Submicro Level in Chemistry Education: Atoms, Ions and Moleculesto Understand Acid-base and Redox Reactions | Chapter 11 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

From experiences all over the world we know that formulae and chemical equations are memorized very often or are equalized by counting the number of „atoms on the left and right side of the equation“. Looking to our Chemical triangle (Fig. 1) lecturers and students are jumping from the Macro level just to the Symbolic level. If we would go first from Macro level to Submicro level and explain chemical reactions with involved atoms, ions and molecules, learners would understand chemistry more successfully. With a special questionnaire we are investigating the ability of university students and chemistry teachers in Indonesia, Tanzania and Germany to interpret given chemical equations with involved particles. We found a lot of misconceptions and proposed how to challenge them.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Barke
Department of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry Education, University of Münster, Germany.

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A Mechanistic Study on Kinetics of Oxidation of Diazepam by N Bromosuccinimide in Acid Medium | Chapter 4 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

The oxidation of diazepam (DZ) by N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) in aqueous acid medium follows a first-order kinetics in [NBS] and a fractional-order each on [HCl] and [DZ]. The reaction stoichiometry involves one mol NBS consumed by one mol DZ. The rate of the reaction increases with the decrease in dielectric constant of the medium. Added products and the variation of ionic strength have no significant effect on the rate of the reaction. The oxidation products were identified by spectral analysis. A mechanism involving the formation of an intermediate NBS-DZ complex has been proposed. The solvent effect is consistent with the charge dispersion going into the transition state. The activation parameters for the reaction have been determined. The negative entropy of  activation suggests the formation of a rigid, associative transition state involving loss of degrees of freedom.

Author(s) Details

Dr. N. Nanda
Department of Chemistry, BMS College for Women, Basavanagudi, Bangalore 560004, India.

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Lipase Mediated Synthesis of (3R)-Stiripentol | Chapter 6 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

Racemic stiripentone was synthesised from piperonal and pinacolone and reduced to the alcohol stiripentol, which was obtained in high yield. Kinetic resolution of stiripentol catalysed by lipase A from Candida antarctica via esterification with vinyl butanoate has been performed with an E-value of 24. This allowed isolation of (3S)-stiripentol with an enantiomeric excess (ee) of 86% and the corresponding (3R)-butanoate with an ee of 87%. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the ester product gave (3R)-stiripentol with an ee of 94%. Additionally, a novel one-pot two-step pathway for the synthesis of 5-vinylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole starting from (E)-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid has been developed. Lipase catalysed esterification of 4,4-dimethylpent-1-en-3-ol afforded (R)-(+)-4,4-dimethylpent-1-en-3-ol and an ee >99% of (3R)-stiripentol was obtained via cross metathesis of this compound coupled with 5vinylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole.  

Author(s) Details

Mohammed Farrag El-Behairy
Department of Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sadat City, Menoufiya, 32897, Egypt

Elisabeth Egholm Jacobsen
Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.

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New Fibrinogenases Isolated From Marine Hydrobiont Adamussium colbecki | Chapter 13 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Aims: Enzymes that affect hemostasis have been isolated from different sources. Fibrinogenolytic enzymes because of their role in dissolving of blood clots as well as preventionof their formation have attracted special medical and scientific attention. The main goal of current research was to analyze marine hydrobionts (an example of the Antarctic scallop Adamussium colbecki) of the Antarctic region on the presence of potential fibrinogenolytic enzymes.

Methodology: The fraction that consists of fibrinogenases was obtained by affinity chromatography on Blue Sepharose column. SDS-PAGE was applied for the determination of protein composition in the obtained fraction. The proteolytic activity was monitored by the zymographic technique. Fibrinogenolytic activity and activity toward collagen were assessed by incubation of samples with fibrinogen or collagen, respectively followed by SDS-PAGE analysis. To test for substrate specificity, the fraction of fibrinogenases was incubated with p-nitroanilide chromogenic peptides such as S-2366, S-2238, S-2251, S-2222. The fraction of fibrinogenaseswas preincubated with protease inhibitors EDTA, PMSF, and enzymatic activity was measured.

Results: The results clearly indicated the presence of enzymes with activity toward fibrinogen in the extract of A. colbecki. Zymography analysis detected the presence of active enzymes in the region of 27-30 kDa.  The fibrinogen cleavage pattern was analyzed by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions has revealed time- and dose-dependent hydrolysis of fibrinogen. The susceptibility of fibrinogen chains to proteolytic degradation by fibrinogenases from A. colbecki was different. The enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed the Aα-chain; they also cleaved the Bβ-chain but at a slower rate. Collagen was found to be resistant to the action of the fibrinogenases under similar experimental conditions. Fibrinogenases from A. colbecki hydrolyzed chromogenic substrates as S-2238, S-2251, S-2222 and S-2366 but with different specificity. Specific protease inhibitors PMSF and EDTA were used to identify the nature of fibrinogenases present in the tissue of hydrobiont. On the basis of this analysis, the fraction of fibrinogenases from A. colbecki consisted of serine proteases as well as metalloproteases.

