Physicochemical Properties of Some Vegetable Seed Oils and Their Applications | Chapter 06 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

The physicochemical properties of oils were discussed, and as a case study, extracted from three locally available plant seeds in Nigeria namely: Alchomea cordiforlia, Cyperus esculentum and Irvingia gabonensis using n-Hexane and their properties determined. The results of the analysis revealed that their % yield were 37.00, 27.50 and 33.00 for A. cordiforlia, C. esculentum and I. gabonensis respectively. Their odour was non-offensive and their colours were reddish, light yellow and milky white for A. cordifolia, C. esculentum and I. gabonensis respectively, making them bright and attractive. The specific gravity of the oils at 25°c was 0.91, 0.94 and 0.92 for A. cordiforlia, C. esculentum and I. gabonensis respectively. Their flash points in °c were also 155, 159 and 229 respectively, indicating that I. gabonensis is the most thermally stable oil and suitable for frying. The chemical properties for A. cordiforlia, C.esculentum, and I. gabonensis respectively were as follows: Acid values in mgKOH/g were 24.67, 5.33 and 3.73. Peroxide values in mEqKg-1 were 7.26, 9.86 and 2.96. Saponification values in mgKOH/g were 162.13, 179.52 and 238.43. Iodine values in g/100g were 24.62, 11.68 and 3.38. These results indicate that the three seeds are viable sources of oil based on their % yield. They are good for both domestic and industrial use based on their acid, saponification and iodine values. Their properties in most cases compete favorably with palm kernel oil (PKO) which is currently being used for many domestic and industrial purposes in Nigeria especially for the making of paints, soap, cosmetics, lubricant and varnishes.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Michael Akomaye Akpe
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

Faith Patrick Inezi
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

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Heavy Metals Removal From Spent Synthetic-Based Drilling Mud Using Nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) | Chapter 05 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Management of waste generated from oil and gas activities in the Niger Delta, is a major environmental challenge given that if the spent mud is disposed without proper treatment, the heavy metals will pose a lot of health risks to human through ingestion or inhalation. The heavy metals are also toxic to marine organisms, if disposed into the sea, untreated. Spent synthetic drilling mud is a major waste stream, among its components, are heavy metals. Samples collected on day 0 and biweekly were digested and analysed using the atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). With nano Zero-Valent Iron, nZVI, concentration of 0.75mg/L of the spent mud, more than 95% removal were recorded for most metals in 6 weeks and over 99% in 12 weeks. The residual heavy metal concentrations met global limits for effluent disposal. Mathematical models with the goodness of fit, R2 of 0.999, were developed to predict the removal process.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Obinduka Felix
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Engineering, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

Prof. Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

Prof. Onyewuchi Akaranta
Centre of Excellence, Centre for Oilfield Chemicals Research, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Prof. Gideon O. Abu
Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Synthesis of Ultra-long Hollow Mercury Selenide (HgSe) Chalcogenide Nanofibers from Co and Ni Sacrificial Nanofibers | Chapter 04 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

A general synthetic method has been used to fabricate Co and Ni nanofibers. By using the electrospinning technique followed by galvanic displacement reaction, we have successfully prepared ultra-long hollow chalcogen and chalcogenide nanofibers. The outstanding features of this approach to get ultra-long sacrificial nanofibers with controlled dimensions and morphology, thereby imparting control over the composition and shape of the nanostructures evolved during galvanic displacement reaction are its simplicity, effectiveness and ease of assembly. The aim of this study is to exploit the structural and compositional changes during the formation of HgSe chalcogenide with a view of fabricating a mercury sensor.

Author(s) Details

Nche George Ndifor-Angwafor
Research Unit of Noxious Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemistry, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.

Mominou Nchare
School of Geology, Mining and Minerals Processing (E.G.E.M de Meiganga), University of Ngaoundere. P.O. Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon.

Tchuifon Tchuifon Donald Raoul
Research Unit of Noxious Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemistry, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.

Ngakou Sadeu Christian
Research Unit of Noxious Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemistry, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.

Anagho Solomon Gabche
Research Unit of Noxious Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemistry, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bamenda, P.O. Box 39, Bambili, Cameroon.

