic strain of A. flavus. Statistical analysis of the results show a decline in the level of total alkaloid content due to fungal contamination significant at 5% level of significance. 

Author(s) Details

Dr. (Mrs.) Punam Kumari Singh 
Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, India.

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Antibacterial Activity of Mulinum spinosum Extracts against Slime-producing Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Nasal Carriers: An Overview | Chapter 6 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus are important reservoirs with risk of developing endogenous infections or transmitting infections to susceptible individuals. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are associated with higher rates of treatment failure. Some strains of S. aureus produce slime which is believed to make the microorganisms more resistant to antibiotics and host defenses. The antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate: n-hexane (EtOAc:HEX) extracts of Mulinum spinosum (5:95% EtOAc:HEX, 50:50% EtOAc:HEX, 70:30% EtOAc:HEX and  mix 20:80/30:70% EtOAc:HEX, 50:50/70:30/100:0% EtOAc:HEX) were assayed against 3 slime-producing S. aureus strains and 2 MRSA strains isolated from nasal carriers. S.aureus ATCC 35556 slime-producing strain and MRSA ATCC 43300 strain were used as controls. The extracts were prepared using flash chromatography. M. spinosum 5:95% AcOEt:HEX showed antibacterial effect against all slime-producing strains (MIC:500 µg/ml) and the highest activity against MRSA strains (MIC:500 to 1000 µg/ml). All M.spinosum extracts assayed were active against slime-producing S. aureus and MRSA at doses between 500 and 4000 µg/ml. Both, slime-producing S. aureus and MRSA are highly contagious and hardly eradicated by antibiotic therapies. So, there is an increasing need to find new substances with the ability to inhibit these strains
Author(s) Details 

Echenique Daniela
Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina.

Chiaramello Alejandra
Department of Chemistry, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina.

Mattana Claudia
Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina

Dr. Alcaráz Lucía
Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina

Laciar Analía
Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina

Satorres Sara
Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina.

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Brief Overview of Host-Parasite Relationships | Chapter 5 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Host parasite relationships result from prolonged associations between organisms living in a given environment. The nature and extent of the association will determine the type of relationship existing between the co-habiting organisms. Host-parasite associations usually give rise to four main relationships namely parasitism, mutualism, commensalism and phoresis.

Author(s) Details
Dr. N. Ukibe
Solomon Department of Prosthesis and Orthopaedic Technology, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

N. Obi-Okaro Alphonsus
Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria.

R. Ukibe Nkiruka
Department of Human Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria.

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Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water in Zamfara North Senatorial District, Nigeria: Brief Overview | Chapter 4 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Provision of portable drinking water is of public health concern especially in developing countries where this is unavailable. Microbes are ubiquitous and are known to contaminate materials including food and water. Microbial contamination cannot be detected by sight, smell or taste. Basic laboratory tests are the best way to tell if coliform organisms are present as they can be there with no appearance or taste difference. The microbiological quality of drinking water (DW) in Zamfara North Senatorial Zone was examined. A total of 16, two each from each of eight common brands of sachet water in the area were bought from water vendors, and were examined for total bacteria load, total coliform and presence of bacteria species using standard microbiological techniques. The result showed that the total viable count of bacteria in all the samples ranged from 6.0×102 CFU/ml to 4.0×108 CFU/ml. Total coliform was 1.8×107 MPN/100 ml for all the tested samples. The organisms isolated were Pseudomonas maltophila, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas pseudomollia, Salmonella typhi, Shigella species, and Pseudomonas dimineta. Prevalence of different isolates revealed that Pseudomonas, C. freundii, S. typhi and E. coli were predominant in comparison to Shigella species. The present study revealed that the microbial quality often exceed World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) allowable limit of 1.0×102 CFU/ml for potable water and Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON) maximum permissible level of 10 CFU/ml (total coliform) and 0 CFU/100 ml. The high microbial isolates and load may have contaminated the water from the environment. These microbes found in the drinking water sources are known to cause several diseases. Present study indicate that water testing would ensure the supply and availability of contamination-free drinking water; and awareness amongst people towards sanitation and hygienic conditions for storage of drinking water is needed to keep away the use of contaminated water. The present study suggests that drinking water sources should be properly treated prior to consumption using appropriate methods; so as to reduce the occurrence of waterborne diseases.

Author(s) Details

A. Y. Fardami
Department of Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

B. Mamuda
Physics Unit, SRBS, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria.

I. A. Kangiwa
Chemistry Unit, SRBS, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria.

H. Y. Ismail
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

I. U. Karaye
Department of Biological Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

J. Sanusi
Department of Biology, School of Sciences, Isa Kaita Collage of Education, Dutsin-Ma, Katsina Sate, Nigeria.

U. B. Ibrahim
Department of Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

A. Ibrahim
Department of Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

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Starch Phosphorylase: Biochemical and Biotechnological New Perspectives | Chapter 3 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

A dynamic mediatory role between starch synthesis and degradation has been ascribed to starch phosphorylase. However, plant starch phosphorylase is largely considered to be involved in phosphorolytic degradation of starch. It reversibly catalyzes the transfer of glucosyl units from glucose-1-phosphate to the non-reducing end of glucan chain with the release of inorganic phosphate. It is widely distributed in plant kingdom. Enzyme multiplicity is also common in starch phosphorylase and different multiple forms have been predicted to have different roles in starch metabolism. Here, various biochemical properties have been reviewed. Its regulation by aromatic amino acids has also been discussed. Importance of plastidial and cytoplasmic starch phosphorylase has also been discussed. Various biotechnological aspects have been discussed. Its exploitation in production of glucose-1-phosphate, a cytostatic compound has been discussed in the present review.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Anil Kumar 
School of Biotechnology, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Rd., Indore-452001, India.

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