Author(s) Details

Nataliia Raksha
Educational and Scientific Center “Institute of Biologyand Medicine”,Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

Dmytro Gladun
Educational and Scientific Center “Institute of Biologyand Medicine”,Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

Tetyana Vovk
Educational and Scientific Center “Institute of Biologyand Medicine”,Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

Tetyana Galenova
Educational and Scientific Center “Institute of Biologyand Medicine”,Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

Oleksii Savchuk
Educational and Scientific Center “Institute of Biologyand Medicine”,Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

Lydmila Ostapchenko
Educational and Scientific Center “Institute of Biologyand Medicine”,Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

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Isolation and Characterization of Flavonoids in Urena lobata Leaves | Chapter 12 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Aim: Urena lobata L. a member of Malvaceae family, is widely used as famine food in Africa. It is also used in traditional medicine system to cure gonorrhea, fever, wounds, toothache & rheumatism. The plant has already been tested for its antioxidant activity. The work was extended to investigate and identify the flavonoid glycosides present in the plant.

Methodology: Urena lobata leaves were dried, powdered and extracted with petroleum ether followed by methanol. The methanolic extract, after processing through different solvents, was used to obtain the Chemically active constituents .Column Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) were used to isolate four compounds which were, in turn, subjected to spectroscopic analysis.

Results: The spectroscopic studies indicated that the four isolated compounds are (1) Quercetin, (2) Kaempferol, (3) Quercetin 3-0-rutinoside and (4) Kaempferol 3-0- β glucopyranoside.

Conclusion: The presence of flavonoids in the plant makes it an important ingredient of the traditional medicinal system. Since flavonoids are associated with antioxidant activity, their presence in the plant makes it an important food material.

Author(s) Details

Dixa Singh
Department of Chemistry, H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus-Pauri (Uttarakhand), India.

V. S. Singh
Department of Chemistry, H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus-Pauri (Uttarakhand), India.

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Simultaneous Determination of Camylofin Dihydrochloride and Paracetamol Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry in Micellar Media | Chapter 11 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Simple and sensitive differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method has been developed for simultaneous determination of camylofin-2HCl and paracetamol. The electrochemical oxidation of camylofin was studied at carbon paste electrode using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. A reproducible and reliable oxidation current peak was obtained at pH 7. The oxidation current was enhanced in presence of sodium dodecylsulphate as an erosion reagent. Under optimal conditions the oxidation current was proportional to camylofin concentration in the range from 5.0 to 100.0 µM. Besides, the method was linear for paracetamol which is an active ingredient in the concentration range from 5.0 to 1000.0 µM. The proposed DPV method was selective for simultaneous determination of the two drugs with mean recovery of 99.58±2.13% and 99.44±0.57% for camylofin-2HCl and paracetamol, respectively. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines and successfully applied for the determination of the two drugs in combined pharmaceutical formulations.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Emad Mohamed Hussien
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), 9 Abou-Hazem Str., Giza, Egypt.

Dr. Israa Abd El-Ghafar Mohammed
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, 11754, Egypt.

Prof. Sawsan Abdel-Moneim Abd El-Razeq
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, 11754, Egypt.

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Ultrasonic Investigation of Molecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures at 298K | Chapter 10 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity of a binary system of acrylonitrile in 1, 4-Dioxane have been measured at 298 K and 2 MHz. Experimental data of the ultrasonic sound velocity, density and viscosity have been used to calculate various acoustical parameters, such as adiabatic compressibility (βa), intermolecular free length (Lf), free volume (Vf), excess values of adiabatic compressibility (βaE), excess values of free length (LfE) and excess values of free volume (VfE). It is observed from these acoustical parameters that, weak intermolecular interactions are confirmed in this system. Dipole inducement in the system is found to be more predominant. The nonlinear behavior of all these parameters throws more light on the various interactions among the molecules.

Author(s) Details

Dr. G. R. Bedare
Department of Physics, N. S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati, Dist – Chandrapur (MS), India.

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Chemical Composition and Ovicidal, Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activity of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil against Anopheles gambiae. (Diptera: Culicidae) | Chapter 09 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Background: Malaria remains a serious Public Health threat in the sub-Saharan regions. Although Anopheles gambiae (main malaria vector) has developed resistance against commonly used insecticides, the emergence of this resistance as well as the pollution of the environment by these chemicals have led to the use of plant-derived products such as essential oils.