Nosang V. Myung
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California-Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

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Biodiesel Process Intensification | Chapter 03 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

An investigation on process intensification on biodiesel production was carried with Jatropha curcas seed oil, methanol and five solid base catalysts in a process intensified pilot plant. This Process Intensify Pilot Plant had not the following unit operations as in conventional plants; Neutralizer, Washer, Dryer, Heat exchanger and Condenser to reduce production cost. Five samples of biodiesel were produced with 3 moles of methanol to 1 mole of oil and 1.5 % catalyst loading (w/w of oil). Methyl ester yields of 97.4, 96.94, 95.76, 99.99 and 98.25 % catalyzed by bulk calcium oxide (CaO), super base calcium oxide (CaO/(NH4)2CO3), bulk magnesium oxide (MgO), calcium oxide/magnesium oxide (CaO/MgO) and 10 % impregnated potassium on calcium oxide/magnesium oxide (K-CaO/MgO) were obtained respectively. The products were analyzed in accordance with ASTM, EN and ISO standards for biodiesel and were found satisfactory for use in compression ignition engines. All the biodiesel samples were found not to be easily oxidized as they did not have poly-unsaturated esters such as: linoleate (18:2) and linoleneate (18:3). It was found that this process produced clean biodiesel devoid of glycerol. Also one of the findings from this study is transesterification does not support reversibility.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Haruna Ibrahim
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and Department of Petrochemical and Allied, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria, Nigeria.

Abdulkarim S. Ahmed
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Idris M. Bugaje
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and Department of Petrochemical and Allied, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria, Nigeria.

Ibrahim A. Mohammed-Dabo
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

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Phospholipase A2 Inhibition and Antiinflammatory Activity of F4 Fraction of Total Ethereal Leaf Extract of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) | Chapter 02 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) is a plant which is used in african traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. This study aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of total ethereal leaf extract fractions of A. senegalensis. Compounds of methanolic fractions of ethereal leaf extract of A. senegalensis were separated by gel sephadex chromatography, in five fractions (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5). Experiments were performed in acetic acid-induced contortions in mice, carrageenan rat paw edema and phospholipase A2 inhibitory test. The methanolic fraction of total ethereal leaf extract (10 mg/kg, per os) significantly prevented the carrageenan inflammatory edema. The variation of edema is 22.31±3.35%, 49.66±13.50%, 52.10±10.02% respectively at T1h, T3h and T5h. The increased edema after oral administration of F4 fraction administered at 300 µg/kg and 1 mg/kg per os is respectively 52.77±7.36% and 33.81±6.94%. The variation of edema in betamethasone group (1 mg/kg, per os) is 23.46±3.99%. F4 fraction at 300 µg/kg, significantly inhibited 16.39% of phospholipase A2 enzyme activity. F4 fraction (300 µg/kg, per os) also significantly prevented acetic acid-induced pain in mice. The number of abdominal contortions is 21 versus 72 in control group. F4 fraction compounds have a powerful analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity that involves phospholipase A2 inhibition, comparable to betamethasone profile on pain and inflammation.

Author(s) Details

M. Sene
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Pharmacodynamie, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

F. S. Barboza
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Pharmacodynamie, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

A. Ndong
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Pharmacodynamie, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

A. Sarr
Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Botanique, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

A. Wele3
Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Thérapeutique, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

E. Bassene
Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Botanique, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

G. Y. Sy
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Pharmacodynamie, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

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Advancement of Fruit Juices as Biocatalysts in Organic Synthesis: A Review | Chapter 01 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Facile and green synthetic approaches are important issues in organic synthesis. Green chemistry has become a motivational and inspirational tool for organic chemists to develop mild and benign pathways for the synthesis of biologically active compounds. The naturally available fruit juice as a biocatalyst in synthesis fulfills almost all the terms and conditions of green chemistry and attracted the interest of researchers. Fruit juice is also naturally occurring which are being used as biocatalyst in organic reaction and act as homogeneous catalysts for various selective transformations of simple and complex molecules. Now days aqueous extract of different fruit juice used as biocatalyst in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. This growing interest in fruit juice is mainly because of eco-friendly character, non-hazardous, easily available and cost effective. The purpose of this chapter is to look out present aspects of fruit juice in synthesis of potentially bioactive heterocyclic compounds.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Suman
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCSHAU), Hisar, India.

Dr. Anjani
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCSHAU), Hisar, India.

Dr. Suprita
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCSHAU), Hisar, India.

Dr. Sheetal
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCSHAU), Hisar, India.

Susheel Gulati
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCSHAU), Hisar, India.

Prof. Rajvir Singh
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCSHAU), Hisar, India.

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