Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) Peel Extract and Antifungal Study: Recent Advancement | Chapter 13 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Copper nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction method using copper (II) sulfate with the reducing agent (ascorbic) acid in aqueous mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel extract characterisation, and protective polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, Mw = 85000 g/mol). The morphology and structure of the synthesized copper nanoparticles ranged from 10 – 40 nm by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), transmission Electronic Microscope (TEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE – SEM). It can be controlled during synthesis by varying the reaction temperature, pH and relative ratio of copper sulfate to the surfactant. These synthesized copper nanoparticles were found to be effective in controlling the growth of pathogens viz. Corticium salmonicola and Phanerochaete salmon color. The antifungal activities of copper nanoparticles were enhanced by increasing their concentration and copper nanoparticles recorded higher events than those of copper sulfate.

Author(s) Details

Nguyen Thi Hieu Trang
Postharvest Technology Division, Research and Development Center for High Technology Agriculture, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Pham Dinh Dung
Postharvest Technology Division, Research and Development Center for High Technology Agriculture, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Le Si Ngoc Postharvest Technology Division, Research and Development Center for High Technology Agriculture, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Le Si Ngoc
Postharvest Technology Division, Research and Development Center for High Technology Agriculture, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Pham Thi Ha Van
Postharvest Technology Division, Research and Development Center for High Technology Agriculture, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Pham Quang Thang

Postharvest Technology Division, Research and Development Center for High Technology Agriculture, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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Super-Food Black Garlic – Breath of Birth | Chapter 8 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

When making black garlic, lots of pungent gas was released from fresh garlic during processing of fresh garlic but no chemical constituents of gas was reported until now. Gas Chromatography was applied to clarify compounds included to keep health condition of workers. Three major constituents such as ammonia (17%), sulfide group (17%) and aldehyde group (66%) were identified in pungent gas. Bioactivity of garlic derived gas (volatile) was conducted against bacteria P. aerugionosa, B. natto, enterohemorrhgagic E. coli O157, MRSA and C. albicans. Antibacteria activity of garlic was the strongest to compared with reference samples of garlic, onion, horse radish, dokudami (Houttuyhia cordata), rubbed sage, whole clove and cinnamon by the petri dish cultivation method. Bacteria killing mechanisms of Thujopsis dolabrata (Hiba tree) oil and formalin chemical presented different appearance by scanning electron microscopic analysis, suggesting that bacteria killing actions are various depending on types of gas (volatile). 

Author(s) Details

Jin-ichi Sasaki
Hirosaki University of Health and Welfare, Junior College, 2-5 Ogimachi Hirosaki 036-8104, Japan.

Hamasuke Hamano
Genki Co., Ltd., 2-1 Kihoku-Cho Kitamura-Gun Mie 519-3402, Japan.
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Imperative Role of Oxidation of Diethylthiourea in Dye Wastewater Treatment | Chapter 7 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Several properties of thiourea and its derivatives are reported in biological, electrochemical, photochemical and radio-protective fields. This article proposed the use of thiourea derivative in the field of dye wastewater management where the color of the dye was reduced by the application of Diethylthiourea (DETU). For this purpose basic dye methylene green (MG) was selected at laboratory scale to monitor its color reduction by the addition of DETU. It was observed that DETU reacts with methylene green (MG) and reduced it into leuco dye where it oxidized into smaller fragments like urea, nitrate and sulphate. The reaction was favorable in acidic condition. A direct relation in between oxidation of DETU and MG to the concentration of H+ ions was observed through typical kinetics in two acids like HCl and H2SO4. The second order kinetics with respect to HCl and the first order with respect to H2SO4 indicated the protonation of the dye leading to reduction. In alkaline medium, the decline in the rate of reaction may be due to the suppressing effects of alkali on oxidation/degradation of DETU into smaller fragments or may be attributed with the de-protonation of DETU. Influence of addition of dye into reaction mixture retarded the bleaching process and follows zero order kinetics while rate of reaction enhanced by the addition of DETU in the reaction mixture and shows ¾th order with respect to DETU. Negative effect of added different electrolytes reflects that change of ionic strength of reaction mixture have some bearing on redox reaction of MG and DETU. Reaction was monitored at elevated temperature and activation parameters were computed. The mechanisms of oxidation of DETU with reduction of dye MG were discussed. Reduction of MG into leuco dye with the fragmentation of DETU was observed in acidic condition at elevated temperature.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Tehseen Ahmed
Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.