Aim: This study aimed to characterize and investigate in laboratory bioassays the ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activities of Ocimum basilicum essential oil against aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Cameroon.

Methods: Essential oils of O. basilicum fresh leaves were extracted by hydro-distillation, characterized by gas chromatography coupling mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tested against An. gambiae eggs, larvae and pupal stages in laboratory bioassays.

Results: With an overall yield of 0.31% (w/w), the essential oil of O. basilicum fresh leaves revealed the presence of 29 compounds by GC-MS. Monoterpenes were the main group of compounds found with 1-8 Cineol (33.9%), β-Pinene 16.09%), Terpineol (11.21%) and α-Pinene (5.65%) as the main ingredients. These compounds demonstrated an efficient toxic effect against the aquatic stages of An. gambiae with no egg hatching after 24 hours exposure at >30 ppm. The LC50 values of the essential oil were respectively obtained one-hour and 24-hours post-exposure for first (29.41 and 24.7 ppm), second (34.7 and 17.6 ppm), third (34.7 and 20 ppm) and fourth (45.29 and 23.5 ppm) instars larvae and the pupal stage (45.88 and 36.47 ppm) of An. gambiae.

Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum demonstrated a good efficacy against the aquatic stages of An. gambiae and could be suitable for use in mosquito control programme for a Public Health purposes.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Foko Dadji Gisele Aurelie
Laboratory of Zoology, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaoundé I, P.O.Box 47, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Prof. Tamese Joseph Lebel
Laboratory of Zoology, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaoundé I, P.O.Box 47, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

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An Effect of Precursor Concentration on ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Dip Coating Method | Chapter 08 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully coated onto glass substrates at various solutions concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M and 0.3 M) by Low cost SILAR coating technique. The film thickness was estimated using weight gain method and it revealed that the film thickness increased with solution concentration values. The prepared film structural, morphological and optical properties were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer respectively. The structure of the films were found to be hexagonal structure with polycrystalline in nature with preferential orientation along (002) plane. X-ray line profile analysis was used to evaluate the micro structural parameters such as crystallite size, micro strain, dislocation density and stacking fault probability. The value of the crystalline size is increased by increasing the concentration of the solution. The average crystalline size was estimated at in the range of 26 nm to 29 nm. The morphological results showed that the concentration of a solution had a significant effect on the morphology of the ZnO thin films. The optical studies revealed that the band gap can be tailored between 3.65 eV to 3.85 eV by altering solution concentration. EDAX studies have shown the presence of zinc and oxygen content. Photoluminescence intensity varies with molar concentration due to the increase of oxygen vacancies. FTIR results conforms the presence of functional group present in the samples.

Author(s) Details

K. Radhi Devi
Department of Physics, Sethupathy Govt. Arts College, Ramanathapuram – 623 502, India.

G. Selvan
Department of Physics, Thanthai Hans Roever College, Perambalur – 621 220, India.

M. Karunakaran
Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi – 630 003, India.

K. Kasirajan
Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi – 630 003, India.

G. Rajesh Kanna
Department of Electronics, Government Arts College for Women, Ramanathapuram- 623 502, India.

S. Maheswari
Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi – 630 003, India and Department of Physics, Caussanel College of Arts and Science, Ramanathapuram – 623 523, India.

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Thermally-Driven Blood Flow in a Bifurcating Artery | Chapter 07 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

A thermally-driven oscillatory blood flow in bifurcating arteries is studied. Blood is treated as Newtonian, viscous, incompressible, homogeneous, magnetically susceptible, chemically reactive but of order one; the arteries are porous, bifurcate axi-symmetrically, and have negligible distensibility. The governing non-linear and coupled equations modeled on the Boussinesq assumptions are solved using the perturbation series expansion solutions. The solutions obtained for the temperature and velocity are expressed quantitatively and graphically. The results show that the temperature is increased by the increase in chemical reaction rate, heat exchange parameter, Peclet number, Grashof number and Reynolds number, but decreases with increasing magnetic field parameter (in the range of 0.1≤M2≤1.0) and bifurcation angle; the velocity increases as the magnetic field parameter (in the range of 0.1≤M2≤1.0 in the mother channel and 0.1≤M2≤0.5 in the daughter channel), chemical reaction rate (in the range of 0.1≤δ12≤0.5), Grashof number (in the range of 0.1≤Gr≤0.5), Reynolds number and bifurcation angle. The increase and decrease in the flow variables have strong implications on the arterial blood flow.

Author(s) Details

W. I. A. Okuyade
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Professor T. M. Abbey
Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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