Dr. Rafia Azmat
Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

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Bioinformatics Based Investigation on the Assortment of Industrially Accessible Azodyes with Azoreductase Enzyme of Pseudomonas putida | Chapter 9 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Azo dyes are the most widely applied chemical dyes that have also raised great concerns for environmental contamination and human health issues. There has been an increased interest in discovering new novel bioremediation strategies to degrade azo dyes for environmental issues and also economic purposes. Azoreductase are key enzymes evolved in nature capable of degrading the azo dyes. As azoreductase enzyme is a key enzyme in degrading these azo dyes, they are good and potential candidates for industrial wastewater treatment and environmental restoration. The initial critical step of reduction of azo bond during the metabolism of azo dyes is catalysed by a group of NADH and FAD dependant enzyme called azoreductase. Although several azoreductase have been identified from microorganisms and partially characterized, very little is known about the structural basis of the substrate specificity and the nature of catalysis. Azoreductase enzyme of Pseudomonas putida has a wider broad spectrum of substrate specificity and capable of degrading a wide variety of azo dyes. In the present study, the crystal structure of the enzyme from PDB and 10 azo dyes from NCBI PubChem compound were retrieved and their interactions were studied. These azo dyes were then docked with the FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase enzyme to analyse the binding affinity of the azo dyes with the enzyme and predict the catalytic sites. Consequently, the catalytic residues of FMN-dependent and NADH dependent enzyme were then analysed in terms of properties including function, hydrogen bonding and flexibility. The results suggest that Ala-114, Phe-172 and Glu-174 play a predominant role as catalytic site residues in the enzyme. Furthermore, the approach emphasis on predicting the active sites of this enzyme where substrates can bind in order to give a better understanding of the biodegradation of some of the commercially important azodyes mediated by azoreductase. These results will pave way for further increase in azoreductase activity and for better understanding of the dye degradation pathway. In addition to it, the different types of azo reductases can be further biochemically characterized for their novelty in near future.

Author(s) Details

Mr. Bikash Thakuria
Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biotechnology, St. Edmund’s College, Shillong – 793003, Meghalaya, India.

Dr. Samrat Adhikari
Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biotechnology, St. Edmund’s College, Shillong – 793003, Meghalaya, India

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Influence of Urethane on Rheological Properties of the Erythrocytes in Rats: Recent Advancement | Chapter 12 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Therapeutic strategies using various preparations and their combinations with different mechanisms of action are gaining increasing attention. But the experiments are carried out in accordance with the work ethic on animals using anesthetics, which change the internal environment. We examined effect of urethane on rheological properties of erythrocytes in rats. Our results demonstrated negative effect resulting in worsens deformability and aggregability of the erythrocytes. Therefore studies on the effect of drugs to hematological parameters and blood rheology which were performed on urethane anesthetized animals, should be considered invalid and incorrect.

Author(s) Details

L. N. Katiukhin 
Laboratory of Comparative Enzymes Biochemistry, Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry,  St. Petersburg, Russia

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Biodesulfurization of Sour Crude Oil: An Advanced Study | Chapter 11 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Crude oil is one of the most important types of fossil fuel in the world. It is an economically important commodity that is massively used in different fields of industrial activities. The poor quality of crude oil is related to high sulfur content, which translates to lower profit margins and negatively impacts air quality standards. Polyaromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) that exist in crude oil require an efficient reduction method to achieve a significant desulfurization level. Recently, biodesulfurization (BDS) is gaining greater attention attributed to its environmentally benign bioprocess; the possible benefits of BDS include lower capital and processing costs. Studies have reported that BDS is urgently needed for the desulfurization of recalcitrant organic sulfur than relative to a traditional approach, hydrodesulfurization (HDS). The establishment of commercial-scale bio-refining technology relies upon achieving major advancement in BDS, which concerning less expensive and sufficient production of highly active and stable biocatalysts. These bacteria can be adapted to intense conditions encountered in petroleum refineries. In this paper, a review on BDS processes for removing recalcitrant thoiphenic components from sour crude oil is conducted, covering the aim of most studies concerning desulfurizing bacteria, which enables deep desulfurization of organosulfur compounds by 4S pathway, maintaining the caloric value of the fuel.

Author(s) Details

Bushra Esmail Alkhalili
Petroleum Research, Material Directory, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

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Exploration on the Effectiveness of Radio Frequency Treatment and Flash Pasteurisation on Enzyme and Microbial Activity for Coconut Water Preservation: Recent Perspective | Chapter 10 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

The aim of this research work is to explore the effect of flash pasteurisation (FP) and radio frequency (RF) treatment on enzyme activity, microbial activity and physicochemical properties of matured coconut water (MCW). The process conditions for FP were treatment temperature and time in combinations. The process conditions for RF treatment were different electrode position with constant current load 0.8 A. The results obtained from these treatments reveal that FP conditions had significant effect on inactivation of natural microbial flora, polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity. From the results it is observed that FP at 90°C for 10 minutes is better for complete enzyme and microbial inactivation than RF treated MCW. The result is also evident that PPO has higher thermal stability than POD. From observed results the study also concludes that, FP is a better option for enzyme and microbial inactivation but RF treatment was found superior for retaining physicochemical attributes.

Author(s) Details

Bikash Thakuria

Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biotechnology, St. Edmund’s College, Shillong – 793003, Meghalaya, India.

Samrat Adhikari
Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biotechnology, St. Edmund’s College, Shillong – 793003, Meghalaya, India.

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Conformational Similarity between the Active Sites of a Sunflower Seedlings Lipase and a Porcine Pancreatic Lipase | Chapter 5 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

A true triacylglycerol lipase was detected in germinating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings associated to oleosomes. This enzyme that has not yet been identified was partially purified as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) (10%): Two protein bands, of 61 and 66 kDa, were isolated from the active lipase fraction. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) directed against each protein band were produced. Only PAbs against the 61 kDa protein band                   (P-61) were able to inhibit the total lipolytic activity of our preparation. Hence, only the 61 kDa protein carries the sunflower lipase activity. The relationship between a pure porcine pancreatic lipase                 and the P-61 purified sunflower lipolytic fraction was investigated, leading to the first evidence of            cross reaction between the porcine pancreatic lipase and the P-61 sunflower lipase fraction.  These results are in agreement with common epitopes to the porcine pancreatic lipase and the sunflower P-61.

Author(s) Details –

Dr. Sellema Bahri
Laboratoire de Biochimie, Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092, Tunis, Tunisia.

Amel Benammar-ElGaaied
Laboratoire de Génétique, Immunologie et Pathologies humaines, Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092, Tunis, Tunisia.

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Use of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to Optimize Culture Media for in vitro Callogenesis in Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker-Gawl, a Little Known Medicinal Plant | Chapter 4 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Aims: The present study was undertaken to explore the potentiality of in vitro micropropagation (by callus induction) of Ipomoea obscura(L.) Ker-Gawl (Convolvulaceae), a perennial herb. Method: Axenically grown cotyledonary leaves regenerated into profuse calli, in various combinations of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D) with benzylaminopurine (BAP). Microroots emerged from these calli when subjected to various combinations of NAA and BAP. Maximum number of root meristems and microroots were formed in 1.25 mg/L NAA with the combination of 0.5 mg/L BAP (1:4 v/v). Leaf, nodal and internodal segments as explants were cultured on MS media containing 2,4 D at 0.5, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L, for callus induction. Only leaf tips initiated callogenesis with highest response at 10 mg/l 2,4 D and lowest with 0.5 mg/l 2.4 D. This is the first report of in vitro response of I. obscura.  Results: All the results were analyzed on the context of response surface methodology (RSM) and simultaneously by contour plot. Two variables lay out in X and Y axes and a third variable Z is plotted for contour level as concentric values. An efficient and effective micropopagation protocol was developed from the leaf of Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker-gawl, an important medicinal plant. Transplantation of regenerated plants under in vivo condition has been done successfully. RSM has been used for modeling, analyzing and optimizing in vitro responses of Ipomoea obscura. The specific target response surface plot and contour plot are focused to determine optimum shoot and root length against optimum hormone concentration, number of shoot and root length   in best concentration of MS medium and finally mean number of root and shoot in optimum NAA concentration. Depending upon variances of dry weight of callus, rooting response and root length, response surface plots (RSM) and contour plots were drawn  where four types of hormone combinations  (IAA- BAP, IBABAP, NAA-BAP, 2,4D-BAP) were used in different combinations.

Author(s) Details
Dr. Tanmoy Sinha
Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Botany, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan-713104, West Bengal, India

A. Bandyopadhyay
Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Botany, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan-713104, West Bengal, India.

In vivo and in vitro Study of Piper longum Explants for Anticancerous, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties | Chapter 3 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Piper longum is a medicinal plant of great importance. The present work is to compare anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of different explants (leaf and stem) of Piper longum in vivo and in vitro. The anticancerous activity was measured in terms of percentage cytotoxicity and the cell line used was leukemic cell line K562. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, bacteria were used for determination of antibacterial activity. Solvent extracts were prepared from leaf and stem explants of Piper longum and their anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antioxidant activity was measured in terms of percentage (%) Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and percentage (%) 2,2– diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazy1 (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The aqueous Piper longum fruit extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro studies. The anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant effects were found to be higher for hot extracts than cold extract. Further the results of in vivo explants were better than in vitro explants, in case of anticancerous activity and results of in vitro explants were better than in vivo explants, in case of antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

Author (s) Details

Sudipta Banerjee
Department of Biotechnology, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh, 825301, India.

G. R. Pathade
Department of Biotechnology, Fergusson College, Pune, India.

M. A. Mallick
Department of Biotechnology, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh, 825301, India.

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